STANDARDS for ROOFING - CONTENTS: Roofing standards, a list of key asphalt shingle standard documents & sources. Specifications for the manufacture and testing of asphalt roof shingles. Directory of Roof Shingle Testing Laboratories
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Roofing & roof shingle standards:
This article lists the various ASTM & other standards for roofing and roofing products. In addition to the roofing materials & testing standards from ASTM and from UL listed and summarized here, readers should see asphalt shingle installation guidelines and
standards published by the Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association (ARMA) and the
National Roofing Contractors Association (NRCA).
The latter, NRCA, has published the most-detailed and
most-authoritative specifications for the installation of asphalt shingles, roll roofing, membrane roofing,
wood shingles, and slate shingles.
The following roofing standards include specifications for the manufacture and testing of asphalt roof shingles.
ASTM Roofing Standards
ASTM has thousands of standards for products, ingredients of products, testing procedures for them, and their performance in use. Below we have collected key standards pertaining to various types of residential and light commecial roofing materials and systems. We include key standards for asbestos cement roofing shingles (no longer in production), asphalt shingles, other asphalt roofing products, clay roofing tiles, cement roofing materials, fiber cement roofing, membrane roofing materials, slate roofs, and other roofing materials. Contact Us to suggest changes and additions.
According to ASTM, each ASTM roofing standard abstract shown below is "...a brief summary of the referenced standard. It is informational only and not an official part of the standard; the full text of the standard itself must be referred to for its use and application. ASTM does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contents of this abstract are accurate, complete or up to date. "
ASTM C- Roofing Standards Beginning with "C" ASTM Cnnnn
ASTM C222 - 97(2008) Standard Specification for Asbestos-Cement Roofing Shingles
This specification covers asbestos-cement roofing shingles, including accessories, designed to provide the weather-exposed surfaces on roofs of buildings. These shingles are classified according to method of application and shape: American method, Dutch or Scotch method, French or Hexagonal method, and strip shingles. Different physical properties of the shingles such as flexural strength, deflection, and water absorption shall be determined. The surface of the shingles to be exposed shall be free of defects that impair appearance or serviceability.
The surface of the shingles to be exposed shall be smooth, grained, granuled, coated, or otherwise textured after finishing. In addition, the exposed surface of the shingles shall be natural color of the asbestos-cement product or shall be colored by the addition of mineral pigments, chemical impregnation, pigmented coatings, veneers, or embedded mineral granules. Efflorescence that sometimes appears on asbestos-cement shingles is not a defect and shall not result in a permanent change in color.
Holes for nails and fasteners shall be provided in the units during manufacture and shall be so placed as to provide at least the minimum lap as specified. Nails and fasteners shall have flat heads substantially larger than the diameter of the holes in the shingles with which they are to be used. The nails shall be of such length as to hold securely in the deck. Storm anchors or clips shall have flat bases substantially larger than the diameter of the holes in the shingles with which they are to be used.
Storm anchors shall be of adequate length to secure the shingles in place. Asphalt-saturated felt, preferably asbestos felt where maximum fire resistance of the roof covering is desired, is suitable for underlayment use.
C406 - 06e1 Standard Specification for Roofing Slate
This specification covers the material characteristics, physical requirements, and sampling method appropriate to the selection of roofing slate for use as roof shingles. Slates not included in this specification are those containing soft carbonaceous ribbons. Roofing shall be classified either as Grade S1, S2, or S3, wherein each grade shall meet specified breaking load, absorption, and depth of softening requirements.
ASTM C629 - 08 Standard Specification for Slate Dimension Stone
This specification covers the material characteristics, physical requirements, and sampling method appropriate to the selection of slate dimension stone for general building and structural purposes. Dimension slate shall include stone that is sawed, cut, split, or otherwise finished or shaped, and shall specifically exclude molded, cast, or otherwise artificially aggregated units composed of fragments, and also crushed and broken stone. It specifically excludes roofing slate and slate for industrial uses. Slates shall be selected for either exterior or interior use.
The physical property requirements to which slate stones shall adhere to are absorption, abrasion resistance, acid resistance, and modulus of rupture (across grain and along grain).
ASTM C1167 - 03(2009) Standard Specification for Clay Roof Tiles
ABSTRACT: This specification covers clay roof tiles with such durability and appearance that can provide a weather-resistant surface of a specified design. Each tile should be manufactured from clay, shale, or similar naturally occurring earthy substances and subjected to high-temperature firing. The heat treatment should develop a fired bond between material particles that provides the required strength and durability. The tiles should be shaped by molding, pressing, or extrusion during manufacture.
Generally, the tiles are planar or undulating rectangular and are classified into three grades according to the degree of resistance to weathering. Materials are also grouped into three types according to profile and rise-to-width ratio. Colors and textures produced by application of inorganic coatings are allowed except when the coloring is done by flashing or the texturing by sanding where the sand does not form a continuous coating. Each tile should conform to the specified values of durability, freezing and thawing, transverse breaking strength, efflorescence, reactive particulates, and permeability.
ASTM C1225 - 08 Standard Specification for Fiber-Cement Roofing Shingles, Shakes, and Slates
ABSTRACT: This specification covers non-asbestos, fiber-cement shingles, shakes, and slates (roofing products) of nominally uniform thickness (non-tapered) and texture, including accessories designed to provide the weather-exposed surfaces on roofs of buildings. Flexural strength; product modulus of rupture; breaking moment; density test; water absorption; moisture content; water tightness; frost resistance; warm water resistance; and heat/rain resistance shall be made to conform to the specified requirements.
[ASTM notes that specification is not applicable to asbestos-cement roofing shingles (Specification C 222), non-asbestos fiber-cement roofing shakes, shingles, and slates with designed varying profiles and thicknesses (Specification C 1530), particle board (Terminology D 1554), or cement-bonded particleboards (Specification BS 5669: Part 4) and (ISO 8335).]
ASTM C1492 - 03(2009) Standard Specification for Concrete Roof Tile
ABSTRACT: This specification deals with the standards for concrete tiles intended for use as roof covering where durability and appearance are required to provide a weather-resistant surface of specified design. The tiles are manufacture from cement, water, and mineral aggregates and shaped during manufacturing by molding, pressing, or extrustion.
The tiles may or may not contain inclusion of other materials. The tiles shall also be tested for the following requirements: dimensional tolerance, freeze thaw, transverse strength, permeability, and water absorption.
ASTM C1530 - 04 Standard Specification for Non-Asbestos Fiber-Cement Roofing Shakes, Shingles, and Slates with Designed Varying Profiles and Thicknesses
ABSTRACT: This specification covers non-asbestos fiber-cement roofing shakes, shingles, and slates that are of designed varying profiles and thicknesses manufactured to provide the weather-exposed surfaces on roofs of buildings. These products shall be formed either with or without pressure and cured either under natural or accelerated conditions, to meet the physical requirements of this specification. Breaking load test, water absorption test, frost resistance test, warm water test, accelerated weathering test, water tightness and heat/rain resistance shall be performed to meet the specified requirements.
ASTM D- Roofing Standards Beginning with "D" ASTM Dnnnn
ASTM D 224 - Standard Specification for Smooth-Surfaced Asphalt Roll Roofing
SCOPE: 1.1 This specification covers asphalt roofing in sheet form, composed of organic roofing felt, saturated with asphalt and coated on both sides with an asphaltic compound which may or may not contain mineral stabilizer, and surfaced with powdered talc, mica, or other fine mineral matter to prevent sticking.
1.2 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
ASTM D225 - 07 Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles (Organic Felt) Surfaced With Mineral Granules
ABSTRACT: This specification covers asphalt roofing in shingle form, composed of single or multiple thicknesses of organic felt saturated and coated on both sides with asphalt and surfaced on the weather side with mineral granules. Materials shall meet specified dimensional and physical property requirements such as mass, behavior on heating (loss of volatile matter, and sliding of granular surfacing), wind resistance, fire resistance, weight of displaced granules, pliability, and saturant/coating compatibility.
ASTM D 226 - Standard Specification for Asphalt-Saturated Organic Felt used in Roofing and Waterproofing.
ABSTRACT: This specification covers asphalt-saturated organic felt used in roofing and waterproofing. Two types of asphalt-saturated felts are presented: type I - commonly called No. 15 asphalt felt, and type II - commonly called No. 30 asphalt felt. In the process of manufacture a single thickness of dry felt shall be saturated with an asphaltic saturant. The methods for the determination of openness of the perforations in saturated felts are presented in detail.
ASTM D227 - 03 Standard Specification for Coal-Tar-Saturated Organic Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing
ABSTRACT: This specification covers coal-tar-saturated organic felt intended to be used with coal-tar pitches conforming to the appropriate requirements in the construction of built-up roofs and in the construction of waterproofing systems. In the process of manufacture, a single thickness of dry felt shall be saturated with refined coal-tar from which some of the more volatile constituents have been removed. The material shall conform to the physical requirements prescribed. Test methods shall be performed to determine the properties of the material.
ASTM D312 - 00(2006) Standard Specification for Asphalt Used in Roofing
ABSTRACT: This specification covers four types of asphalt intended for use in built-up roof construction, construction of some modified bitumen systems, construction of bituminous vapor retarder systems, and for adhering insulation boards used in various types of roof systems. The asphalts shall be prepared from crude petroleum. Asphalts shall be classified as: Type I; Type II; Type III; and Type IV. Asphalts of each type shall conform to the physical properties prescribed. Tests shall be performed to determine the properties of the material in accordance with the following methods: sampling; softening point; flash point; penetration; ductility; and solubility.
ASTM D1668 - 97a(2006) Standard Specification for Glass Fabrics (Woven and Treated) for Roofing and Waterproofing
ABSTRACT: This specification covers finished and treated, woven glass fabrics coated with either asphalt, coal-tar pitch, or an organic resin compatible with the roofing, waterproofing, or other usage as specified by the purchaser. Asphalt treated Type I glass fabrics are suitable for use with all asphalts and asphalt based compounds. Coal tar pitch treated Type II glass fabrics, are suitable for use with all coal tar pitches and coal tar pitch based compounds.
And finally, for organic resin treated Type III glass fabrics, the purchaser and supplier shall agree on an organic resin that is compatible with and/or suitable for the plying liquid plying materials either specified or to be used.
This organic resin shall not be water soluble. Fabric specimens shall be appropriately sampled and tested, and consequently adhere to the following properties: thread count for both warp and filling threads; organic resin mass, width, length, area coverage, and mass; moisture present; and tensile strength.
ASTM D2178 - 04 Standard Specification for Asphalt Glass Felt Used in Roofing and Waterproofing
ABSTRACT: 1.1 This specification covers glass felts impregnated with asphalt that may be used with asphalts conforming to the requirements of Specification D 312 in the construction of built-up roofs, and with asphalts conforming to the requirements of Specification D 449 in the membrane system of waterproofing.
1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices
ASTM D 3018 / ASTM D 3018M - 09 - Standard Specification for Class A Shingles Surfaced with Mineral Granules. [DF: Class-A refers to fire rating].
ABSTRACT: This specification covers mineral granule-surfaced asphalt roofing shingles.
Covered here are the self-sealing (Type I) and non-self-sealing (Type II) types of shingles. The shingles shall consist of organic felt or glass mat(s) saturated or impregnated, and coated on both sides with a hot asphaltic material and completely surfaced on the weather side with mineral granules embedded in the coating.
The reverse side of the shingles shall be covered with a suitable material to prevent the shingles from sticking together in the package, causing possible damage upon being unpacked at ambient temperatures.
Type I shingles shall have a factory-applied adhesive that will seal the shingles together after application. Both types shall meet the conditions for Class A fire exposure, and loss and behaviour on heating tests. Type I shingles shall pass an additional wind resistance test.
ASTM D 3161 - Standard Test Method for Wind-Resistance of Asphalt Shingles (Fan-Induced Method)
ABSTRACT: Most asphalt shingles that have demonstrated wind resistance by this test have also performed well in use. Natural wind conditions differ with respect to intensity, duration, and turbulence; these conditions are beyond the means of this test to simulate. The results of this test do not directly correlate to wind speeds experienced in service, and no accommodation is made in this test method for building height, building exposure category, or building importance factor.
Many factors influence the wind resistance of shingles in the field; for example, temperature, time, roof slope, contamination by dirt and debris, and fasteners that are misaligned or under-driven. It is beyond the scope of this test method to address all of these influences.
This test method is designed to evaluate the wind resistance of asphalt shingles as described in the scope when representative samples are applied to test panels in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and conditioned as specified before testing.
ASTM D 3462 / ASTM D3462M - 09a - Standard Specification for Asphalt Shingles made from Glass Felt and Surfaced with Mineral Granules. [DF: refers to fiberglass-based asphalt shingles].
ABSTRACT: This specification deals with the standards for asphalt roofing in shingle form, composed of glass felt or felts impregnated and coated on both sides with asphalt, and surface on the weather side with minerals. Physical requirements of the shingles such as behavior on melting, tear strength, wind resistance, fire resistance, softening point, and pliability shall be measured immediately after packaging or at a reasonable time. Physical and performance requirements after application and during in-service use are however beyond the scope of this specification.
ASTM D3909 - 97b(2004)e1 Standard Specification for Asphalt Roll Roofing (Glass Felt) Surfaced With Mineral Granules
ABSTRACT: This specification covers asphalt-impregnated and coated glass felt roll roofing surfaced on the weather side with mineral granules, for use as a cap sheet in the construction of built-up roofs. The glass felt shall be a thin porous sheet composed predominately of fine glass fibers uniformly deposited in a nonwoven pattern. It shall contain a water-insoluble agent and may be reinforced with random, or parallel oriented glass yarns, or both, which may be gathered or twisted, bonded or unbonded.
The products shall meet physical property requirements as to pliability, mass loss and behavior on heating, moisture, and dimensions (width, mass, and area)..
ASTM D4434 / D4434M - 09 Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) Sheet Roofing
ABSTRACT: This specification covers flexible fiber- or fabric-reinforced sheet made from poly(vinyl chloride) resin as the primary polymer intended for use in single-ply roofing membranes exposed to the weather. The sheet shall contain. In-place roof system design criteria such as fire resistance, material compatibility, wind uplift resistance, in-situ shrinkage, among others, are beyond the scope of this specification.
The physical requirements for which the sheet materials shall be tested on and shall conform accordingly to are as follows: overall thickness and thickness over scrim; tensile strength at break; breaking strength; elongation at break; seam strength; retention of properties after heat aging; tear resistance and tearing strength; low temperature bend; cracking and crazing after accelerated weathering test; linear dimensional change; change in weight after immersion in water; and static and dynamic puncture resistance..
ASTM D 4586-07 - Standard Specification for Asphalt Roof Cement - Asbestos Free
ABSTRACT: This specification covers the testing and requirements for two types and two classes of asbestos-free asphalt roof cement consisting of an asphalt base, volatile petroleum solvents, and mineral and/or other stabilizers, mixed to a smooth, uniform consistency suitable for trowel application to roofing and flashing. Type I is made from asphalts characterized as self-healing, adhesive, and ductile, while Type II is made from asphalt characterized by high softening point and relatively low ductility.
Class I is used for application to essentially dry surfaces, while Class II is used for application to damp, wet, or underwater surfaces. The roof cements shall comply with composition limits for water, nonvolatile matter, mineral and/or other stabilizers, and bitumen (asphalt). They shall also meet physical requirements such as uniformity, workability, and pliability and behavior at given temperatures..
ASTM D4637 - 08 Standard Specification for EPDM Sheet Used In Single-Ply Roof Membrane
ABSTRACT: This specification covers flexible sheet made from ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) intended for use in single-ply roofing membranes exposed to the weather. The rubber sheet may be non-reinforced (Type I), fabric or scrim internally reinforced (Type II), or fabric-backed (Type III) vulcanized. In-place roof system design criteria, such as fire resistance, field seaming strength, material compatibility, and uplift resistance, among others, are beyond the scope of this specification.
The physical requirements for which flexible sheets shall be tested on and accordingly conform to are as follows: sheet-overall and coating over scrim or fabric thicknesses; breaking strength; tensile strength and set; dynamic and static puncture resistance; ultimate elongation and elongation at fabric break; tear resistance and strength; brittleness point; ozone resistance; behavior upon heat aging; linear dimensional change; water absorption; factory seam strength; weather resistance; and fabric adhesion..
ASTM D 4869 - Standard Specification for Asphalt-Saturated Organic Felt Shingle Underlayment Used in Roofing
ABSTRACT: This specification covers asphalt-saturated organic felt for use as an underlayment in steep slope roofing. The objective of this specification is to provide a finished product that will lie flat and resist wrinkling, puckering, and shrinking when left exposed to the sun, rain, frost, or dew for a period of two weeks after application. In the process of manufacture, a single thickness of organic dry felt shall be uniformly saturated with an asphaltic saturant and the felt shall be produced principally from organic fibers.
The surface of the felt shall be uniform and relatively smooth and upon splitting or tearing on the bias, the felt shall appear free of lumps or particles of foreign substances. The material shall conform to the prescribed physical requirements such as tear strength, pliability, loss on heating, liquid water transmission, breaking strength, and dimensional stability, and to the specified dimension and mass requirements such as roll width, roll area, net mass of saturated felt, net mass of desaturated felt, saturation, moisture, and saturating efficiency. The finished product shall not crack nor be so sticky as to cause tearing or other damage upon being unrolled. The following tests shall be taken: (1) determination of saturation percent of felt, (2) determination of resistance to liquid water transmission using water shower exposure test, and (3) test for dimensional stability to low and high humidity. The water shower exposure test for underlayment is illustrated.
ASTM D4977 - 03(2009) Standard Test Method for Granule Adhesion to Mineral Surfaced Roofing by Abrasion
ABSTRACT: This test method is used to determine the quality of adhesion of the granular surfacing to the coating asphalt in a sample of mineral surfaced roofing. The results determine compliance with the applicable specification requirements or for comparative analysis. This test method applies to “as manufactured” material and may not be applicable to material that has had weathering exposure.
ASTM D6225 - 98(2004) Standard Test Method for Granule Cover of Mineral Surfaced Roofing Significance and Use This test method is used to determine the extent of coverage of the granular surfacing over the asphaltic coating in a sample of mineral surfaced roofing. The results determine compliance with the applicable specification requirements or may be used for comparative analysis. This test method applies to both "as manufactured" material and material that has weathered or undergone other types of exposure.
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the hiding power of granules on a mineral surfaced roofing sheet. The test is used primarily after an abrasion test has been conducted, to determine the portion of asphaltic compound that has been exposed as a result of the abrasion test.
1.2 the values stated in inch-pound units are regarded as the standard. The SI units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use..
ASTM D6380 - 03(2009) Standard Specification for Asphalt Roll Roofing (Organic Felt)
ABSTRACT: This specification covers three classes and three types of asphalt roll roofing in sheet form, in widths agreed upon between the purchaser and the producer/supplier, and composed of asphalt-saturated organic felt coated on both sides with asphalt. Class M and WS rolls are surfaced on the weather (exposed) side with mineral granules, except for any selvage. Class S rolls are surfaced with powdered talc, mica, or other fine mineral matter to prevent sticking.
Type classifications (Types II, III, and IV) are grouped based on minimum net mass per unit area of roofing. Roofing shall adhere to physical property requirements such as breaking strength, water permeance and vapor transmission, width, selvage, area, and moisture..
ASTM D6381 - 08 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Asphalt Shingle Mechanical Uplift Resistance [Wind resistance of shingles - DF]
ABSTRACT: "Uplift resistance is one of the properties of an applied shingle that relates to its ability to withstand wind forces. The mechanical tests described are laboratory methods to measure that resistance at a designated temperature after the shingles have been sealed under designated conditions.
No quantitative relationship has been established between the mechanical uplift resistance and uplift forces due to the wind.
Many factors influence the sealing characteristics of shingles in the field; for example, temperature, time, contamination by dirt and debris, roof slope, and interference by misplaced fasteners. It is not the objective of this test method to address all of these influences.
This test method is designed to determine the mechanical uplift resistance when representative specimens of shingles are sealed under selected conditions prior to testing" .
ASTM D6630 - 08 Standard Guide for Low Slope Insulated Roof Membrane Assembly Performance
Significance and Use
A roof assembly must work as a system. Any component of the roof assembly demonstrating an inherent weakness or inability to perform will diminish the roof system performance and service life expected. This guide lists minimum performance attributes required of low slope roof assemblies. Products not previously used as roof membrane materials require additional tests beyond the scope of this document. This guide is not intended for use on in-service roofing materials. Roof membranes and other components should conform to ASTM product standards, if available.
1.1 This guide lists test methods intended to establish a minimum level of performance for insulated roof membrane assemblies, and lists pertinent design guidelines and installation methods in a unified manner. Material tests and evaluations are included with and without roof insulation.
1.2 It is not possible to establish a precise correlation between laboratory tests on roof assemblies and natural weathering due to variations in geographical climate, design, material and installation.
1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory requirements prior to use. .
ASTM D 6757 - Standard Specification for Inorganic Underlayment for Use with Steep Slope Roofing
ABSTRACT: This specification covers inorganic fiber-reinforced organic felt, and inorganic fiber-based asphaltic and nonasphaltic felt underlayments for use as underlayment with steep-slope roofing products. The intent of this specification is to provide criteria for producing and evaluating underlayments with a significantly reduced tendency to wrinkle before or after the installation of steep roofing products. Materials shall be sampled and tested suitably to examine their conformance with performance requirements such as tear strength, pliability, behavior on heating, liquid water transmission, dimensional stability at low to high humidity conditions, and elongation..
ASTM D7425 - 08 Standard Specification for Spray Polyurethane Foam Used for Roofing Applications
1.1 This specification covers the types and physical properties of spray polyurethane foam (SPF) for use in SPF roofing applications.
1.2 This specification does not provide guidance for application.
1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.
1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use..
ASTM E- Roofing Standards Beginning with "E" ASTM Ennnn
ASTM E 108 - Standard Test Methods for Fire Tests of Roof Coverings.
ABSTRACT: This specification covers mineral granule-surfaced asphalt roofing shingles. Covered here are the self-sealing (Type I) and non-self-sealing (Type II) types of shingles. The shingles shall consist of organic felt or glass mat(s) saturated or impregnated, and coated on both sides with a hot asphaltic material and completely surfaced on the weather side with mineral granules embedded in the coating.
The reverse side of the shingles shall be covered with a suitable material to prevent the shingles from sticking together in the package, causing possible damage upon being unpacked at ambient temperatures. Type I shingles shall have a factory-applied adhesive that will seal the shingles together after application. Both types shall meet the conditions for Class A fire exposure, and loss and behaviour on heating tests. Type I shingles shall pass an additional wind resistance test.
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ARMA - Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association - http://www.asphaltroofing.org/
750 National Press Building, 529 14th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20045, Tel: 202 / 207-0917
ASTM - ASTM International, American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA The ASTM standards listed below can be purchased in fulltext directly from http://www.astm.org/
NRCA - National Roofing Contractors Association - http://www.nrca.net/, 10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600,
Rosemont, IL 60018-5607, Tel: (847) 299-9070 Fax: (847) 299-1183
UL - Underwriters Laboratories - http://www.ul.com/
2600 N.W. Lake Rd.
Camas, WA 98607-8542
Tel: 1.877.854.3577 / Fax: 1.360.817.6278
Texas Department of Insurance, lists companies approved for testing the impact resistance of roofing - see http://tdi.state.tx.us/home/roofingx.html
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide, Edmund C. Snodgrass, Lucie L. Snodgrass, Timber Press, Incorporated, 2006, ISBN-10: 0881927872, ISBN-13: 978-0881927870. The text covers moisture needs, heat tolerance, hardiness, bloom color, foliage characteristics, and height of 350 species and cultivars.
Green Roof Construction and Maintenance, Kelley Luckett, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2009, ISBN-10: 007160880X, ISBN-13: 978-0071608800, quoting: Key questions to ask at each stage of the green building process Tested tips and techniques for successful structural design
Construction methods for new and existing buildings
Information on insulation, drainage, detailing, irrigation, and plant selection
Details on optimal soil formulation
Illustrations featuring various stages of construction
Best practices for green roof maintenance
A survey of environmental benefits, including evapo-transpiration, storm-water management, habitat restoration, and improvement of air quality
Tips on the LEED design and certification process
Considerations for assessing return on investment
Color photographs of successfully installed green roofs
Useful checklists, tables, and charts
Roofing The Right Way, Steven Bolt, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd Ed (1996), ISBN-10: 0070066507, ISBN-13: 978-0070066502
Slate Roofs, National Slate Association, 1926, reprinted 1977
by Vermont Structural Slate Co., Inc., Fair Haven, VT 05743, 802-265-4933/34. (We recommend this book if you can find it. It
has gone in and out of print on occasion.)
Roof Tiling & Slating, a Practical Guide, Kevin Taylor, Crowood Press (2008), ISBN 978-1847970237, If you have never fixed a roof tile or slate before but have wondered how to go about repairing or replacing them, then this is the book for you. Many of the technical books about roof tiling and slating are rather vague and conveniently ignore some of the trickier problems and how they can be resolved. In Roof Tiling and Slating, the author rejects this cautious approach. Kevin Taylor uses both his extensive knowledge of the trade and his ability to explain the subject in easily understandable terms, to demonstrate how to carry out the work safely to a high standard, using tried and tested methods.
This clay roof tile guide considers the various types of tiles, slates, and roofing materials on the market as well as their uses, how to estimate the required quantities, and where to buy them. It also discusses how to check and assess a roof and how to identify and rectify problems; describes how to efficiently "set out" roofs from small, simple jobs to larger and more complicated projects, thus making the work quicker, simpler, and neater; examines the correct and the incorrect ways of installing background materials such as underlay, battens, and valley liners; explains how to install interlocking tiles, plain tiles, and artificial and natural slates; covers both modern and traditional methods and skills, including cutting materials by hand without the assistance of power tools; and provides invaluable guidance on repairs and maintenance issues, and highlights common mistakes and how they can be avoided.
The author, Kevin Taylor, works for the National Federation of Roofing Contractors as a technical manager presenting technical advice and providing education and training for young roofers.
The Slate Roof Bible, Joseph Jenkins, www.jenkinsslate.com,
143 Forest Lane, PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127 - 866-641-7141 (We recommend this book).
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones