Master List of Asbestos Forms & Asbestos-containing Products
& Companies Most-complete list of asbestos containing products
ASBESTOS LIST of PRODUCTS - CONTENTS: a detailed list of the forms & products in which asbestos was used& links to detailed articles about individual asbestos-containing products assists in recognizing asbestos-containing materials in buildings
POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about what building products and common in-building products, appliances, mechanical components were produced using asbestos materials
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Asbestos products & applications:
Common forms in which asbestos was used in building materials & products.
This article provides a master list of the forms in which asbestos was used, a list of known asbestos-containing materials, and links to detailed articles about individual asbestos-containing products & materials found in buildings and in a wide range of products used in both home and industry.
This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials (or probable-asbestos) in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings.
Note that asbestos may be present in still other substances and even products, not by its deliberate use or design, but because it occurs naturally, such as asbestos that is found in some talc powders (amphibole asbestos).
Note that while this is the most extensive list of asbestos-containing products & materials it is of course incomplete, as asbestos was used in thousands of products and materials and is still used in many. CONTACT US to add items and photographs to this list of asbestos containing materials.
Asbestos in many forms was discontinued in all home construction uses beginning in 1990, but beware: pre-1990 products might have been used
in some homes built shortly afterwards.
Low asbestos risk in some materials: One should note that some of these products contain such small amounts of asbestos, or asbestos in forms not easily converted to airborne
fibers (non-friable), that the risk from the product is likely to be very small. One might elect to dispose of an old asbestos-containing
toaster, but not to hire an environmental test firm or asbestos abatement company for that procedure.
Many other asbestos-containing products, both historic and among some current products, encapsulate the asbestos fibers in cementious or resinous materials which minimize the possible release of asbestos fibers into the air.
Note: most of the uses of asbestos listed here are obsolete and the products mentioned have not been manufactured for quite some time. However these
products may still be encountered, particularly in older buildings and among old consumer products.
However some current materials may contain and are permitted to contain asbestos. In May 1999 Asbestos Materials Bans Clarification was issued by the U.S. EPA clarified that there are some
categories of asbestos-containing products that are NOT subject to a ban.
For example, the Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous
Air Pollutants, or NESHAP) rules issued in November, 1990 prohibits spray-on application of materials
containing more than 1% asbestos to buildings, structures, pipes, and conduits unless the
material is encapsulated with a bituminous or resinous binder during spraying and the
materials are not friable after drying. [Italics inserted by -DF].
These classes of asbestos fibers vary widely in size and also, depending upon the matrix of bonding or adhesive material and the mix of asbestos with other materials, the friability and release of asbestos particles from various materials varies very widely from probably below detection, to very great.
It is also useful to understand that the form in which asbestos was used ranged among a number of forms.
The list below (adapted and expanded from the nearly-complete asbestos product list found in Rosato) lists forms of asbestos-containing products.
Asbestos in Adhesives - are described in detail
at ASBESTOS OTHER PRODUCTS Asbestos was used in mastic adhesives for flooring, ceilings, and in roofing cement or flashing cement as well as other adhesive products.
Asbestos Acoustical Coatings - sprayed
Asbestos in aircraft components & parts, including drop tanks, is described
at ASBESTOS PLASTICS while
Asbestos in Appliances - was widely used in many gas & electrical appliances as a heat sheild and sometimes as a structural component; Cookstoves (Moffatt and others), irons & iron rests, toasters, electric heaters, refrigerators, coolers, broilers, deep fryers, popcorn poppers, ranges, ovens, clothes washers, clothes dryers, dishwashers. Other household items used in the kitchen such as pot holders used asbestos fabrics.
Asbestos use in clothes dryers: research citations.
Question: was asbestos used in clothes dryers & clothes dryer belts?
2016/04/15 Vanessa said:
Hi. I have a front loading clothes dryer (probably from late 80s) that is getting old and has some form of material coming through around the inside of the door. It's white-gray, flexible, and not rigid. I tried pulling on a couple of the fibers sticking out to break them off but they wouldn't break. I'm assuming it is something they used as insulation. What could this material be?
2016/04/15 Nick said:
I also have some strands of material coming from the inside ring of the dryer opening on my dryer built in 1984 in Canada. It meets the same description as Vanessa mentioned. Should I be concerned of possible asbestos? Is it likely some other also unwanted material? Thanks
2016/08/25 Chris said:
Do old clothes dryers contain asbestos? I read online from a few sources that old clothes dryer belts, especially belts not made in USA, often contain asbestos and that its one of the largest causes of asbestos exposure in a household. Is this true? I can't find much on it. My dryer was manufactured in Canada in 1984, should I be concerned? Thanks
Reply: yes. Here is where asbestos was used in clothes dryers including felts, combustion chamber insulation, drive belts, electrical components
Vanessa and Nick, it'd be unlikely that a late 1980's clothes dryer sold in the U.S. or Canada would still have contained asbestos.
Chris: Clothes dryer belts in modern machines are typically fabric-reinforced rubber, but of course it's possible that asbestos was indeed used in some older clothes dryers (as I’ll cite below) and I did find through research a citation confirming use of asbestos in some dryer drive belts.
However I'd be surprised to see any credible research tracing a clothes dryer belt to a significant asbestos exposure in any building. The total volume of a clothes dryer belt is very small - just inches; and at least for the dryers I've seen, the belt is not in the air path of the dryer intake nor exhaust.
Research finds discussions of asbestos in clothes dryers focuse on the washing and drying of asbestos-contaminated clothing or other textiles. See ASBESTOS TEXTILES.
More research DOES confirm that asbestos was used in some older clothes dryers from the 1940's and 1950's and possibly extending in North America at least into the late 1970's .
Asbestos use in clothes dryer belts is cited in at least this patent disclosure:
Beaumont, Ralph H., Donald R. Christie, and Okrepkie John. "Synthetic dryer belt." U.S. Patent 3,323,226, issued June 6, 1967.
Excerpt: In addition, even though dryer belts of the type used hereto frequently included asbestos or other heat resistant fibers, their resistance to the heat from the dryer drums in many cases proved deficient. Furthermore, difiiculties frequently were encountered heretofore in the joining of the ends of the belts to provide an endless construction.
Asbestos used around electrical components in clothes dryers is cited in at least this patent:
Colby, Weston Steward. "Fluid conductor and lint collector for clothes drier." U.S. Patent 2,722,751, issued November 8, 1955.
Excerpt: This heating element is preferably tightly wound in an open spiral to cover substantially the entire outer periphery of the imperforate cylindrical wall 27, and a thin layer of electrical insulation 38, such as, for example, asbestos or the like, is placed therebetween to prevent electrical contact with the drum and the opposite or free ends 39.
Asbestos was used in some clothes dryers as insulation around a combustion chamber (presumably gas-fired clothes dryers) and may have also been used around electrical components in electric clothes dryers.
Asbestos used in clothes dryer felt - felt often used to seal drum to cage, is cited in this patent:
Santos, John RL. "Dryer felt." U.S. Patent 2,854,032, issued September 30, 1958.
Excerpt: Such felts are at times 300 inches wide and of very considerable length, so that lengthwise as well as crosswise they must be quite strong.
They have usually been made of cotton or other vegetable fibers to give the required strength, but when they are subjected to high temperature when wet, they rapidly scorch and rot and because of this destruction they have frequently been made partly of asbestos or similar heat and acid resistant materials, retaining a large proportion of warp ends of cotton to assure the required strength.
Asbestos use in clothes dryers in other insulating applications:
Harwood, Stanley G., "Clothes-drying machine." U.S. Patent 2,385,223, issued September 18, 1945.
Excerpt: The insulating material 20 may be of any composition suitable to its purpose. A rearward wall 22 of the machine may be of any suitable material. As disclosed, the major portion of the rearward wall 22 is composed of asbestos.
Bradley Jr John, E. "Portable clothes drier." U.S. Patent 2,496,517, issued February 7, 1950.
Olthuis Eugene G "Clothes dryer." U.S. Patent 2,790,247, issued April 30, 1957. assigned to General Electric. Similar to above.
Clothes dryers eliminating use of asbestos:
Grantham, Frederick W. "Continuous laundry drying apparatus." U.S. Patent 4,015,930, issued April 5, 1977.
Cites invention features that eliminate the use of asbestos in the combustion chamber.
Asbestos Asphalt floor tiles contained asbestos as well as later-manufactured vinyl floor tiles. The date of cessation of asbestos use in flooring varies by country and product.
Asbestos Boiler insulation - hardcast or asbestos paste applied to hot water or steam boilers as well as to piping elbows.
See ASBESTOS BOILER INSULATION
Asbestos in Books & Bookbinding - asbestos was used in the production of fire-resistant or "fireproof" books, journals, ledgers. We did not find patents or other articles describing the use of asbestos in ordinary reading books for adults or children. (Researched Google Patents 2017/11/20)
Asbestos Ceilings & Ceiling Tiles: Transite cement panels were also sued for countertops and to form fire resistant wall and ceiling cladding such as in factories, shops, and heating or mechanical rooms.
Asbestos fibers were used in some acoustic asbestos ceiling tiles, often amphibole asbestos such as amosite, crocidolite, anthrophylite, teremolite, and actinolite, with amosite among the most commonly-found. - see
Details about ceiling tiles & suspended ceilings including those that may contain asbestos are found
at CEILING TILES - Asbestos-Containing where brands of ceiling tiles and suspended or drop ceiling tile products that contain asbestos are listed.
Also see ASBESTOS CEILING TILE FAQs that includes research citations on asbestos content in various ceiling tile products including some wood fiber materials.
Our photo (left) illustrates the use of near-pure tremolite asbestos tiles as fireproofing in the basement utility room of a building we inspected in White Plains, NY around 2005.
The tremolite asbestos ceiling fireproofing panels shown above were 3/4" thick. We describe this product in detail
at ASBESTOS FIREPROOFING
A thinner cementious material, typically less than1/4' thick, asbestos cement millboard was used as a covering for ceilings over boilers, furnaces, water heaters, smoke stacks, etc. for fire protection - discussed
at ASBESTOS FIREPROOFING
Asbestos-cement products, flat sheets, wallboard, such as in siding and roofing products
Asbestos-contaminated jute bags: asbestos was transported in jute or burlap bags that in turn would have been contaminated by asbestos dust, posing a hazard when the jute bags were recycled. Before 1964 when the asbestos industry transported asbestos in sacks the material was jute.
Later as the asbestos hazards were recognized industry shifted to use of non-porous bags of poly or plastic type materials to transport asbestos. Later the industry required impermeable bags be used for asbestos transport and that such bags, if re-used, were not to be cleaned by people (Ruers 2005).
Quinn, M. M., D. Kriebel, E. Buiatti, E. Paci, S. Sini, G. Vannucchi, and M. Zappa. "An asbestos hazard in the reprocessed textile industry." American journal of industrial medicine 11, no. 3 (1987): 255-266.
De Zotti, Renata, and Antonio Fiorito. "A case of malignant mesothelioma in a rice-starch factory." International archives of occupational and environmental health 80, no. 8 (2007): 743-745.
Ascoli, V., C. Carnovale-Scalzo, F. Nardi, C. Efrati, and M. Menegozzo. "A one-generation cluster of malignant mesothelioma within a family reveals exposure to asbestos-contaminated jute bags in Naples, Italy." European journal of epidemiology 18, no. 2 (2003): 171-174.
Musk, Arthur W., Nola J. Olsen, Alison Reid, Tim Threlfall, and Nicholas H. Klerk. "Asbestos‐related disease from recycled hessian superphosphate bags in rural Western Australia." Australian and New Zealand journal of public health 30, no. 4 (2006): 312-313.
Ruers, R. F., N. Schouten, and Socialistische Partij. "The tragedy of asbestos." Eternit and the consequences of a hundred years of asbestos cement (2005).
Asbestos cloth Substitute for canvas on insulation, where temperatures are high
Asbestos cloth in Helmets, Aprons, Berets, Hangings for firestops, blankets in electrolytic cells, mailbags
Asbestos cloth Draperies, blankets for fire fighting, bags and diaphragms in oxygen production, predominantly Chrysotile asbestos.
See ASBESTOS TEXTILES
Asbestos cloth Awnings, asbestos theatre curtains
- Reference: Meloy, Arthur Sherman. Theatres and Motion Picture Houses: A Practical Treatise on the Proper Planning and Construction of Such Buildings, and Containing Useful Suggestions, Rules, and Data for the Benefit of Architects, Prospective Owners, Etc. Architects' Supply & Publishing Company, 1916.
Asbestos cloth Floor lining in theaters, motion picture booths
Asbestos cloth Acetylene welding blankets
Asbestos cloth faced wipers in communication
Asbestos cloth used in filtering (fruit juices, acids, etc)
Asbestos-containing fluids such as drilling fluids, predominantly Chrysotile asbestos
Asbestos insulation compounds
Asbestos fibers in acoustic asbestos ceiling tiles and fire-resistant ceilings, often amphibole asbestos such as amosite, crocidolite, anthrophylite, teremolite, and actinolite, with amosite among the most commonly-found. -
see CEILING TILES ASBESTOS CONTENT where we include photos of soft Tremolite asbestos ceiling panels.
Asbestos sealing of percussion caps in large cells
Asbestos flooring, sheet flooring and floor tiles: for a photo guide to tile and sheet flooring that contain asbestos - "vinyl floor tiles that contain asbestos" or properly, vinyl-asbestos floor tile patterns, sizes, and years of manufacture, see ASBESTOS FLOOR TILE IDENTIFICATION PHOTOS 1951-1980 Includes Chrysotile asbestos,
Note: do not confuse true cork products including floor and wall coverings with "cork pattern" vinyl asbestos floor tiles. The latter do not contain cork. See RESILIENT VINYL or CORK FLOOR
Below we illustrate a 1960's Armstrong vinyl asbestos floor tile in the company's cork pattern. This asphalt and then vinyl asbestos flooring was produced beginning in the 1950's.
Research on asbestos in cork products, blackboards, floors, pipe insulation
Sorensen, Niels C., "Blackboard construction." U.S. Patent 2,025,833, issued December 31, 1935. Excerpts: The bulletin board ill is constructed of any suitable relatively soft material in which pins or tacks can be readily inserted and removed, for example, such as cork, paper board, wood, etc .... The blackboard H5 is constructed of slate or of such composition boards as those embracing wood pulp, asphalt, concrete, asbestos or other materials suitable for the purpose.
Petry, Robert K. "Composition for floor and wall covering comprising plasticized vinyl resin and filler and method of making same." U.S. Patent 2,558,378, issued June 26, 1951. Original Assignee Delaware Floor Products, Inc.
Excerpts: This invention relates to improved compositions and to improved sheets or films consisting of such compositions for floor and wall coverings and to methods of manufacturing the same. ... Fibrous fillers include, for example, asbestos, cork, wood flour, cellulose fibers in general, and others, including animal fiber such as leather. ... Asbestos fiber employed is commonly called shorts and passes completely through a 10 mesh screen.
Feigley, Jr David A. "Preparation of sheet materials containing fibers, cork particles, and a rubberlike binder." U.S. Patent 2,613,190, issued October 7, 1952. Original Assignee Armstrong Cork. Co.
Excerpt: Any organic or inorganic fiber such as kraft fibers; Fibers of cotton linters, asbestos, and the like. natural origin are preferred, but I may also employ synthetic fibers, such as nylon glass fibers and the like, in the practice of my invention.
Feigley, Jr David A. "Method of making fibrous sheet material containing a synthetic rubber binder." U.S. Patent 2,772,970, issued December 4, 1956. Original Assignee Armstrong Cork. Co.
Excerpts: The beater saturation process broadly comprises forming an aqueous slurry of papermaking fibers, which may be either inorganic fibers such as asbestos or organic fibers such as kraft fibers, and adding to the resulting slurry a rubber latex which, in the early days of the practice of this process, was normally a natural rubberlatex but which in more recent times has been any one of the synthetic rubber latices ...
From the above, it can be seen that the process may be used to produce sheet material from organic fibers and mineral fibers, as well as mixtures of such may produce a resilient material composed of cork and fibrous materials. Such materials are particularly useful in the production of gaskets.
Feigley Jr David, A., and N. Ray Jr Leonard. "Asbestos fiber treatment." U.S. Patent 2,940,892, issued June 14, 1960. Original Assignee Armstrong Cork. Co.
Excerpts: It is the primary object of the present invention to present such an improvement. It is the further object of the present invention to present a fibrous product which includes chrysotile asbestos fibers therein, which product possesses those characteristics necessary to render it fast draining.
Asbestos in crayons 
Asbestos in dishwashers, portable 
Asbestos in Drywall and drywall joint compound, drywall "mud", and textured coatings; includes Chrysotile asbestos, the most common form of asbestos found in products, especially in buildings (serpentine mineral with sheet or layered structure).
The principal sources of asbestos in drywall are in joint compound that may have been used not just at gypsum board joints but as a skim coat or in other locations. Also asbestos may be in paints or popcorn ceiling sprays applied to drywall.
Raw asbestos used in some food processing such as wines & cheeses
Asbestos fire curtains in theatres and other applications as well as in other fireproofing applications See ASBESTOS CLOTH
Asbestos fire blankets were used by firefighters and also were sometimes stored in buildings where fire was a particluar risk.
The asbestos fire blanket shown here is discussed in the U.K. publication series Asbestos Essentials: Floor tiles, textiles, and composites, retrieved 2017/11/10, original source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/asbestos/essentials/floortiles.htm See also ASBESTOS CLOTH
Asbestos flash guards used in electrical panels were used in many U.K. buildings and possibly in North America.
The asbestos flash guard in a U.K. fues box shown here is discussed in the U.K. publication series Asbestos Essentials: Floor tiles, textiles, and composites, retrieved 2017/11/10, original source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/asbestos/essentials/floortiles.htm
Asbestos flooring & asbestos floor tile materials: vinyl asbestos tiles, possibly some asphalt asbestos floor tiles, sheet flooring, self-adhesive flooring, flooring underlayments. Asbestos was used in flooring backing in some sheet flooring products.
Asbestos in foundations of buildings - Asbestos was used In foundations (to resist shock)
Asbestos gloves were produced for a wide range of applications such as asbestos laboratory gloves and even asbestos gloves for machine gun operators during the Vietnam war. See ASBESTOS MACHINE GUN MITTENS
Asbestos in hair dryers: Hair dryers containing asbestos were sold by many companies including Clairol, COnair, General Electric, Gillette, J.C. Penny, Montgomery Ward, Norelco, Shick, Sears Roebuck & Co., Sunbeam
Asbestos in heaters - fireplace mounted heaters, electric heaters, appliances with heating elements
Reflective insulation, typically foil-based, may have included products that combined a reflective material such as aluminum foil with kraft paper and asbestos backing. See REFLECTIVE INSULATION
Cf: Benedict, Edward L. "Thermal insulating building unit." U.S. Patent 2,101,836, issued December 14, 1937. Excerpt: As shown in Fig. 3, between studs, beams or framing members Ill and II is mounted the thermal-insulating unit l2 of this invention. This unit comprises an accordion plaited foundation I3 having the plaits arranged longitudinally of the unit and spacing layers of metal foil 14 and 15 attached to the foundation.
The foundation 13 may be of paper, preferably about a seventy pound paper (that is, a ream of sheets 24" by 36" weighs lbs.) although heavy metal foil or a metal foil mounted on paper might be used, or where fireproof construction is desired an asbestos or other fireproof paper is suitable. The metal foil layers l4 and 15 are preferably aluminum foil about .0003 inch thick although the foil of other metals may be used, the aluminum foil being preferable.
Hello from the UK! I did some work at the back of my shop last year. The original building is over 100 years old - but the back was built in the later 80s. We basically took the cellulose ceiling tiles out and took the ceiling down. We then lined the new ceiling with new fibreglass rolls and boarded it up.
I remember seeing dirty fibreglass rolls when we took down the original ceiling (the place was very dusty as a result of the broken cellulose tiles and fibreglass), but i'm worried that there may have been some loose fill asbestos there as well. As I say, I can't recall seeing any, but could it have been there in a late 80's ceiling? What type of asbestos was used for loose fill insulation? Am I being silly?
Any attempt to ease my mind would be amazing! - Anonymous by private email 2016/09/22
Straight pure or "raw" asbestos as loose fill insulation would be unexpected or rare in a 1980's ceiling.
I don't have access to U.K. patents but some patent research in the U.S. gives some idea of the locations and applications of loose fill asbestos insulation - it did exist as a loose fill insulating product, typically mixed with other materials to form an insulating product.
Most common was the use of asbestos in spray-on fire-resistant coatings in buildings, used into the 1970's including in the lower floors of the now lost NYC World Trade Center. In 1971, New York City banned the use of asbestos in spray fireproofing. So upper floors of the WTC did not use that material.
For historical purposes here's some research on the use of loose fill asbestos in insulation schemes, products, and devices,
Amanda, Wenzel. "Building insulation." U.S. Patent 2,235,542, issued March 18, 1941.
Excerpt: For example, good results have been obtained by the use of paper cut, chopped, or torn into flaky fragments.
Vegetable stems, stalks, wood, leaves, and husks may also be used in fragments. And in order to render the material fire resistant, fibrous minerals, such as fragments of asbestos or asbestos paper may be mixed with any of the materials above named, or used as a substitute therefor.
A dry mixture of comminuted paper and comminuted asbestos has been found ideally suited for the purpose, such a mixture being light and downy or fluffy and containing separable fragments capable of iioating and settling lightly in the wall space.
Jacobsen, Einar. "Mechanism for applying fibers." U.S. Patent 2,550,354, issued April 24, 1951. The present invention relates to applicators for fiber, such as asbestos, rock-wool'and fiber,- glass, ofthe character which "project the fiber in an air stream against a wall, ceiling or other surface, for the purpose of acoustical treatment, fireproofing or the like.
Barnett, Irvin, and Sidney Speil. "Handleable heat insulation shapes." U.S. Patent 3,055,831, issued September 25, 1962.
The handleable insulating shapes made according to our invention, however, may be prepared to exhibit the converse of this general consideration. For example, a bonded handleable rigid block of 10 pounds per cubic foot density comprising 5% by Weight of phenolaldehyde resin, 5% amosite asbestos fibers, and by weight of a mixture of 9 parts by weight of silica aerogel of approximately Voids by volume, and 1 part carbon black of finer than millimicrons particle size, was tested to have a K factor of 0.14 at F. mean.
A bulk mixture of the same pro portions of silica aerogel and carbon black of the type and in the proportion used in molding the bonded shape, was vibrated to a density of 10 pounds per cubic foot and tested to have a K factor of 0.18 at 150 F. mean.
The asbestos fiber of the block would also increase the solids conductivity, and would thus be expected to increase the K of the consolidated loose mass. It will be appreciated that a loose mass including fiber could probably not be vibrated to such density and retain homogeneity.
Mcdermott, Paul F. "Method anx." U.S. Patent 2,425,293, issued August 12, 1947.
The filling suitably comprises asbestos fiber ofknown I type such as Amosite fiber, although other asbestos fibers, mineral wool fibers, glass fibers and'- the like may be used.
Daum, Harold. "Apparatus for packing asbestos fibers and the like." U.S. Patent 2,984,172, issued May 16, 1961.U.S.
Asbestos machine gun mittens - used with the Browning AR and possibly other weapons by the U.S. Army including during the Vietnam War.
Question: health costs associated with asbestos machine gun mittens
1 June 2016 franklin said:
pot holders, machine gun mitten use by service members made asbestos,today people have skin cancer.who should pay the medical cost?
Reply: case law on asbestos exposure from machine gun mittens
Asbestos cloth machine gun mittens are discussed at
Cherrie, John W., Matthew Tindall, and Hilary Cowie. "Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts." Particle and fibre toxicology 2, no. 1 (2005): 1.
Curtis, George F. "Gas cylinder plug for a gas operated machine gun." U.S. Patent 4,395,938, issued August 2, 1983.
Domeliaht, O. N. "switch O _." FOR THE BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES: 107.
Samimi, Behzad S., and Anna M. Williams, "Occupational exposure to asbestos fibers resulting from use of asbestos gloves." The American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 42, no. 12 (1981): 870-875.
Watson, V. K., & Sicks, T. E. (1968). Service Test Of Product Improved Components For Sheridan Weapon System (Closed Breech Scavenger System). Army Armor And Engineer Board Fort Knox Ky.
Dunstan, Simon. 1st Marine Division in Vietnam. Zenith Imprint, 2008. - Excerpt: This illustrates one of the problems of the M60—after sustained ﬁring the
barrel tended to overheat, often necessitating a change of barrel. However, because the barrel
had no handle, the assistant gunner was provided with a large asbestos mitten ...
Also see this U.S. War Department publication from 1945
Browning Machine Guns, Caliber .30, M1917A1, M1919A4, and M1919A6
Regarding liability, considering the hazards of war, the question you raise is perhaps addressed by U.S. V.A. publications.
See for example the law case cited below. However a careful read of the material makes clear that in the case I cite, the veteran had significant health risks associated with other work, habits, and materials, including smoking and including working with asbestos-containing brake linings - a job in my opinon much more likely to have exposed the vet to respirable asbestos-containing dust particles.
Anyone who worked on cars in the 1960's including brake jobs probably saw people using high pressure compressed air to blow off dust when working on those components.
On appeal from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Regional Office (RO) in Winston-Salem, North Carolina
Entitlement to service connection for the cause of the veteran's death, claimed as due to asbestos exposure.
CONCLUSION OF LAW
The lung cancer which caused the veteran's death was incurred
in service, and the criteria for service connection for the
cause of his death are met. 38 U.S.C.A. §§ 1110, 1310 (West
2002); 38 C.F.R. §§ 3.303, 3.312 (2002). ... According to a January 1998 consultation note from L. S.
Lamb, M.D., the veteran was a retired carpenter who had
worked in construction and had been exposed to asbestos.
doctor also commented that the veteran gave a history that he
was exposed to asbestos during service, where he had been a
machine gunner and had worn asbestos mittens. The veteran
also had a history of tobacco use (11/2 to 2 packs daily for 55
In January 1998 correspondence, the veteran said that his
active service had included duties in the motor pool and as a
He stated that during service he had
installed asbestos brake linings and had used asbestos
mittens for changing gun barrels. He related that after
service he was treated for bronchitis in 1962 and later, and
in the 1990s he was treated for bronchitis, emphysema, and
After review of all the evidence, and with application of the
benefit-of-the-doubt rule (38 U.S.C.A. § 5107(b), the Board
finds that during service the veteran had some asbestos
exposure, and although he also had asbestos exposure in
civilian jobs, the service asbestos exposure was a
significant causal factor in the development of his lung
cancer many years after service. It follows that lung cancer
was incurred in service and is deemed service-connected.
the veteran died as the result of the service-incurred lung
cancer, the criteria for service connection for the cause of
his death are met.
Asbestos mailbags, fireproof - asbestos was used to make fireproof bags used for carrying mail, particularly airmail in the U.S. in the 1930's.
Question: documentation about “mail bags” made by asbestos cloth
1 June 2016 AUTHOR:Nadia (no email)
my name is Nadia and I am writing from Italy. I am searching for documentation about “mail bags” made by asbestos cloth. Thanking you so much for your interest I send you best regards. Nadia
Reply: asbestos fabric was used to produce fire-resistant bags for airmail transport and possibly other applications
Asbestos was used in some mail bags, particularly where fire protection was considered important in the U.S. in the 1930's and possibly in Italy or other countries. See these patent research citations
De, Give Executor Henry L. "Mail bag." U.S. Patent 1,902,764, issued March 21, 1933.
Jackson, Richard, and H. Wells Jr Edward. "Heatproof container." U.S. Patent 2,087,611, issued July 20, 1937.
Harold, Bernice Peyton. "Fireproof mail bag." U.S. Patent 1,811,150, issued June 23, 1931.
Ludlow, Jr. Samuel, "Air mail receptacle." U.S. Patent 1,970,011, issued August 14, 1934.
Also see ASBESTOS CLOTH in this article including asbestos-contaminated jute or burlap bags
Asbestos packing materials used at floor & wall penetrations for piping or electrical wiring in buildings
Asbestos Paints/coatings - asbestos paints, varnishes, fillers, predominantly Chrysotile asbestos; includes textured coatings and "popcorn ceiling" paints - acoustic ceiling paints intended to improve noise and sound control in buildings. See ASBESTOS FIREPROOFING SPRAY-On Coatings.
Asbestos Paper was used among a wide range of products such as asbestos felt roofing, stove or heater linings, soldiers helmet linings, electrical appliances, aluminum foil reinforcement for insulation, heating boiler jackets, liners, and duct coverings, gaskets.
Asbestos paper was produced both plain (e.g. used on HVAC ducts and in some furnaces) and corrugated (e.g. used on pipe insulation & in some furnaces)
Question: did people make pillow cases out of asbestos transport sacks ?
(May 19, 2016) john said: I heard that the sacks that were used to transport asbestos were re-purposed because of how soft the material was, into pillow cases. the story i was told, sacks of asbestos were transported via railroad (turn of the 19th century through the '30s?) and when the asbestos was emptied out for manufacturing a product, the sacks would be thrown away, folks would latch onto the sacks, wash them and then sew them into pillow cases. true?<
Reply: no evidence of asbestos pillow cases but jute bags were used to transport asbestos mateirals
Well that's interesting, or as the Poughkeepsie police told our friend Anna when she said that she thought the cops ought to make the train engineer stop blowing his whistle when approaching the railroad crossing .... "Well that's one I haven't heard before".
I have not found an authoritative source to confirm the asbestos pillow-case legend. Before 1964 when the asbestos industry transported asbestos in sacks the material was jute - hardly something you'd use as a pillow case. Think "burlap bags". While jute (burlap) would make a nasty pillow case, there are indeed research articles reporting on asbestos hazards associated with re-use or recycling of jute bags that were used for asbestos transport.
A search using Google Scholar, for "asbestos pillow case" did not find any research articles on that matter.
And I'm not aware of pillow-case sized sacks used to transport asbestos. Certainly they don't make even a cameo appearance in Rosato's text describing that industry.
Do you think this asbestos pillow-case is more of an urban legend? Or perhaps it's the jute bag asbestos history that fed the pillow case story.
Finally, if you or someone you know has an antique pillow case dating from before 1986 and are nervous about it, I would throw it out.
Asbestos pipes used as
Asbestos Ducts - in HVAC systems (cement asbestos, also see transite piping)
Asbestos Flues & vents, typically for gas fired equipment (cement asbestos, also see transite piping)
Asbestos Sewer pipe (cement asbestos, also see transite piping)
Asbestos water pipes (cement asbestos, also see transite piping)
See these articles for details about cement asbestos pipes:
ASBESTOS FOAMED-OVER describes foam insulation sprayed over and "covering" asbestos material used on piping
Asbestos in Plaster and stucco, includes Chrysotile asbestos.
Some plaster products may also contain tremolite (a form of amphibole asbestos) as an inadvertent contaminant from asbestos mining of chrysotile, and also they may include vermiculite that, depending on where it was mined, also contains asbestos (Libby).
Because plaster was added to various wallboard products and drywall to improve its water resistance or fire resistance, in turn that means that additional drywall products manufactured between 1920 and 1978 or later may also contain both crysotile and tremolite asbestos.
Asbestos was used as an ingredient in some plaster applications. Asbestos was used in decorative plaster cornices, trim, ceiling medallions Asbestos was used also in acoustical plaster both as a direct asbestos additive and as an asbestos contaminant in plasters to which vermiculiet or "Zonolite" were added to produce a light-weight plaster having good acoustical properties. Asbestos was used in plaster designed to have a high resistance to fire.
Asbestos was used in plaster additives to gypsum board or "drywall" products to improve its moisture resistance (such as bath tile backer board) and to meet gypsum board fire resistance standards such as ASTM C630/C630M-03e1 Standard Specification for Water-Resistant Gypsum Backing Board (Withdrawn 2005 and replaced by ASTM C1396/C1396M)
National Gypsum Corporation, Gold Bond Fire-Shield™ Plaster (1958-1970), Gold Bond Macoustic™ Plaster (1942-1947), Gold Bond Perfo-Lyte™ Acoustical Plaster (1955-1972),
and other Gold Bond Plaster products including Gold Bond Patching Plaster™, Spackling Plaster, and Wood-Fibered Plaster. Also National Gypsum E-Z Soak, Gold Bond Asbestone, Gold Bond Asbestos Cement board products, Gold Bond Humiguard™ asbestos panels, Gold Bond joint compound or spackling compound, Gold Bond textured paints, National Gypsum's Gypsolite™, Gold Bond siding products, Gold-bond non-perforated asbestos panels, Gold Bond Plasticrylic™ wallboard and panels, Gold Bond Sprayolite™, Gold Bond Nator.
Asbestos was thus used in many National Gypsum Gold Bond™ gypsum board products produced between 1950 and 1970. Asbestos was not used in National Gypsum gypsum-board products after that year.
U.S. Gypsum plaster and plasterboard products including US Gypsum Cement Regular Plaster, USG Firecode plaster, USG Imperial plaster, USG Red-Top™ Cementious plaster (1920-1958) and USG RedTop™ Gypsum-based plaster (1920-1958), USG RedTop™ Firecode™ plaster (probably a higher asbestos content, 1962-1969), USG Gypsum Structolite (1950-1975), USG Mineral-based Cafco Sound-Shield™, USG Structo-Lite-Perlited Gypsum™ plaster (also see Perlite discussed at PERLITE INSULATION
US Gypsum produced other building products that contained asbestos including roofing shingles and exterior siding in shingle form and as asbestos-cement shingle siding. Also see ASBESTOS CEMENT PRODUCTS
Synkoloid Corporation Plastibond™, Patch-Rite™ Patching plaster, and plaster of paris (1950-1976)
Asbestos in plastics asbestos was widely used in a huge range of molded plastics of various formulations. Plastic asbestos products & manufacturing process are described in detail at ASBESTOS PLASTICS.
Asbestos Filler in plastics
Asbestos putty such as window putty and glazing compound was used into the 1960's or later in most countries.
Asbestos Pottery - some human uses of asbestos may be more than 2000 years old.
Asbestos in ships lanterns: (possibly, but no record found to date - July 2016)
Question: Could old ships lanterns contain a fibrous asbestos product?
2016/07/22 Could old ships lanterns contain a fibrous asbestos product?
I was given a Murray anchor ships lantern (looks like galvanised with brass hinges) which I have been sanding and in the outer annular space at the top, I've pulled out a rusty brown coloured fibrous material.
I don't know the date of manufacture of the lamp, might be early 20th century. do you know whether asbestos was used in these lamps? - Anonymous by email request.
Reply: asbestos in R.C. Murray Ships Anchor lanterns and masthead lanterns ?
Certainly asbestos in form of paste, sealant, paper insulation and rope type gaskets appeared in many old products where fire, air leaks, or heat were concerns.
RC Murray Ships Anchor lanterns were produced in the 1850's and later, in Glasgow, Scotland. I looked at some photos of R.C. Murray Ships Anchor lanterns and masthead lanterns made of copper as well as galvanized steel and didn't see any obvious gasket or heat insulating materials, though the photos won't of course show every component.
If on your RC Murray lantern you see suspect material, you might use the page bottom CONTACT link to send me some sharp photos of the lantern and the parts and components of concern. Photos are not a substitute for a test by a certified asbestos test lab, but together we might recognize other materials.
At www.bl.uk/britishlibrary/~/media/subjects%20images/business/british_patents.pdf you can find information about how to access Scottish patents.
There are patent numbers on some of the RC Murray lanterns; armed with the patent number if you can find the actual patent you can read about the construction and materials used in the lantern as it was originally designed. However you'd have to probably ask for help as the Scottish patents from the 1850's do not appear to be online.
I can't see an obvious asbestos gasket or similar product in your photos [sent later by private email] but I'm not expert on these Lanterns. Asbestos was very widely used in thousands of products where fire resistance was important.
I suspect from the size of the lantern that unless you uses a power tool and inhaled sanding dust, it's not likely that you could have created a substantial concern IF asbestos insulation was in the lamp.
Harris, John P. "Mantle-support and process for protecting same." U.S. Patent 881,577, issued March 10, 1908.
Asbestos skim coats: probably referring to thin coatings of asbestos paint or asbestos paste on surfaces to cover imperfections, to provide a desired texture, or as a fire-resistant coating.
Asbestos sound insulating materials: asbestos was included in panels or board products as well as in paints all used as sound isolation or sound transmission reduction products such as asbestos-containing ceiling, wall or floor panels used in construction of buildings and also in vehicles where it was also intended for improved fire protection, such as along with hollow wood floor panels in early aircraft.
Cotts, Ronald F. "Felted inorganic fiber panel." U.S. Patent 3,184,372, issued May 18, 1965.
Such tiles are currently available for installation in a suspension system which maintains the tiles in a position spaced from an overhead floor assembly.
David, Rubenstein. "Shock absorbing connections for building constructions." U.S. Patent 2,950,576, issued August 30, 1960.
Fukahori, Yoshihide, Yasuhiro Morimura, Ryota Fujio, and Yukio Fukuura. "Sound damping materials." U.S. Patent 4,461,796, issued July 24, 1984.
George, Freeman Storm. "Floor and process of laying the same." U.S. Patent 2,026,511, issued December 31, 1935.
To avoid this dlfliculty, the invention includes the addition of fiber to the asphalt and cushioning material which may be asbestos fiber, cellulose ... existing as intersecting ribs of mastic extending in both directions of the floor panel, forming a grid of mastic ribs ...
Glaros, Emanuel Michael. "Structural panels." U.S. Patent 3,535,844, issued October 27, 1970.
Hawkinson, Harold G. "Building construction." U.S. Patent 2,856,039, issued October 14, 1958.
to assemble a wall panel, a sheet of insulating material 44 such as asbestos is placed in position to completely cover the inside surface of both the inner and outer walls
Kallman, Irwin L, Sofer Uri Y, "Cellular building structure." U.S. Patent 3,577,693, issued May 4, 1971.
Kloote, George E., "Floor panel for aircraft." U.S. Patent 2,199,938, issued May 7, 1940.
Murray, Thomas M. "Floor joist damper." U.S. Patent 4,615,157, issued October 7, 1986.
Ritchie, G. A. C., and W. F. Hesson. "The Moana Pool, Dunedin." New Zealand Engineering 21, no. 1 (1966): 3.
Willson, Corwin D., "Making molded panels." U.S. Patent 2,674,775, issued April 13, 1954.
Asbestos content in talc, talcum powder, baby powder. Asbestos occurs naturally in some talc deposits.
Note that talc itself is likely to be a respiratory and health hazard.
Some scholarly studies by experts, talcum powder might cause cancer in the ovaries if the powder applied to the genital area moves through the vagina, uterus, and fallopian tubes to the ovary. However experts disagree and litigation on the hazards of talcum powder has produced varying judgements to date (Fall 2017).
Asbestos Tape was used in products such as oven pull strings, winding electrical bus bars, insulating electrical wires on planes, ships, and in theaters, belts for conveying hot glue or other articles, insulating underground cables
Asbestos tape wick for oil burning apparatus
Asbestos tape pull strings in ovens
Asbestos tape insulating armature
Asbestos tape winding bus bars
Asbestos tape in laboratory use: insulation for flasks, test tubes, retorts, tie straps in diffusing materials
Asbestos tape in glass manufacturing for wrapping tines of forks to take bottles from ovens
Asbestos tape insulating electrical wires on airplanes and ships
Asbestos tape belts for conveying hot glues or other articles
Asbestos tape insulating locomotive steam pipes at bends etc
Asbestos tape used in winding coils
Asbestos tape insulating underground cables
Asbestos in Teflon is discussed under "Electrical Properties of Asbestos-Reinforced Plastics & Molded Products" found at ASBESTOS PLASTICS
Asbestos vinyl wall covering - Asbestos was used as a component in vinyl-based wallpaper in the U.S. as early as about 1920.
Asbestos Wadding in cartridges and timing devices for explosives
Asbestos wallboard - was used as asbestos cement sheet products used indoors as fireproofing at boielr rooms and other locations.
See CEMENT ASBESTOS SHEET PRODUCTS
Asbestos in wallpaper products
Question: does old wallpaper contain asbestos?
2016/08/28 Savannah said:
I live in a 1920s home and noticed the wallpaper detaching from the plaster wall. I started pulling it off put realized it may contain asbestos. Anyone have experience, should I be concerned?
Reply: possibly in special circumstances
Watch out, Savannah. In addition to possible asbestos in some old wall coverings, some old wallpapers, particularly ones with green in the pattern, contained arsenic.
Previuosly we had not specifically listed "asbestos containing wallpaper" in this index to asbestos products, but such products existed, particularly where an insulating or strengthening fiber was wanted or where fire resistance was a concern. Keep in mind that asbestos may be present in some plaster and gypsum products found beneath wallpaper too.
Research citing asbestos use in films and papers used on walls:
Breiner, R. "Asbestos-plastic film laminates." U.S. Patent 3,770,569, issued November 6, 1973.
Gerek, Gene, and Rowland S. Hartzell. "Asbestos-foam laminates." U.S. Patent 3,522,140, issued July 28, 1970.
Lewis, Herman. "Cement composition." U.S. Patent 1,595,897, issued August 10, 1926. Used asbestos in wall lining products
Newman, Arnold H. "Insulated wallpaper." U.S. Patent 4,039,709, issued August 2, 1977.
Prain, Willis A., "Wallpaper steamers." U.S. Patent 3,158,139, issued November 24, 1964. (asbestos used in this device not directly in wallpaper)
SJJ, Langford AL, and Textiles Pearson. "Wallpaper (1827) n. Paper, or paperlike material, usually decorated in colors, which is pasted or otherwise affixed to walls or ceilings of rooms. Wall stress (1) In a filament‐wound pressure." - used atop asbestos cement wallboard
Werhane, Patricia H., Jenny Mead, Regina Swart, and Mollie Painter-Moreland. "South African Mining and Asbestos-Related Diseases (a)." Asbestos mining tailings were mixed with cow dung or mud used to paper or line walls in houses.
Asbestos in washing machines: appeared in a Sears Roebuck washing machine sold 1957-1958 and possibly other appliances. See citation at asbestos in irons.
Asbestos in welding:
Asbestos Coating for welding rods
Asbestos clothing to protect welders
Asbestos cloth or padding to protect nearby objects from heat during welding
Asbestos wick packing was used as packing for piping, wire, armor plate, galvanized materials
Asbestos wick packing
Asbestos wick packing used in piping of wire, armor plage, or galvanized materials
Asbestos window putty - watch out old window putty may also contain hazardous levels of lead
Asbestos in woodburning stoves - typically in the form of asbestos rope gaskets at stove doors, possibly in other forms
Asbestos combined with wool felt pipe insulation
Hurrell, Elmer S. "Thermal insulation and method of making the same." U.S. Patent 2,016,039, issued October 1, 1935. Original Assignee Johns Manville.
Excerpt: A preferred embodiment of the invention is magnesia pipe covering to the outer surface of which is adhesively secured a thin sheet of wool felt with a sheet of asphalt-impregnated asbestos paper adhesively secured to the outer surface of the wool felt.
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16 CFR Chapter 11, Consumer Products Containin Asbestos, Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking", [PDF] U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission, CPSC, U.S. Federal Register, Vol. 44. No 201, 17 October 1979, Proposed Rules, 60057. This document cites a long list of consumer products that contained asbestos.
Archer, S. R., and T. R. Blackwood. Status assessment of toxic chemicals: asbestos. Vol. 1. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, 1979. In this text, table 4. U.S. Asbestos Uses (3)
This book is available as a free e-book via Google Play. Link:
Asbestos, its Industrial Applications, D.V. Roasato, engineering consultant, Newton MA, Reinhold Publishing Co., NY, 1959, Library of Congress Catalog No. 59-12535. We are in process of re-publishing this interesting text. Excerpts & adaptations are found in InspectApedia.com articles on asbestos history, production & visual identification in and on buildings.
Asbestos Asbestos: How to find and recognize asbestos in buildings - visual inspection methods, list of common asbestos-containing materials
Asbestos Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Asbestos Enviro-Scare: Electric Power Lines, Electromagnetic Fields, Cancer Risk, & "Enviro-Scare" - The Normal Curve Cycle of Public Fear of Environmental Issues
Asbestos Dust from the World Trade Center collapse following the 9/11/01 attack: the lower floors of this building contained spray-on fire-proofing asbestos materials.
Asbestos Asbestos Information Links: Asbestos Detection, Testing, Recognition, Hazards, Field Photos, and Information Sources, including
health-related links such as legal services and information about mesothelioma and other cancers.
"Asbestos in Plastic Compositions", A.B. Cummins, Modern Plastics [un-dated, pre 1952]
"Asbestos in Your Home," Spokane County Air Pollution Control Authority, Spokane WA 509-477-4727 www.scapa.org provides a one-page image, a .pdf file drawing of a house warning of some possible sources of asbestos in the home. The sources are not ranked according to actual risk of releasing hazardous levels of airborne asbestos fibers and the list is useful but incomplete.
Chrysotile [asbestos] and Its Uses, Louis Perron, Minerals and Metals Sector, Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 2002, Natural Resources Canada, web search 03/01/2011, original source: http://www.nrcan-rncan.gc.ca/mms-smm/busi-indu/cmy-amc/content/2002/20.pdf
The US EPA provides a sample list of asbestos containing products epa.gov/earth1r6/6pd/asbestos/asbmatl.htm
Thanks to Susan Kimball, Argus Pacific Corp., Puget Sound, WA, for pointing out that some products are permitted to contain more than 1% asbestos fibers by current standards provided that the fibers are encapsulated in an appropriate binder. Argus Pacific, in Seattle, WA 98119, 206.285.3373, is an industrial hygiene firm who also provide OSHA and DOSH regulated training in Washington State, providing classes in asbestos, lead, mold, hazardous waste, emergency response, and other occupational health, safety, and professional development topics. -- September 2008.
Work Practice for Window Removal and Window Putty Patching
With Less Than Or Equal To 1% Asbestos Window Putty and Caulking" University of Washington, 2002 http://www.washington.edu/admin/asbestos/1putty.html
How do I Manage Asbestos in our House or Apartment Building?, Illinois Department of Environmental Conservation, provides this article at http://www.epa.state.il.us/small-business/asbestos-in-home/
Asbestos in buildings - employee notice, University of Washington dept. of Environmental Safety, http://www.ehs.washington.edu/ohsasbestos/index.shtm
Window putty to be exempted from asbestos removal by State of Maine - http://list.uvm.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A2=SAFETY;wYpdKg;20010307113643-0500A
EPA Region 6 identifies window putty as asbestos containing - http://www.epa.gov/earth1r6/6pd/asbestos/asbmatl.htm
June 1997 - Window Putty - OSHA case cites contractor for asbestos exposure during removal of window putty http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=1091
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
ASBESTOS IN YOUR HOME U.S. EPA, Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
Asbestos NESHAP ADEQUATELY WET ASBESTOS GUIDANCE, EPA340/1-90-019, December 1990, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Stationary Source Compliance Division, Washington, DC 20460,original web source: http://www.epa.gov/region04/air/asbestos/awet.htm
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print, text and images available at InspectAPedia.com).
Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Asbestos Information Links: Asbestos Detection, Testing, Recognition, Hazards, Field Photos, and Information Sources, including
health-related links such as legal services and information about mesothelioma and other cancers.
"Handling Asbestos-Containing roofing material - an update", Carl Good, NRCA Associate Executive Director, Professional Roofing, February 1992, p. 38-43
EPA Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in buildings, NIAST, National Institute on Abatement Sciences & Technology, [republishing EPA public documents] 1985 ed., Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
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