SIDING, FIBER CEMENT home - CONTENTS: Best Practices Guide to Choices of Fiber Cement siding products (non-asbestos). Fiber cement wall siding installation details. Fiber cement clapboards handling & nailing. Fiber cement siding flashing details. Modern fiber cement siding does not contain asbestos. List of modern fiber cement siding product manufacturers
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Fiber cement siding home:
This article discusses the selection and best-practices installation of fiber cement building siding products. In a series of companion pages we provide details about the properties of various fiber cement siding products from the major manufacturers, how to identify fiber cement siding, how to install fiber cement siding including guidelines for gaps, clearances, nailing schedules, end and cut sealing, siding joint or abutment caulking, painting or staining.
This article series provides descriptions of the field performance of fiber cement siding products and a detailed field investigation of several product failures: of fiber cement stain or coating peeling and cracking, and of gaps, shrinkage, and loose, buckled fiber cement siding.
We include fiber cement siding installation specifications, repair and maintenance and painting recommendations, and fiber cement siding manufacturer identification guides.
This article series discusses best practices construction details for building exteriors, including water and air barriers, building flashing products & installation, wood siding material choices & installation, vinyl siding, stucco exteriors, building trim, exterior caulks and sealants, exterior building adhesives, and choices and application of exterior finishes on buildings: paints, stains.
Modern fiber cement siding discussed here is not an asbestos product and does not contain asbestos. There may, however, be other health concerns related to silica or other dust produced by power saws or similar cutting operations in the modern material. Details about an older generation of fiber cement products, asbestos cement wall shingles and modern fiber cement wall shingles are discussed separately at SIDING, ASBESTOS CEMENT.
Also ASBESTOS & FIBER CEMENT ROOFING and also CORRUGATED ROOFING. CD Johnston also makes an interesting distinction between fiber-reinforced cements and concretes and fibercement products, noting that "The fiber content
in these composites is much lower than in fibercement composites". 
Performance of Fiber Cement Building Siding
Many synthetic alternatives to wood siding have fallen
short either on aesthetics or durability.
Modern fiber cement siding, while surely outperforming other materials like hardboard siding, is not impervious to mechanical damage, coating or paint failures, and a shrinkage and siding butt-joint cosmetic or leak issue, as our photo shows above and as discussed
at SIDING, FIBER CEMENT DEFECTS .
"Modern" fiber cement building cladding has been around for more than 60 years, if we include its early form, cement-asbestos shingles such as those on the home shown below left (Dover Plains, NY).
Following the development of concern for asbestos safety, fiber cement shingles continue in production, but using reinforcing and filler materials other than asbestos.
Fiber-cement [in plank form], unlike it's shingle ancestors, is one
of the newest entries into the siding field and holds promise in
that the material can be fashioned to resemble almost any
exterior cladding, holds paint well, and is essentially impervious
to decay, insects, UV radiation, and fire.
Older fiber cement and asbestos-cement wall siding (photo at left) is vulnerable to impact damage. Repairs must be done with care to avoid breaking additional siding shingles when removing and replacing the bad ones.
Modern fiber-cement siding is made up primarily of Portland cement,
sand, and wood fibers. It is chemically similar to
older asbestos sidings but contains no asbestos, glass
fibers, or formaldehyde.
Watch out: for silica dust hazards: while it does not contain asbestos, modern fiber cement siding products do, however, produce a very
fine silica dust when cut with a saw or abrasive blade,
which, if inhaled, can cause silicosis and other serious respiratory
Above is the English language portion of the silica dust warning included with Hardieplank® lap siding. The company, James Hardie, gives this advice in both English and in Spanish [click to see an enlarged image].
Fiber-cement boards are extremely straight and rigid
when held edgewise, but they are much heavier than
wood—about 20 pounds for a 12-foot length of 8-1/4 -inch
They are flexible along the flat dimension, however,
so any lumps in a wavy framing job will tend to telegraph
through the siding.
Any fiber cement material is fairly brittle and,
if not handled carefully, can crack or break. We found in particular that when picking up long lap siding boards it was critical to keep the board on edge - that is, its upper or lower horizontal edge is carried parallel to the ground.
Carrying a long fiber cement board "on the flat" risks breakage.
Shrinkage & Gaps in Fiber Cement Siding - watch out for "wet" fiber cement siding right from the manufacturer and watch out for siding butt joint gaps as wet siding shrinks
Modern fiber cement siding products are also
very dimensionally stable and resist shrinking and
swelling, cupping, warping, and splitting.
Warranties for fiber cement siding run
from 30 to 50 years depending on the manufacturer and
specific configuration. Fiber cement siding is cost-competitive with vinyl
and hardboard siding and significantly less expensive than
premium wood sidings. [Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, by Steven Bliss,]
Watch out: based on our own field experience we do not quite agree with Steve Bliss's note above. We have seen serious shrinking in both counterfeit fiber cement siding and right from the factory James Hardieplank fiber cement siding that we inspected and tested in 2012 and 2013 - DJF.
The manufacturer told us that the material must be kept dry and "not installed" if the contractor thinks it's "wet". But from the service rep with whom we spoke we could not get the slightest definition of "wet" or "too much moisture" or "dry" fiber cement siding. 
For details about the cause & cure of butt joint gaps in modern fiber cement siding, such as the unsightly lap siding gap shown above)
see SIDING, FIBER CEMENT GAPS
Fiber-cement is available in a wide array of styles and finishes
modeled after other materials ranging from horizontal
wood siding to vertical sidings, wood shakes, bricks,
and stones. The wood patterns are generally available
either smooth or wood-grained and most are available
factory-primed or finished as well as unfinished.
Our photo (left) is interesting because it shows two nearly-identical fiber cement wall shingles. The shingle on the right is a new replacement product that does not contain asbestos, while the shingle on the left is an older cousin that contains asbestos.
A clue to the presence of new fiber cement shingles on this home might be the observation that the shingle on the right is coated only with the factory primer while that on the left has been painted a few times. See ASBESTOS CEMENT SIDING for details.
Fiber-cement horizontal siding planks are typically 5-1/4
to 12-1/4 inches wide by 12 feet long and are designed for a
1-1/2 inch overlap. Vertical siding panels measure 4x8, 4x9,
or 4x10 feet, and shake and shingle panels are typically
16x48 inches. The thickness of most siding materials is
1-5/inch. Smooth and textured soffit and trim boards are also
Fiber-cement soffit material is typically
and most trim stock is 7/16-inch thick, but manufacturers
have recently introduced thicker profiles (see section on
fiber-cement trim, page 34 in Best Construction).
Lap-Siding Fiber Cement Board Installation
Fiber-cement siding products install similarly to the wood
products they imitate. They can go over wood-based
sheathings or rigid foam, but they must be nailed or
screwed directly to studs or 2x blocking. Fasteners should
penetrate solid wood by 1 to 1-1/4 inches, depending on the
Our fiber cement siding photo (left) courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates, shows the product in end view (trade show booth installation detail) and includes the first-course bottom spacer behind the fiber cement clapboard.
The 12 foot long fiber-cement planks can be held
edgewise by a single person, but the boards may break in two or deform if picked up flat. One person can install a
plank by driving a single nail near its center to hold it in
place against guide nails driven into the sheathing to mark
the upper edge.
Manufacturers recommend leaving 1/8-inch between board ends and window casings and trim and caulking with
a paintable 100% acrylic latex caulk. Butt joints between
two planks can be either lightly butted and painted over or
gapped 1/8-inch and caulked. Manufacturers recommend
priming cut ends on site if the joints are not being caulked.
As with other siding products, leave at least
1/2-inch clear at step and other flashings so the bottom edge does not soak
Nailing & Butt-Joint Flashing Details for Nailing Fiber Cement Siding
Our photo (left) shows a pre-fabricated plastic flashing device intended to be inserted at the butt-joints of both wood-based fiberboard siding and also where gaps have become a problem, at fiber-cement wall siding. (Photo courtesy Carson Dunlop Associates, a Toronto home inspection, education, and report writing tool engineering firm).
Fiber-cement siding should be nailed directly
to studs with nail penetration into solid wood of 1 to
1-1/4-inches, depending on the manufacturer’s specifications.
Pre drilling is required within 1/4inch of an edge or near
sharp angles or other fragile shapes to avoid cracking.
Pre drilling may also be required when nailing through
foam sheathing to avoid cracking the siding.
Manufacturers require a hot-dipped galvanized or
stainless-steel siding nail (or roofing nail for blind nailing)
that should be driven flush with the surface.
of nails can cause the material to shatter around the nail,
weakening its holding power and, with some products,
voiding the warranty. Staples and clip-head nails tend to
penetrate too far, but coil nailers with adjustable depth-of drive
work well. Some contractors hand-nail the siding to
Given the longevity of the siding, a long lasting
corrosion-resistant nail is recommended. If fastening to metal studs, use corrosion-resistant
pneumatic pins or self-tapping bugle-head screws.
Standard Nailing in Fiber Cement Siding
In most installations, horizontal fiber-cement siding is nailed top and bottom into each
stud, with the lower exposed nail going through both layers of siding (see Figure 1-20).
[Click to enlarge any image]
Butt joints should lie over studs. This is the most durable installation. Color-matched galvanized nails are
available for the exposed nails on prefinished sidings.
Blind Nailing Procedure for Fiber Cement Siding
Recommendations for blind nailing fiber cement siding products vary among manufacturers,
but most permit “blind nailing” with siding planks less than 8-1/4-inches wide installed over 16-inch on center
In this siding nailing technique, the fasteners are hidden just above the lap line of the overlapping plank and put a slight curve in the siding, pulling it tight to the wall. Roofing nails work well because of their large heads (see Figure 1-21 at left).
An occasional extra face nail may still be required to hold the lower edge tight to the wall where there is a bump or
bulge in the framing. Since the lower edges remain unsecured, blind nailing is not suitable for high-wind areas.
Reader Question: 1/4-inch gaps between siding boards and next course?
How tight should the 5.25" (4" reveal) lap boards rest one on top of the other? For a new install, I would expect the bottom of the board to lay flat on the top of the one under it, however, on a job, I am seeing boards with 1/4"+ gaps, but I can't find any literature saying what the max should be. - Mike 3/13/2013
Normally the lower edges of lap siding are touching to 1/16" on the top edge of the course below.
The siding you describe sounds as if it is loose or nailed oddly and improperly.
Given this loose installation, I'd take a look also at the nail lines to be sure that the courses were lapped according to the manufacturer's specifications.
Cutting Methods for Fiber Cement Siding
Watch out: When cut with a diamond abrasive blade in a
circular saw, fiber-cement creates a cloud of very fine
silica dust which can cause silicosis and other serious respiratory problems.
Ordinary carbide-tipped blades produce
less dust but wear out within a few hours compared
to a few months for abrasive blades. In the last few years,
manufacturers have responded with specialized diamond tipped
blades and tools, making the work easier and safer.
The new fiber-cement blades cut smoother, create less
dust, and outlast ordinary carbide blades. When used with
the new dust-collecting saws designed for fiber-cement,
cutting is safe and effective.
Many contractors also use electric shears such as the fiber cement shears produced by Malco Products. (Photo above courtesy Malco Products.)
Fiber cement cutting shears are similar to a
sheet-metal nibbler but specially adapted for fiber-cement.
These make a clean cut with little dust, but are not as fast
as a circular saw and cannot cut through multiple boards
at once. Scoring and snapping, as for drywall, is also an
option for quick cuts where a crisp edge is not needed.
Finishing & Painting Details for Fiber Cement Siding
After installation, small dents or chips can be
filled with any cementious patching compound. Before
priming or applying the top coat to pre primed material,
wipe away any dust from cutting with a damp cloth or
sponge or lightly hose down the siding and allow it to dry
If the siding has been hosed down or power
washed (unprimed siding only), allow at least two sunny
days before priming. Painting should be completed within
90 days of installation to avoid deterioration of the surface
from prolonged exposure to water.
For unprimed siding, manufacturers recommend an
alkali-resistant, 100% acrylic primer specifically approved
by the paint supplier for fiber-cement. Back-priming is not
necessary; in fact, some manufacturers recommend against
back-priming so any trapped moisture can dry from the
back of the siding.
For the top coat, use a 100% acrylic latex paint. Because
fiber-cement is dimensionally stable and largely
inert, it holds paint well. Estimates range from 7 to 15
years for a quality paint job. Some of the prefinished products
carry 15-year warranties on the finish.
Our photo (above left) of paint failure on a fiber-cement siding installation was provided by BC home inspector Hugh Cairns. Mr. Cairns is a Canadian home inspector located in B.C. and is an occasional contributor to InspectAPedia.com.
The illustration below is of a Chinese-made fiber cement siding product produced by Ningbo Yihe Greenboard Co., Ltd. While we have no specific complaint about this product, it and similar fiber-cement siding board products may add to difficulties in determining the origin and manufacture of various modern fiber-cement siding products.
The siding above is described by the Zhejiang manufacturer as:
Quality-assured by ISO9001:2008 quality control system,and the boards are tested by SGS authority.
Standard board sizes are:1220mm x 2440mm or 1200mm x 2400mm; and the standard thickness varies from 6mm to 18mm; for other sizes or thickness, the company can also customize siding dimensions up to a maximum width of 1220mm & a maximum length is 3000mm.
Watch out: That fiber cement siding is available from a variety of sources is evident from the list below. In addition, some our investigations of fiber cement siding failures (paint or coating failures, shrinkage, gaps discussed at SIDING, FIBER CEMENT GAPS and SIDING, FIBER CEMENT DEFECTS) led to an assertion by U.S. manufacturers that even though the homeowner had been told that a U.S. product was being installed (Hardieplank for example) in fact the manufacturer has told the homeowner that it was not their product.
In a conversation with James Hardie about Hardieplank and in a second one with Certainteed as well as field inspection of Hardieplank confirmed to be the case: building owners may have been paying a premium for counterfeit products and more, when there is a product failure they may have no recourse. [Personal communications, DJF with both companies, April - June 2013].
Identification of Chinese-Made Fiber Cement siding may be aided by this additional detail offered by the manufacturer: beginning in 2012, fiber cement siding from the supplier listed above is provided only with a smooth finish. The embossed wood grain patterns that were used before 2012 have, according to the manufacturer "been mostly destroyed".
However in the spring of 2013 the company contacted us with this update
While,unfortunately,since last year we had already stopped producing the Fiber Cement Siding Boards in wood-grain pattern. Because,most of the moulding plate that are used for wood-grain embossing were broken. And now,we can only produce common Fiber Cement Siding Boards without wood-grain embossing.
What are the particular certifications that a Manufacturer must have in North America to sell Fibre cement products ( ie Miami Dade for wind)
I'm not aware of manufacturer certifications for fiber cement siding nor have I seen separate wind-damage-resistance standards for fiber cement products; however for use in buildings some building products may be required to meet various building, ASTM, or UL or other code standards such as for fire safety.
However siding and rain screen products themselves are indeed produced to standards such as we discuss at FIBER CEMENT PRODUCT STANDARDS where you'll find a detailed answer to your question.
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
Mark Cramer Inspection Services Mark Cramer, Tampa Florida, Mr. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator. Mr. Cramer serves on the ASHI Home Inspection Standards. Contact Mark Cramer at: 727-595-4211 mark@BestTampaInspector.com
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060. He is also a contributor to InspectApedia.com in several technical areas such as plumbing and appliances (dryer vents). Contact Mr. Cranor at 804-747-7747 or by Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
 Johnston, Colin D., Fiber-reinforced cements and concretes. Vol. 3., Taylor & Francis, (CRC Press) 2000. ISBN-10: 9056996940
ISBN-13: 978-9056996949, "This book summarizes and simplifies the results of a considerable body of research and practical experience with a wide range of fiber-reinforced cementitious composites."
 James Hardieplank, personal communication with Daniel Friedman, 6/6/2013. We called James Hardie to ask for guidance in determining just how much moisture was "too much" in Hardieplank siding, after observing that siding at a job arrived visibly wet from the factory even though still inside its original sealed plastic wrapping. We called James Hardie's technical support line where a courteous representative told us he would refer us to Hardie's expert Benjaman Batres. Our call to Mr. Batres was returned by Stephanie (declined to give last name) from James Hardie's customer warranty service department. Stephanie informed us that there are no moisture numbers, that it is not possible to measure moisture in fiber cement siding (utter nonsense!) and repeatedly advised "Just read our instructions" or "So file a claim". Don't count on much help from James Hardie's customer warranty department on siding shrinkage or butt joint gap concerns. Gaps at Hardieplank siding butt joints continue to appear in the Hardieplank installation.
 Eric Galow, Galow Homes, Lagrangeville, NY. Mr. Galow can be reached by email: email@example.com or by telephone: 914-474-6613. Mr. Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions. Personal communication 3/20/2013.
John Rudy, Advantage Home Inspections, Flemington N.J. 08822 home inspector, 908-806- 6364, Home, Radon & Termite Inspections, Central & Parts of North New Jersey, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Malco® Products siding tools are available from that company, including the SideSwiper II SRT2 discussed at Malco's website. Websearch 09/07/2010 http://malcoproducts.com/product/roofing-siding-gutter/siding-vinyl/siding-tools-vinyl/sideswiper-ii. Malco also produces other vinyl siding repair tools such as aprons, awls, hole punches, saw blades, and tools for for fiber cement products including power-assisted cutters
 " Anyone else have HardiePlank siding on their house?", Early Retirement.org online blog, retrieved 1/14/2013, original source: http://www.early-retirement.org/forums/f27/anyone-else-have- HardiePlank-siding-on-their-house-19475.html
 - DIY Chatroom, retrieved 1/17/2013, original source http://www.diychatroom.com/f2/ certainteed-weatherboard-vs-HardiePlank-4638/
 Certainteed Weatherboard fiber cement siding and trim products - see certainteed.com/ or see certainteed.com/resources/sidingandtrimspecsheet.pdf
[5a] "CertainTeed WeatherBoards™ Fiber Cement Siding Installation Manual", CertainTeed Corporation, 2012, CertainTeed Corporation, PO Box 880, Valley Forge PA 19482, Professional Help Line: 800-233-8990, Consumer Help Line: 800-782-8777, Website: Certainteed.com www.certainteed.com/resources/fc017.pdf retrieved 4/11/2013, [copy on file as Certainteed_Fiber_Cement_Siding_Install_fc017.pdf ]
[5b] "Certainteed WeatherBoards™ Fiber Cement Siding Best Practices for Effective Job Site Management", CertainTeed Corporation, retrieved 4/15/13 original source: www.certainteed.com Copy on file as Certainteed_FC_Handling Brochure-Contractor_FC063.pdf
 "Moisture Control in buildings: Putting Building Science in Green Building," Alex Wilson, Environmental Building News, Vol. 12. No. 5. [Good tutorial, "Moisture 101" outlining the physics of moisture movement in buildings and a good but incomplete list of general suggestions for moisture control - inadequate attention given to exterior conditions such as roof and surface drainage defects which are among the most-common sources of building moisture and water entry.--DJF]
 J. Tibbets, "Green Houses", NCBI, retrieved 1/17/2013, original source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1469482/
 Gleeson et al, "Fiber Cement :Building Materials with Low Density Additives", U.S. Patent 8,182,606, B2 5/22/2012, [adding low volumes of volcanic ash & hollow ceramic microspheres to cellulose fiber-reinforced building materials.
 Thanks to reader Marie Carr for James HardiePlank siding photograph and case history information.
 JamesHardie HardiePlank® Lap Siding information can be found at the company's web page on this material:
 "30-Year Limited Warranty
HardiePlank® HZ5® Lap Siding, HardiePanel® HZ5® Vertical Siding,
HardieShingle® HZ5® Siding, HardieSoffit® HZ5® Panels", 1-800-9-HARDIE
10901 Elm Avenue Fontana, CA 92337, retrieved 1/18/2013, original source: http://www.jameshardie.com/pdf/warranty/hz5.pdf [copy on file as Hardieplank_Warranty_hz5.pdf]
 James Hardie Building Products, James Hardie CustomerLink™ Service Centre, 10 Colquhoun Street, Rosehill NSW 2142, Tel: 13 1103, Outside Australia 61 2 8837 4709,
Fax: 1 800 818 819. Hardie has operations in Australia, Asia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand, United States, and the Philippines. The company is a significant producer of fiber cement siding and backerboard. Email: info@JamesHardie.com and Website http://www.jameshardie.com/
[12b] "Technical Bulletin #9, Joint Flashing at Field Butt Joints", JamesHardie, retrieved 4/15/2013, original source: www.jameshardie.com, copy on file as James_Hardie_9-joint-flashing.pdf - quoting: This Technical Bulletin is an explanation supporting the
announcement made by James Hardie on September 8th, 2008
withdrawing its recommendation on the use of caulk at field butt
joints for HardiePlank® lap siding.
 Instructions for application of HardiePlank lap siding can be found at http://www.jameshardie.com/homeowner/products_siding_hardieplankLapSiding.py?openTab=jsnavLink4
 "Homeowners Care and Maintenance Tips", 1-800-9-HARDIE
10901 Elm Avenue Fontana, CA 92337, included with product warranty information, retrieved 1/18/2013, original source: http://www.jameshardie.com/pdf/warranty/hz5.pdf [copy on file as Hardieplank_Warranty_hz5.pdf]
 "HardiePlank HZ5 Lap Siding Installation Requirements - Primed & Colorplus® Products",JamesHardie, November 2012, 1-800-9-HARDIE,
10901 Elm Avenue Fontana, CA 92337, retrieved 1/18/2013, original source: http://www.jameshardie.com/pdf/install/hardieplank-hz5.pdf, [copy on file as Hardieplank-hz5_Install.pdf]
 Technical Bulletin #9,
Joint Flashing at Field Butt Joints, James Hardie corporation, retrieved 1/19/2013, original source: http://www.jameshardie.com/pdf/technical-bulletins/9-joint-flashing.pdf
 Technical Bulletin #17,
Fastening Tips for HardiePlank® Lap Siding, James Hardie Corporation, retrieved 1/19/2013, original source: http://www.jameshardie.com/pdf/technical-bulletins/17 -fastening-tips-for%20-plank.pdf [copy on file]
 Technical Bulletin #8,
Expansion Characteristics of James Hardie® Siding Products, James Hardie Corporation, retrieved 1/19/2013, original source: http://www.jameshardie.com/pdf/technical-bulletins/8-expansion-characteristics.pdf [copy on file]
 Eric Galow, Galow Homes, Lagrangeville, NY. Mr. Galow can be reached by email: email@example.com or by telephone: 914-474-6613. Mr. Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions. Personal communication 3/20/2013.
Paint Handbook: testing, selection, application, troubleshooting, surface preparation, etc., Guy E. Weismantel, Ed., McGraw Hill Book Company, 1981, ISBN-10: 0070690618, ISBN-13: 978-0070690615, [Excellent but a bit obsolete paint theory and practice, also a bit light on field investigation methods, out of print, available used-DF] How to select and apply the right paint or coating for any surface. The first major reference to help you choose the correct paint or other finish to do the job best on a particular surface exposed to a particular environment. Experts in the field give full advice on testing surface preparation, application, corrosion prevention, and troubleshooting. The handbook covers wood, metal, composites, and masonry, as well as marine applications and roof coatings. A ``must'' working tool for contractors, architects, engineers, specification writers, and paint dealers.
"Weather-Resistive Barriers [copy on file as /interiors/Weather_Resistant_Barriers_DOE.pdf ] - ", how to select and install housewrap and other types of weather resistive barriers, U.S. DOE
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
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The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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