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Dual flush & top flush toilets:
This article describes top flush and water-saving dual flush toilets currently sold & installed world wide. We distinguish among simple top flush and dual flush toilets, designs for low water-usage or water conserving toilet designs, models.
Photographs are provided of top flush and dual flush toilet types & brands.
Top Flush Control Compared with Side Flush & Pedestal Flush Toilets: the photographs below compare a top flush toilet control (below left), a traditional cistern (tank) side or front flush lever design (below center) and a bottom pedal flush toilet (Thetford toilet, below right).
Instead of a flush lever on the front or side of the reservoir tank, some toilets employ a top-mounted pull-rod, or push-button to activate the toilet flushing cycle (Kohler toilet shown along with a bidet (background) at above left.
Top flush control toilets may be single flush (design shown above) or more often top flush toilets use a water-saving dual flush design discussed in more detail at DUAL FLUSH TOILETS (below in this article).
The traditional side flush lever toilet design (above center) uses a simple lever and pull chain to lift the flapper valve in the toilet cistern bottom to flush the toilet.
Other contemporary low-water usage toilets such as th Thetford toilet model (above right) used in a manufactured home (doublewide trailer) combine a reservoir tank with high water pressure or a combination of air and water to flush waste from the toilet bowl while using a minimum of water.
At left we illustrate a modern dual flush toilet opeated by building water pressure. This dual flush design toilet is installed in an airport toilet in Auckland, New Zealand. The wall mounted push plate
The toilet shown is produced by Fowler, a company operating in New Zealand since 1837. The conpany's toilet flushing pushplate incorporates pneumatic hoses to conduct water to the control and thence to the plumbing fixture. (Contact Caroma Industries, http://www.caroma.co.nz )
Top Flush Dual-Flush Control Toilets
Top-flush control toilets include both standard (typically a single rod is pulled or lifted - illustrated above) and water saving models (typically a pair of buttons giving different flush volumes) illustrated below. Dual-flush water saving toilets typically deliver 1.1 gallons to flush liquid waste or 1.6 gallons to flush solids.
The manufacturer gives a clue about which button provides more water (for solids), in this case by the number of raised bumps on the buttons of this dual flush water-saving model.
Below we give views of the dual flush mechanism for this toilet. The top buttons push vertical rods (we' ve flipped the toilet tank upside down) shown below-left. The individual rods push on different segments of the flush valve (below right) to send a smaller or larger of water into the bowl below.
The modern top flush dual control toilet and flush controls illustrated below is installed in the recently-renovated Akaroa Village Inn in Akaroa, New Zealand.
At above right are the large (big flush ) and small (small flush) buttons on the tank top of this toilet. Below we illustrate the flush controls in the toilet tank or cistern.
Continue readingLOW WATER USAGE TOILETS or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Or see ALTERNATIVE & WATERLESS TOILETS where we discuss low-water, no-water, chemical, composting, and incinerating toilets, listing models, sources, and characteristics of those toilet types & models.
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"Story: Rock, limestone and clay Part of page 8 – Ceramics and pottery ", TEARA, The Enyclopedia of New Zealand, Video retrieved 9/18/14, original source: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/video/5254/clay-toilets, Te Ara, Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture and Heritage, PO Box 5364, Wellington, New Zealand, Tel: +64 4 499 4229, Email: TeAra@mch.govt.nz
 1991 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, U.S. Department of Justice, 28 CFR Part 36, Revised as of July 1, 1994, excerpts; web search 5/10/12, original source: http://www.ada.gov/stdspdf.htm [copy on file as ADA_Standards_1994.pdf]
 Alliance for Water Efficiency, 300 W Adams Street, Suite 601
Chicago, Illinois 60606, Tel: 866-730-A4WE, Website: http://www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/ Quoting:
The Alliance for Water Efficiency is a stakeholder-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to the efficient and sustainable use of water. Located in Chicago, the Alliance serves as a North American advocate for water efficient products and programs, and provides information and assistance on water conservation efforts.
OSHA toilet standards: OSHA's sanitation standard for general industry, 29 CFR 1910.141(c)(l)(i), specifies that employers shall provide toilet facilities for their employees. Web-search 5/10/12, original source:
 Toilet Manufacturers' Product literature or websites were consulted for the following:
American Standard brand toilets (illustrated in this article), includes these additional plumbing fixture & component brands: Jade, Porcher (see below), Crane Plumbing, Eljer, Fiat, American StandardsProSite, Safety Tubs, http://www.americanstandard-us.com/
Atlas International brand toilets, Atlas USA, http://atlasusa.net/
Glacier Bay brand toilets, [Home Depot brand] porcelain, made in china, top flush control low-water ADA-height unit shown in this article. Cf. Globe Union Industrial Company of Canada, China, elsewhere. Also see Pegasus, Danze, Gerber. Glacier Bay Faucets and sanitaryware,
2455 Paces Ferry Road NW,
.Atlanta, Ga. 30339-4024,
Hastings Tile & Bath toilets, includes "hatbox" and wall mount sinks, bidets, & toilets, 30 Commercial Street Freeport, N. Y. 11520, Tel: (516) 379-3500. http://www.hastingstilebath.com,
Herbeau Creations brand toilets, Herbeau Creations of America
3600 Westview Drive
Naples, FL 34104, Tel: (800) 547-1608, (since 1857), http://www.herbeau.com/Products.aspx?Item=5501
Inax brand toilets, 15 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011, Tel: 855-823-4434, http://www.inax-usa.com/gallery-ny/
Neo-Metro Collection brand toilets, Neo-Metro
15125 Proctor Ave
City of Industry CA 91746
U.S.A, Tel: 800.591.9050, Website: http://www.neo-metro.com
Panasonic brand toilets, (e.g. Panasonic toilet bowl with warm water flush system for washing user beauty cabinet de toilette W moment-type pearl ivory DL-WD60-CP; also the Zaraku portable toilet - http://ex-blog.panasonic.co.jp/exhibition/en/2008/09/hcr08_400.html)
Porcher brand toilets, originally a French brand, acquired by American Standard Companies in 1992, Website: http://www.porcher-us.com/
ProFlo brand toilets (e.g. Proflo PFCT 103WH)
Rapsel brand toilets,RAPSEL Spa
Via Volta 13 - 20019 Settimo Milanese (MI), Italy
Tel. 0039 02 3355981 Fax. 0039 02 33501306, Email:
firstname.lastname@example.org Italian company, offices in Milan & New York, Website: http://www.rapsel.it/ or in the U.S. http://rapsel.wordpress.com/
Samuel Heath brand toilets, US & UK, USA Customer Service
111 E. 39th St. 2R
Tel: 212 599 5177,
UK Head Office
Samuel Heath & Sons plc
Tel: +44 121 766 4200,
Email: email@example.comWebsite: http://www.samuel-heath.com/
St. Thomas Creations brand toilets, St. Thomas Creations
3A South Middlesex Avenue
Monroe Township, New Jersey 08831 USA,
Tel. (800) 536-BATH (800-536-2284)
Fax (609) 655- 2421, Email: E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: http://www.stthomascreations.com/
Toto brand toilets (e.g. Toto Drake CST744S, Neorest Hybrid, ) Brazil & USA, TOTO USA, INC.
1155 Southern Road
Morrow, Georgia 30260,
Tel: 888-295-8134, Tel: 1-888-295-8134, Email:
email@example.com, Website: http://www.totousa.com
Villeroy & Boch Bath & Kitchen brand toilets, International, offices in Canada, Mexico, United States, Villeroy & Boch AG
P.O. Box 1120
D 66688 Mettlach, Phone +49 (0) 68 64 - 81 - 0, Website: http://www.villeroy-boch.com/, Company founded 1748.
VitrA USA brand toilets, International, Brazil?, USA contact: Shawnee North Business Center
305 Shawnee North Drive Suite 600
Phone : +1 770 904 68 30
Fax : +1 770 904 68 91
www.vitra-usa.com, Website: http://usa.vitra.com.tr/
Whitehaus Collection brand toilets, Whitehaus Collection - 589 Boston Post Rd. West Haven, CT 06516 USA, Tel: 800.527.6690, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: http://whitehauscollection.com
 Wikipedia provided background information about some topics discussed at this website provided this citation is also found in the same article along with a " retrieved on" date. NOTE: because Wikipedia entries are fluid and can be amended in real time, we cite the retrieval date of Wikipedia citations and we do not assert that the information found there is necessarily authoritative.
"Flush Toilet", web search 5/10/12, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flush_toilet#Tank_style_with_flapper-flush-valve
"Japanese bidet toilet", web search 5/13/12, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_toilets
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