Asbestos-Containing Floor Tile Adhesive Mastic or Roofing Sealant Identification
ASBESTOS-CONTAINING MASTIC DANGEROUS?- CONTENTS: What are the health hazards that may be encountered from cutback or mastic adhesives used in flooring, roofing, and other building applications? Demolition or remodeling advice for old tile floors or for roofing flashings, sealants & mastics
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How to recognize roof or floor adhesive, mastic, or sealant that may contain asbestos.
This article provides dates of manufacture of asbestos-containing adhesives, mastics, sealants, and includes photographs and text describing the appearance of such products.
While an expert test by a certified asbestos testing lab is required for sure identification of the asbestos content of most materials, we point out that some materials can be recognized as asbestos-containing by simple visual inspection, and others may be treated as presumed asbestos containing products based on the product type, age, and ./ or date of installation.
This article series answers questions about floor tile, sheet flooring, or roofing cutback adhesives or mastics that may contain asbestos.Does or did roofing mastic products & sealants contain asbestos? What are the hazards of demolishing or working on floors or roofs where asphalt-based asbestos-containing mastics, cutback adhesives, or sealants were used? Page top photo of black mastic floor tile adhesive provided courtesy of reader G.M.
Asbestos-Containing Floor Adhesive / Mastic Identification & Age
Reader Question: when was asphalt-asbestos cutback adhesive manufactured & how can I Identify It
When was asbestos asphalt cut back adhesive manufactured and is there an easy way to identify it?
I have a house that was built in the mid 1970s and there is black adhesive on the kitchen floor. There was sheet linoleum over it. - C.H. New Jersey, 12/5/2012
Reply: how to decide if flooring mastic, cutback adhesive or similar products contain asbestos
A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem or hazard from handling cut-back adhesive or mastic that may contain asbestos in a flooring application as well as in roofing mastics. That said, here are some things to consider:
Dates of Black Asphalt-Based Asbestos-Containing Cutback Adhesive
Cutback is the black asphalt-based adhesive that was frequently used to install vinyl asbestos tile, asphalt tile and vinyl composition tile.
We're uncertain of its precise history, but we found it mentioned in a 1937 patent for composite panel board,
Patent number: 2232762
Filing date: Nov 27, 1937
Issue date: Feb 25, 1941
A patent by Vicenzi filed in 1986 describes an asbestos-free product intended for similar uses
So excluding time to move from patent into production, it seems reasonably safe to guess that asbestos-containing cutback adhesives were in use at least until that date, possibly a bit later.
Tan or Brown Latex-Based Tile Mastic / Adhesive - some might contain asbestos
Having examined asphalt-based adhesives used in floor tiles as well as in roofing mastics from a variety of installations, I cannot say that there is an easy way to recognize which contain asbestos and which do not simply by visual examination of the adhesive itself.
There are both dark and lighter tan tile or flooring adhesives that may look alike but be chemically very different - some can be softened by simple water, others not. However these related observations will be helpful:
Floor installation date: Consider the probable date of application and use of the adhesive and assume that before 1988 it may have contained or was even likely to contain asbestos
Floor covering materials: Consider the materials with which the cut-back adhesive was being used. For example, if the adhesive was used for asphalt-asbestos floor tiles or vinyl-asbestos floor tiles, then it would be reasonable to suspect the adhesive of also containing asbestos.
Water-soluble tile mastics: Some floor tile mastics that appear difficult to remove using common solvents may in fact be water based and are removed by soaking with ordinary water; but beware that depending on age, these non-asphalt mastics may also have contained asbestos.
Non-friable asbestos flooring mastics: Finally, where (most) asphalt based and other mastics and cut-back adhesives are generally not friable, the potential asbestos exposure hazard will be affected more by the means used to remove the material than by the material in its applied-state. Follow recommended wetting and cleanup guidelines.
Reader Question: Is it likely that this bath ceramic tile black mastic in my 1986 home would contain asbestos?
I posted a question in the Comments section regarding my bathroom Reno.
[Click to enlarge any image]
Shown here: reader's photos of ceramic bath tile and black tile mastic in a 1985-1986 Australian home.
My house is from 1985/86, the cement sheeting in the shower areas say “Manufactured With Asbestos”.
Before I remove the wall tile, I would like to know if there is any chance the adhesive could contain asbestos. I am sending images as requested.
Any information appreciated.
Although I can see some kind of fibre in the images, I have read that they can’t be seen without a microscope. Seems to be a lot of confusing info out there. - Anonymous by private email 2017/08/24
Reply: Australian & possibly some U.S. manufacturers stamped cement board as not made with asbestos in the late 1980's
In both the U.S. and Australia it would be unusual for new construction in 1985/6 to have used asbestos products.
At the time of my initial reply I had not yet seen your photos of the mastic used behind ceramic bath tile, nor your backer board photo, so I offered this general advice: I'm not sure if you saw my note or if I was clear before about the possibility of asbestos in tile mastic.
From the fact that you saw asbestos-suspect wall materials it certainly believable that a contractor would have used a mastic that contained asbestos. However that's not a friable material unless you grind or saw to make a Dusty mess.
I would much like to see a photo of the printing on the cement board or asbestos board that you found.
Also if you tell me what your plans are for the wall I might be able to make a suggestion. That is are you just stripping tile or do you need to take the whole wall down.
Here is a picture of the cement sheet, (shown above) this on several of the sheets in the other bathroom in the house. I was planning on just removing the tile, but if I have to, I can certainly remove the whole sheets containing the tile.
... Oh ..., I just noticed on my first email that I put “Manufactured with Asbestos” it SHOULD HAVE READ “Manufactured WITHOUT Asbestos”
Reply: Australian cement board installed 1985-1986, manufactured without asbestos
Aha so we found that the wallboard was marked as NOT containing asbestos. An easy misread to make when we're nervous about asbestos in a home.
The no-asbestos stamp on the cement board in your home reminds us that at the time your house was built, manufacturers as well as installers of fiber cement tile-backer board and other cement board products faced customers who wanted to be sure they were not being sold old-stock of asbestos containing products. One could speculate that the same contractor who installed such cement board would not have intended to use a mastic tile adhesive that contained asbestos.
OPINION: Adding that to the generally not friable nature of tile mastics the risk of asbestos from the wall demolition is likely to be low. Only if you were facing an unavoidable requirement to grind, chop, saw or otherwise make a dusty mess might you add asbestos to the general concern that you ought to have anyway about avoiding breathing demolition dust.
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 EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Asbestos in Your Home, web search 08/31/2011, original source: www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/ashome.html
 EPA Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in buildings, NIAST, National Institute on Abatement Sciences & Technology, [republishing EPA public documents] 1985 ed., Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
 EPA: "Asbestos Management", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7, original author: Todd H. Dresser, Environmental Engineer,
Burlington Board of Health, 29 Center Street, Burlington, MA 01803, web search 3/4/2012 original source: epa.gov/region07/education_resources/teachers/ehsstudy/ehs2.htm, [copy on file as: /hazmat/Asbestos Management _ Region 7 _ US EPA.pdf ]
 "Deconstruction - Building Disassembly and Material Salvage - the Riverdale Case Study", U.S. EPA, web search 3/4/12, original source: epa.gov/wastes/conserve/rrr/imr/cdm/pubs/river.pdf, [copy on file as: /hazmat/Deconstruction_Riverdale_EPA.pdf]
 "Toxics Information Series - Asbestos", U.S. EPA, April 1980, [copy on file as /hazmat/Asbestos_Toxics_EPA_1980.pdf]
 EVER WEAR TILE CO is currently (2009) in the Terrazzo, Tile, Marble, and Mosaic Work industry in Fallon, NV. 775) 423-6221. [We do not know the company history nor whether there is an association with EverWear vinyl asbestos floor tiles discussed in this article.]
 History of Asbestos in the UK - the story so far ..., Silverdell PLC, 14 Buckingham St., London WC2N 6DF TelP 0207 389 6906, email: email@example.com website: www.silverdell.plc.uk. Web search 3/4/12, original source: issuu.com/silverdell_plc/docs/silverdell_history_of_asbestos_article, [copy on file as /hazmat/Asberstos_UK_Silverdell.pdf ]
 Armstrong ® Residential Flooring - Website 05/15/2010 http://www.armstrong.com/ lists current flooring products provided by the Armstrong Corporation, including Armstrong's current vinyl floor tile products at http://www.armstrong.com/flooring/products/vinyl-floors
 Armstrong Corporation, Corporate History - http://www.armstrong.com/corporate/corporate-history.html - Web Search 05/19/2010
 Armstrong vinyl asbestos floor tiles: photos of asbestos floor tiles as catalog pages (PDF form) are at www.asbestosresource.com/asbestos/tile.html
 Thanks to Armstrong Corporation (800-356-9301) for providing information about the dates of manufacture of peel-and-stick floor tiles, email July 2010
 "Asbestos in your home or at work," Forsyth County Environmental Affairs Department, Winston-Salem NC
 "Asbestos Floor Tile Removal", the University of Minnesota's advice on removing VAT (vinyl asbestos or asphalt asbestos floor tile) can be read in detail at www.health.state.mn.us/divs/eh/asbestos/floortile/index.html
 ASBESTOS IN YOUR HOME U.S. EPA, Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
 Resilient Floor Covering Institute, 1030 15th St. NW, suite 350, Washington D.C.
 Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).
 LIFE Feb 14, 1955 p. 105, advertisement for Congoleum flooring products and listing of Gold Seal products by Congoleum.
 Rotterdam Convention PIC, see http://www.pic.int/home.php?type=s&id=77, and for a PDF on the composition of vinyl-asbestos flooring, see http://www.pic.int/en/DGDs/Alternatives/USA/American%20alternatives%20part%203.pdf
where PIC refers to Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade on 10 September 1998.
Major Provisions of the Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent Procedure PIC
The Convention covers pesticides and industrial chemicals that have been banned or severely restricted for health or environmental reasons by Parties and which have been notified by Parties for inclusion in the PIC procedure. One notification from each of two specified regions triggers consideration of addition of a chemical to Annex III of the Convention, Severely hazardous pesticide formulations that present a hazard under conditions of use in developing countries or countries with economies in transition may also be nominated for inclusion in Annex III.
There are 40 chemicals listed in Annex III of the Convention and subject to the PIC procedure, including 25 pesticides, 4 severely hazardous pesticide formulations and 11 industrial chemicals. Many more chemicals are expected to be added in the future. The Conference of the Parties decides on the inclusion of new chemicals.
Once a chemical is included in Annex III, a "decision guidance document" (DGD) containing information concerning the chemical and the regulatory decisions to ban or severely restrict the chemical for health or environmental reasons, is circulated to all Parties.
Parties have nine months to prepare a response concerning the future import of the chemical. The response can consist of either a final decision (to allow import of the chemical, not to allow import, or to allow import subject to specified conditions) or an interim response. Decisions by an importing country must be trade neutral (i.e., apply equally to domestic production for domestic use as well as to imports from any source).
The import decisions are circulated and exporting country Parties are obligated under the Convention to take appropriate measure to ensure that exporters within its jurisdiction comply with the decisions.
 "Resource4Mesothelioma, Mesothelioma Information and Legal Guide", web search 3/6/2012, original source: resource4mesothelioma.com/topics/whatisasbestos.html [copy on file as /hazmat/Asbestos_Resource4_3Mar12.pdf ] and also
mesothelioma.com/asbestos-exposure/products/ceramic-tiles.htm [copy on file as
 Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 [out of print, original copy, text and images on file at InspectAPedia.com offices].
 Microwave thermal inertisation of asbestos containing waste and its recycling in traditional ceramics.
Leonelli C, Veronesi P, Boccaccini DN, Rivasi MR, Barbieri L, Andreola F, Lancellotti I, Rabitti D, Pellacani GC.
Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e dell'Ambiente, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41100 Modena, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org Journal of Hazardous Materials 135 (1–3): 149–155 - Citation: J Hazard Mater. 2006 Jul 31;135(1-3):149-55. Epub 2006 Jan 10., web search 3/6/2012, original source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16406335
Asbestos was widely used as a building material prior to the 1970's. It is well known that asbestos is a health hazard and its progressive elimination is a priority for pollution prevention. Asbestos can be transformed to non-hazardous silicate phases by microwave thermal treatment. The aim of this investigation is to describe the microwave inertization process of asbestos containing waste (ACW) and its recycling in porcelain stoneware tiles, porous single-fired wall tiles and ceramic bricks following industrial manufacture procedure. Inertised asbestos powder was added in the percentages of 1, 3, and 5 wt.% to commercially available compositions and then fired following industrial thermal cycles. Water absorption and linear shrinkage of the obtained industrial products do not present significant variations with additions up to 5 wt.% of microwave inertised ACW.
 Asbestos-ceramic, Wikipedia, web search 3/6/2012, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos-ceramic [copy on file as /hazmat/Asbestos-ceramic_Wik.pdf]
 "History of asbestos discovery and use and asbestos-related disease in context with the occurrence of asbestos within ophiolite complexes", Malcolm Ross, Robert P. Nolan, Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 2003.
Abstract: Two ancient asbestos mines, one near Karystos, Greece and the other southeast of Mount Troodos, Cyprus, were located in what we now know to be ophiolite terrane. Evidence suggests that asbestos was discovered and utilized in Cyprus,perhaps as long as 5000 years ago, for manufacture of cremation cloths, lamp wicks, hats, and shoes. Some of the adverse health effects became known only in the early twentieth century, but it was not until the 1960's that the asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma - were fully understood.
Approximately 855 of the world's asbestos was produced from ophiolite complexes, most of which as the chrysotile variety; termolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite asbestos accounting for only a few percent of the total. Asbestos minerals crystallize within tectonized ophiolites -along shear, fault, and dilation zones, and at contacts with intruded dikes and sills. Important chrysotile asbestos mines are found in the ophiolites of eastern Canada, the Russian Urals, California, northwest Italy, northern Greece, and Cyprus. A high incidence of mesothelioma, a cancer of the lugn lining, is reported among residents of villages located within or near ophiolite complexes in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Corsica, and New Caledonia. These villages were exposed to tremolite asbestos while processing stucco and whitewash for application to homes. Asbestos contamination in various geographic localities has generated concern about health risks and has prompted costly remediatl actions, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States. A scientific basis for public policy is offered to address the utilization of asbestos-bearing rocks.
 57 F.Supp. 339 (1965), TILE COUNCIL OF AMERICA, INC., Plaintiff, v. CERAMIC TILERS SUPPLY, INC., Defendant. No. 62-267. United States District Court S. D. California, Central Division. August 13, 1965. Quoting "the 392 patent ... It also discloses composition containing the ingredients above mentioned which include sand as well as one which includes asbestos but not sand together with the other ingredients heretofore mentioned. The 382 patent also discloses a method of manufacturing such compositions."
 "The transformation sequence of cement–asbestos slates up to 1200 °C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures
A.F. Gualtieri, C. Cavenati, I. Zanatto, M. Meloni, G. Elmi, M. Lassinantti Gualtier, Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 152, Issue 2, 1 April 2008, Pages 563–570
" Quoting: " The material was powdered and studied to see if it is suitable to be recycled in stoneware tile
mixtures similarly to the protocol used in Gualtieri and Tartaglia  "
" The product of transformation of cement–asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3–5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures. "
 "A glass-bonded ceramic material from chrysotile (white asbestos)", K. J. D. Mackenzie and R. H.Meinhold, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
Volume 29, Number 10, 2775-2783, DOI: 10.1007/BF00356832, Abstract:
A process has been developed for bonding chrysotile asbestos into a robust, dimensionally-stable lightweight ceramic material by fusing it with sodium silicate and/or ground waste glass. The chrysotile can retain its desirable properties of fibrous morphology and porosity, but the fibre bundles are stabilized by fusion into a glassy matrix, reducing the respirable fibre concentration. The glass-bonded materials have good resistance to mechanical abrasion, and any resulting dust is found by SEM to be particularly free of fibres. The thermal treatment also converts the chrysotile into crystalline forsterite, which should destroy its cell toxicity. Other methods of glass-bonding chrysotile compacts (hot pressing and impregnating with glaze) were also investigated, and the properties of the resulting materials are reported.
Reference Type: Journal Article
Author: Mackenzie, K. J. D.
Author: Meinhold, R. H.
Primary Title: A glass-bonded ceramic material from chrysotile (white asbestos)
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Science
Cover Date: 1994-01-01
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Subject: Chemistry and Materials Science
Start Page: 2775
End Page: 2783
 "Firing transformations of cretaceous clays used in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles", M.M Jordána, Corresponding author contact information, A Boixa, T Sanfeliua, C de la Fuenteb, Applied Clay Science, Volume 14, Issue 4, April 1999, Pages 225–234
 "Use of granite sawing wastes in the production of ceramic bricks and tiles", Romualdo R. Menezesa, Corresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author, Heber S. Ferreirab, E-mail the corresponding author, Gelmires A. Nevesb, E-mail the corresponding author, Helio de L. Lirab, E-mail the corresponding author, Heber C. Ferreirab, E-mail the corresponding author , Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 25, Issue 7, May 2005, Pages 1149–1158
 [Chapter 4.4. Clay Masonry Units] of Olin's Construction: Principles, Materials, and Methods, 9th ed., H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley & Sons 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-54740-3
Barsoum, Michael W. (1996). Fundamentals of Ceramics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bender, W. and F. Handle, eds. Brick and Tile Making: Procedures and Operating Practices in the Heavy Clay Industries. Bauverlag GmbH, 1982.
Jones, J. T. and M. F. Berard. Ceramics: Industrial Processing and Testing. Iowa State University Press, 1972.
Kingery, W. D.; Bowen, H. K.; and Uhlmann, D. R. (1976). Introduction to Ceramics , 2nd edition. New York: Wiley.
Pellacani, G. and T. Manfredini. Engineered Materials Handbook. ASM International, 1991, pp. 925-929.
 Ceramic Tile Institute of America, CTIOA, Tel: 310-574-7800, website: www.ctioa.org/ Email: email@example.com Quote: The mission of CTIOA: To promote appropriate and expanded use of ceramic tile and natural stone through education.
The Ceramic Tile Institute of America Inc. provides manufacturer’s information only. The Ceramic Tile Institute of America Inc. does not test the products listed nor do we validate manufacturer’s claims. The Ceramic Tile Institute of America inc. is not responsible for the performance of the products shown on this site.
 "Potential Asbestos Hazard in Art Clay", Mark K. McQuillan, [letter] Connecticut Department of Public Health, 26 June 2007, CT DOH, Phone: (860) 509-7740 Fax: (860) 509-7785
Telephone Device for the Deaf (860) 509-7191 410 Capitol Avenue - MS # 11EOH P.O. Box 340308 Hartford, CT 06134
web search 3/8/12 original source: ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/environmental_health/asbestos/pdf/ArtClayLetter.pdf
[copy on file as: /hazmat/ArtClayLetter.pdf ] Excerpt: Talc is added to certain clays as a “flux” to lower the temperature at which the clay needs to be heated. The DPH has become aware that the talc from at least one mine in the Northeast may be contaminated with a type of asbestos called anthophyllite. Although there has been debate if the asbestos found in talc actually falls under the regulatory definition of asbestos, there is enough uncertainty to warrant caution when using clays with added talc. A recent court case in New Jersey found talc mined by the R.T. Vanderbilt Company of New York was responsible for an asbestos-related cancer ( mesothelioma) in a pottery shop owner. The pottery shop owner had purchased talc (Nytal 100) in large bags and mixed it in clays he used and sold.
 CPSC and Milton Bradley Co. Recall "Fibro-Clay", US Consumer Product Safety Commission, Release #83-012, March 1983. web seach 3/8/12 original source cpsc.gov/cpscpub/prerel/prhtml83/83012.html [copy on file as /hazamat/FIBRO-CLAY_ Recall.pdf ]
Milton Bradley made Fibro-Clay from 1967 until 1975, when it ceased manufacture of the product. The firm stated that no asbestos has been used in the formula since 1972, and that the quantity sold by its Educational Division was relatively small.
 US CPSC FOIA Request S606074: Duggan v. Duncan Ceramics, Report 950907CWE7271 and related investigation reports and correspoindence ..., [letter, CPSC to Jennifer N. Willis], 22 July 1997, with attachments, documents, technical articles, [copy on file as /hazmat/CPSC_FOIA_S606074.pdf ]
 "Precautions for Elementary and Secondary Art Teachers", Ida Herma Williams, Center for Occupational Hazards, [available in op.cit. #37]
 "Ceramics", Michael McCann, Ph.D., C.I.H., Center for SAFETY in the Arts, 5 Beekman St., New York NY 10038, [undated, available in op.cit.#37]
 "Art and Craft Safety Guide", US CPSC, Publication #5015, original source: http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/5015.pdf, [copy on file as /hazmat/CPSC_5015.pdf
 Asbestos Testing Laboratory Survey, Daniel Friedman (editor), InsapectAPedia.com, March 2012. Using the U.S. NIST directory of accredited laboratories certified for asbestos fiber analysis, [http://ts.nist.gov/standards/scopes/plmtm.htm] we polled at least one laboratory in each U.S. state, Puerto Rico, two Canadian Provinces, and laboratories in Japan and Korea, asking each if their laboratory had ever received ceramic tiles for asbestos testing and whether or not their lab had ever detected asbestos in ceramic tiles used on walls, floors, or other building services. Results will be included in this article.
 "Where can you find asbestos? Floor tiles, textiles, composites", Health and Executive Safety, web search 3/8/12 original source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/asbestos/essentials/floortiles.htm Quoting:
HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.
We are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces.
 International Asbestos Testing Laboratories, Frank E. Ehrenfeld III, Laboratory Director - Vice President, 9000 Commerce Parkway, Suite B, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054, Office: 856 231-9449, psersonal communication, email & telcon: 3/8/2012
 Handbook of Clay Science, R.E. Grim, Elsevier Science, 2006, ISBN-10: 0080441831 ISBN-13: 978-0080441832[WATCH OUT the price for this book is very high]
The Clay Minerals Society 3635 Concorde Pkwy Suite 500, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, United States, Tel: (703) 652-9960, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org website http://www.clays.org/,
 Semiquantitative Chemical Analysis of Asbestos Fibers and Clay Minerals with an Analytical Electron Microscope", Hisato Hayashi, Saburo Aita and Mikio Suzuki, Clays and Minerals, Vol. 26. No. 3, pp. 181-188, 1978, web search 3/8/12 original source: clays.org/journal/archive/volume%2026/26-3-181.pdf [copy on file as /hazmat/Clays_Minerals_Asbestos_CMS_1978.pdf ]
 Sheet silicates (phyllosilicates): clays, micas and serpentine (including chrysotile asbestos), E&ES213: Mineralogy
Lecture March 22, Ellen Thomas, Wesleyan University, 45 Wyllys Avenue, Middletown, CT 06459, (860) 685-2000 [copy on file as /hazmat/Clays and asbestos_EThomas_Wesleyan.pdf]
[Helpful definitions & descriptions of clay & asbestos from an environmental scientist - ed.]
 Phillip A. Peterson, Vice President, Fibertec Industrial Hygiene Services, Inc., 1914 Holloway Drive
Holt, MI 48842, Phone: 517-699-0345, ext. 1, www.fibertec.us. Personal correspondence 3/14/2012 - DJF.
 Asbestos Program, Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs, Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration Construction Safety & Health Division - Asbestos Program 7150 Harris Drive P. O. Box 30671 Lansing, Michigan 48909-8171 517.322.1320 (office) 517.322.1713 (fax) E-mail: email@example.com, website:
[4/23/12 requested technical review]
 "Arts and Crafts, an Industrial Hygiene Challenge", Monona Rossol, The Synergist, May 2012, pp. 34-37American Industrial Hygiene Association.
 Arts, Crafts, & Theater Safety (ACTS), 181 Thompson Street, #23 New York, NY 10012-2586 Telephone: (212) 777-0062 E-Mail: ACTSNYC@cs.com, web search 5/9/12, website: http://www.artscraftstheatersafety.org/ - Quoting:
ACTS is a not-for-profit corporation that provides health, safety, industrial hygiene, technical services, and safety publications to the arts, crafts, museums, and theater communities. A part of the fees from our consulting services goes to support our free and low-cost services for artists. We gratefully accept donations, but do not solicit them from the artists who call here for help and advice. We recognize that artists and performers are among the least affluent groups in society. ACTS also will not accept money or take advertising in our publications from manufacturers of artists materials or businesses whose interests could conflict with ours. We want artists to know that we have no financial incentive to make our product and safety recommendations.
 The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, Monona Rossol, Allworth Press, 2001, ISBN-10: 1581152043
ISBN-13: 978-1581152043 - Quoting:
Dozens of at-a-glance tables and charts present vital information about art materials, ingredients, technical hazards, proper protective equipment, and safe work practices simply and accurately. This brand-new third edition is now completely revised and expanded to detail lifesaving new safety and ventilation equipment, present urgent new discoveries on toxins and pollutants found in arts and crafts materials, and explain the controversies surrounding new government regulations. A virtual lifesaver for all art and craft workers.
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones