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Carpet & carpet padding selection & installation best practices guide.
This article series discusses and provides a best construction practices guide to the selection and installation of building interior surface materials, carpeting, doors, drywall, trim, flooring, lighting, plaster, materials, finishes, and sound control materials.
Over 90% of the carpet installed in the United States is
tufted, meaning that loops of yarn are stitched through a
fabric backing, usually polypropylene, and glued in place
with styrene-butadiene (SB) latex adhesive.
This carpet is
backed by a thick layer of SB latex or, in higher-end products,
a secondary layer of fabric.
[Click to enlarge any InspectApedia image or table]
The loops of yarn are
either left in place for loop-style carpets, such as Berbers,
or cut with blades for cut-pile carpet (Figure 5-17).
Traditional woven carpeting, representing only about
2% of U.S. production, is costly but creates a dimensionally
stable and durable carpet including velvet, Axminster,
With modern manufacturing techniques, however,
nearly any style can be created using tufted construction.
Common styles and their wear characteristics are
shown in Table 5-8 given below.
Nylon, considered the most durable synthetic carpet,
accounts for about 60% of all pile carpeting. Most of the
remaining are made of olefin and polyester, with wool
accounting for less than 2% due to its high cost. Nylon is
popular because of its good resilience (springs back rather
than crushing) and overall durability (Table 5-9).
can give nylon good stain resistance.
Because olefin (polypropylene) is prone to crushing,
it is generally used for low-pile designs, such as Berbers.
Olefin is also widely used for indoor/outdoor carpeting
used in high-moisture and recreational environments
because of its resistance to moisture, mildew, and stains.
Polyester carpeting is very soft to the touch but not as
durable as the other synthetics.
Quality Factors in Evaluating Wall to Wall Carpeting
Other than the material, the durability of a carpet depends
on several factors: density of the tufts, twist of the yarn,
and heat setting.
Density of Wall to Wall Carpeting Pile
Density refers to how much yarn is used in the
pile. The more tufts of yarn per square inch, the more yarn
there is to wear and provide a resilient surface that resists
crushing. The denser a carpet, the harder it is to push
through the carpet to the backing with your fingers.
when bent back in a U-shape with the pile facing outward,
a denser carpet will show less of the backing.
Density is measured in stitches per inch or face
weight, which is the weight of the fiber in the pile per
square yard of carpet. When divided by the pile height, this
gives the average density per inch of pile. These numbers
are useful for comparing similar products that use the same
materials, but otherwise can be misleading.
Yarn Twisting Effect on the Durability of Wall to Wall Carpeting
Twisting the yarn enhances the durability,
particularly in cut-pile carpets. In most nylon, olefin, and
polyester cut piles, the twist is set by heat or steam to help
the carpet retain the twist. The cut ends of the carpet pile
should be neat and tight.
Pile Height of Wall to Wall Carpets
Higher piles create a softer feel and more
luxurious appearance but tend to crush more easily and are
more difficult to clean.
Color and Pattern of Wall to Wall Carpets
Most carpeting today is very colorfast.
Solution-dyed carpet, in which the dye is added to the
fibers when they are made, is extremely colorfast. Yarndyed
carpet, which is dyed after the yarn is made, provides
some color variation and is also very colorfast.
In general, light-colored carpets show dirt and stains,
while dark colors show lint.
Mottled colors such as tweeds
and textured patterns tend to disguise dirt and wear, and
are good choices for high-traffic areas and rooms where
spills or stains are likely.
Guide to Wall to Wall Carpet Durability Ratings and Warranties
Many manufacturers rate
the durability of their carpeting on a numeric scale or with
descriptions such as low, medium, and high durability.
These are a useful gauge of performance, but the proof is
in the warranty. Look for a 7- to 10-year wear-and-stain
warranty. Find out if the warranty is prorated or covers the
full replacement cost. Also, read the fine print, as certain
kinds of stains, such as pet stains, are often excluded.
Carpet Pad Selection & Installation Guide
By absorbing much of the impact of foot traffic, carpet
padding helps prevent the carpet fibers from getting
crushed and wearing out prematurely. The cushioning
effect also makes the carpet more comfortable underfoot.
Good padding is sufficiently firm and resilient to absorb
foot traffic, and durable enough that it will not break
down or collapse over time.
Good padding also increases
insulation and soundproofing and makes carpeting
easier to vacuum by allowing air to circulate through
For residential applications, pads should generally be
no more than 7/16 inch thick for high piles and no more than
3/8 inch thick for Berbers or low piles.
In general, softer,
thicker pads are used in bedrooms, dens, and other rooms
with light traffic. Thinner, firmer pads are recommended
for living rooms, family rooms, hallways, stairs, and other
high traffic areas. Berber-style carpets also require thinner,
firmer cushions for support.
If too thick, the pad can cause too much flexing in the
carpet, weakening the backing and opening seams. A carpet pad that
collapses, or starts out too thin, can cause carpeting to wrinkle
or wear out quickly. Seams in the pad should run perpendicular
to the carpet seams or be offset by at least 6 inches.
Foam Padding Used Below Carpets
Prime urethane pads are the least expensive,
but have a tendency to compress with use, particularly
in high-traffic areas. As the pad compresses, the carpet
backing can break down from too much flexing. For that
reason, prime urethane pads are not recommended for carpeting
subject to moderate or heavy traffic. One exception
is a proprietary urethane called Omalon (E. R. Carpenter
Co.), which has a special cell structure that resists crushing
and is guaranteed for the life of the carpet.
Rebond Padding Used Below Carpets
Bonded or re bonded pads, made of multicolored
scraps of high-density polyurethane foam bonded together,
are the most common in residential construction.
The denser the foam, the better the feel underfoot and the
durability. The Carpet and Rug Institute (CRI) recommends
that rebond be a minimum of 5 pounds per cubic
foot and 3/8
inch thick for light-traffic areas, such as a bedroom,
and 6.5 pounds and 3/8 inch thick for heavy-traffic
areas, such as hallways. For longer wear in high-traffic
areas, use a 7- to 8-pound rebound. For a more plush feeling,
choose a7/16-inch thickness.
Fiber Padding Used Below Carpets
Natural and synthetic fiber pads are sometimes
used under area rugs, commercial carpets, and some Berber
carpets. They are made of jute or recycled synthetic carpet
fiber and are among the densest and most resilient pads.
Synthetic fiber pads are the best choice for potentially
damp concrete floors. With synthetic fiber pads, look for a
minimum density of 7.5 pounds per cubic foot or 12 pounds
for jute. The thickness should range from 3/8 to 7/16-
Special Padding Used Below Carpets
Some Berber carpets require special
padding. In general, the bigger the loop in the Berber, the
firmer the padding should be. Woven carpet may also require
special padding, typically an extra-dense fiber pad
or, in some cases, a heavy frothed foam.
Installation Procedure for Carpeting
Stretch-in installations using tack strips along the room
perimeter are the most common approach in residential
carpeting. Glue-down installations are primarily used in
commercial work but are used residentially over slab-on-grade
and in basements.
Glue-down installations can either
use carpeting with an attached cushion backing or the
“double-glue” method in which the pad is glued to both
the concrete and the carpet. For installations over concrete,
the concrete should be fully cured and surface free of dirt,
dust, and any curing agents.
Subfloor Requirements for Carpeted Floors
A good carpet installation starts with a properly
prepared subfloor. The minimum recommended
subfloor is 3/4 inch T&G plywood, nailed and glued. For a
higher quality job, an 1/4-to 3/8-inch underlayment should be
installed over the plywood with the seams offset from the
Follow the underlayment specifications for resilient
flooring, discussed above. Check for loose or
squeaky spots and nail with spiral or ring-shank nails
before installing the carpet.
For a level transition, the top of the underlayment should
sit about 1/2 inch below the finished height of adjacent solid
flooring materials, such as wood, tile, or resilient flooring.
Carpet and pad can also go over hardwood floors or
tightly glued resilient flooring. Repair any loose areas or
damage in the existing flooring before installing the pad
How to Handle Seams in Wall to Wall Carpeting
Most residential carpeting in the United States is
available in either 12- or 15-foot-wide rolls, but the installer
needs a few inches of waste on each end for stretching
installations, limiting the size of a room that can be done
with no seams.
Since all seams are visible to some extent, they should
be placed where they are the least visible and get limited traffic,
such as inside of closets. Seams should always run with
the pile in the same direction.
Where a room is lighted from
windows, the seams should go perpendicular to the windows.
In hallways, place any seams along the length of the
hall. If a seam must be between rooms, make sure it is hidden
when the door is closed. As the fibers are compressed
from wear over time, seams become more conspicuous.
Seams are easiest to conceal in deep, dense, cut-pile
carpeting.With short loop-pile carpets, such as Berbers and
other loop-pile carpets with heavy textures and irregular
rows of tufts, it can be difficult to hide seams. Also carpets
with pads hide seams better than glue-down installations.
Where seaming problems are anticipated, use wider 6-inch
hot-melt tape at seams rather than the standard 3-inch tape.
The wider tape helps avoid a high spot at the seam.
Carpet Installation: How Warm-Up and Stretching During Installation Avoids Wrinkles
To avoid problems with wrinkling, carpeting
should be warmed up to the normal room temperature
for about 24 hours before it is installed. This can take place
in the home or in a heated warehouse. The building should
also be heated to normal temperatures before and during
the installation and be free of excess moisture. If the carpet
is installed cold, it can expand and wrinkle when
heated to normal conditions.
Wrinkling and ridging at seams can also result
from carpeting that is not adequately stretched during
While manual stretching was adequate for older
carpeting with natural jute backing, the polypropylene
backing used today requires the greater force of power
stretching. In fact, many manufacturers will not warrant
their carpet on rooms larger than 12x12 feet unless it is
The stretched carpet is held in place with tack strips
nailed around the perimeter of the room about
2 inch in
from the baseboard. Standard 1-inch-wide tack strips are
adequate for most carpeting, but some heavy woven and
Berber-style carpets require 2-inch strips (or two 1-inch
strips) to hold them securely in place.
Health Effects of Indoor Carpeting
In recent years, a number of homeowners and advocacy
groups have attributed a variety of health problems to
exposure to new carpeting. Although studies have been
inconclusive, the carpeting industry has taken steps to
reduce exposures of certain chemicals and has established
a certification program for low-emitting carpets. For more
information, see CARPETING & INDOOR AIR QUALITY).
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I just saw an oriental carpet in blues that I love. Where do I go to find it?
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Steve Bliss's Building Advisor at buildingadvisor.com helps homeowners & contractors plan & complete successful building & remodeling projects: buying land, site work, building design, cost estimating, materials & components, & project management through complete construction. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Steven Bliss served as editorial director and co-publisher of The Journal of Light Construction for 16 years and previously as building technology editor for Progressive Builder and Solar Age magazines. He worked in the building trades as a carpenter and design/build contractor for more than ten years and holds a masters degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Excerpts from his recent book, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, Wiley (November 18, 2005) ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, appear throughout this website, with permission and courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Best Practices Guide is available from the publisher, J. Wiley & Sons, and also at Amazon.com
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standards, March-April 1993
"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards, January-February 1991
Access Ramp building codes:
Access Ramp Standards:
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources for good design of stairs and ramps etc. even where disabled individuals are not the design target.
ANSI A117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporated into the ADA)
ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standards)
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).
Asbestos Identification and Testing References
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
ASHRAE resource on dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries. The following three ASHRAE Handbooks are also available at the InspectAPedia bookstore in the third page of our Insulate-Ventilate section:
2005 ASHRAE Handbook : Fundamentals: Inch-Pound Edition (2005 ASHRAE HANDBOOK : Fundamentals : I-P Edition) (Hardcover), Thomas H. Kuehn (Contributor), R. J. Couvillion (Contributor), John W. Coleman (Contributor), Narasipur Suryanarayana (Contributor), Zahid Ayub (Contributor), Robert Parsons (Author), ISBN-10: 1931862702 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862707
2004 ASHRAE Handbook : Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Systems and Equipment : Inch-Pound Edition (2004 ASHRAE Handbook : HVAC Systems and Equipment : I-P Edition) (Hardcover)
by American Society of Heating, ISBN-10: 1931862478 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862479
"2004 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment The 2004 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Systems and Equipment discusses various common systems and the equipment (components or assemblies) that comprise them, and describes features and differences. This information helps system designers and operators in selecting and using equipment. Major sections include Air-Conditioning and Heating Systems (chapters on system analysis and selection, air distribution, in-room terminal systems, centralized and decentralized systems, heat pumps, panel heating and cooling, cogeneration and engine-driven systems, heat recovery, steam and hydronic systems, district systems, small forced-air systems, infrared radiant heating, and water heating); Air-Handling Equipment (chapters on duct construction, air distribution, fans, coils, evaporative air-coolers, humidifiers, mechanical and desiccant dehumidification, air cleaners, industrial gas cleaning and air pollution control); Heating Equipment (chapters on automatic fuel-burning equipment, boilers, furnaces, in-space heaters, chimneys and flue vent systems, unit heaters, makeup air units, radiators, and solar equipment); General Components (chapters on compressors, condensers, cooling towers, liquid coolers, liquid-chilling systems, centrifugal pumps, motors and drives, pipes and fittings, valves, heat exchangers, and energy recovery equipment); and Unitary Equipment (chapters on air conditioners and heat pumps, room air conditioners and packaged terminal equipment, and a new chapter on mechanical dehumidifiers and heat pipes)."
1996 Ashrae Handbook Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment: Inch-Pound Edition (Hardcover), ISBN-10: 1883413346 or ISBN-13: 978-1883413347 ,
"The 1996 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook is the result of ASHRAE's continuing effort to update, expand and reorganize the Handbook Series. Over a third of the book has been revised and augmented with new chapters on hydronic heating and cooling systems design; fans; unit ventilator; unit heaters; and makeup air units. Extensive changes have been added to chapters on panel heating and cooling; cogeneration systems and engine and turbine drives; applied heat pump and heat recovery systems; humidifiers; desiccant dehumidification and pressure drying equipment, air-heating coils; chimney, gas vent, fireplace systems; cooling towers; centrifugal pumps; and air-to-air energy recovery. Separate I-P and SI editions."
Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Historical use of brick in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the Kent Tavern in Calais, VT.
"Brick nogging is a European method of construction which was brought to the new world in the early-nineteenth century. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review.
Building Research Council, BRC, nee Small Homes Council, SHC, School of Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, brc.arch.uiuc.edu. "The Small Homes Council (our original name) was organized in 1944 during the war at the request of the President of the University of Illinois to consider the role of the university in meeting the demand for housing in the United States. Soldiers would be coming home after the war and would be needing good low-cost housing. ... In 1993, the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the School of Architecture-Building Research Council. ... The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that would affect the quality of the nation's housing stock.
How could homes be designed and built more efficiently?
What kinds of construction and production techniques worked well and which did not?
How did people use different kinds of spaces in their homes?
What roles did community planning, zoning, and interior design play in how neighborhoods worked
Energy Savers: Whole House Systems Approach to Energy Efficient Home Design [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] - U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Supply Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Supply_Vent.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11880?print
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Exhaust Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Exhaust.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11870
"Energy Savers: Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Energy_Recovery_Venting.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11900
"Energy Savers: Detecting Air Leaks [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Air_Sealing_1.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438 "Falls in the home and public places are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, but are overlooked in most literature. This book is unique in that it is entirely devoted to falls. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insurance adjusters, architects, writers of building codes, attorneys, or anyone who cares for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when people will likely fall, what most likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. "
Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Gypsum Construction Guide, National Gypsum Corporation
Construction Handbook [purchase at Amazon.com] H17, Technical
Folder SA920 and PM2, PM3 and PM4, United States Gypsum Company, 125 South Franklin ST., PO Box 806278, Chicago, IL 60680-4124,
Humidity: What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem?
Ice Dam Leaks in building attics and roof cavities, how to inspect for evidence of leaks, identify causes, and correct bad attic ventilation, improper roof venting, and these causes of attic mold or roof structure damage
"Insulation: Adding Insulation to an Existing Home [copy on file as /interiors/Insulation_Adding_DOE.pdf ] - ," U.S. Department of Energy - tips on how to do your own check for the presence of absence of insulation in a home
Insulation: Selecting Insulation for New Home Construction [copy on file as /interiors/New_Home_Insulation_DOE.pdf ] - , U.S. Department of Energy -
"Your state and local building codes probably include minimum insulation requirements, but to build an energy-efficient home, you may need or want to exceed them. For maximum energy efficiency, you should also consider the interaction between the insulation and other building components. This is called the
"whole-house systems design approach" [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] -
Insulation Types [copy on file as /interiors/Insulation_Types_DOE.pdf ] - , table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE. Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail.
Lath & Plaster Systems [copy on file as /interiors/LathPlaster_Nat_Gypsum.pdf ] - , 092300/NGC, National Gypsum Lath and Plaster Systems, National Gypsum Corporation, 800-628-4662 describing National Gypsum's Kal-Kore brand plaster base
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Metal Lath Specifications, Specification for metal lath and accessories, Lath and Plaster [copy on file as/interiors/Amico_lath-inside.pdf ] - from Amico, a lath and plaster accessory producer.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov
"A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. - PDF Document from NIS
Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Information about the U.S. company can be found at http://www.pergo.com where we obtained historical data used in our discussion of the age of flooring materials in buildings.
Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of
piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall construction with long top girts, diagonal timber bracing, and small diameter logs
placed vertically along with concrete chinking to fill in the wall plane.
Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-construction/ and where plank houses were built by native Americans, see
Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228,
Photographer: Mike Meuser
06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank Houses are being sold to raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.
Plastering, PM 5, Product & Systems Technology, US Gypsum, May 1998, web search 10.5.2010, original source: http://www.usg.com/rc/technical-articles/plaster/
[copy on file as/interiors/Plastering_USG.pdf ] -
United States Gypsum Company, 125 South Franklin ST., PO Box 806278, Chicago, IL 60680-4124,
Paraphrasing from this document: USG uses the term shadowing in this document in describing the visual effect over gypsum board joints caused by the lower moisture absorption rate (take-up) and lower capacity than gypsum base face paper. Shadowing at joints occurs where veneer plaster is applied over tape joints, requiring a second coat to completely hide the tape, providing a visually uniform surface. USG Advises: "This [second] cover coat must be allowed to harden and dry before plaster application is started.
Plastering Skills, F. Van Den Branden, Thomas L. Hartsell, Amer Technical Pub (July 1, 1985), ISBN-10: 0826906575, ISBN-13: 978-0826906571 [purchase at Amazon.com]
Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe, Arizona - see rebath.com
Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or
ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2,
available from the publisher, Lawyers ^ Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com email@example.com and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC%20SCREEN.pdf ] -
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Manufactured & Modular Homes: Modular Building Systems Association, MBSA, modularhousing.com, is a trade association promoting and providing links to contact modular builders in North America. Also see the Manufactured Home Owners Association, MHOAA, at www.mhoaa.us. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of America is a National Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in the United States.
Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building flood and how to prevent mold growth in buildings by selection of building materials and by anti-mold construction details.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, available from the publisher, Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com firstname.lastname@example.org and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones