Photograph of  grass growing indoors in this unusual homeBuilding Noise & Sound Complaints
Noise Sources, Causes, Cures

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Building noise troubleshooting: causes & cures.

Here we provide an extensive catalog of the sources of annoying sounds or noise complaints at or around buildings. We provide a Complete Index to Sources of Sounds Helps Diagnose, & Cure Noise Problems in or at Buildings .

These articles discuss building noise control: how to inspect, diagnose & cure noise or sound problems in homes or commercial buildings. Information is provided about auditory (hearing), visual, historic, medical, or other clues of building condition that explain various sounds heard in buildings. We also discuss methods of sound or noise control in buildings during construction or as a building retrofit.

We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.

How to Identify & Cure Noises & Sounds in Building Interiors

Table of typical sound levels in decibels dB (C) J Wiley & Sons Best Practices Steven BlissThis page lists key articles useful in finding the source of annoying building noises or sounds, understanding when noises indicate problems in the building or its mechanical system, and controlling or eliminating building noise.

Also use the page top (blue area) search box to search InspectApedia by noise type, or use Ctrl-F to search within this article for specific noise or sound types such as buzz, creak, hiss, drip, etc.

[Click to enlarge any image]

Some building noises are just an annoyance - we'll focus on sound control, sound isolation, and sound insulation methods. But other building sounds or noises may be a sign of trouble, failing equipment, insect attack, rodent infestation, or other more dangerous conditions.

Our page top photo showed a severe air bypass leak at an attic pull-down stair. Occupants could at times hear air rushing through this opening.

This article explains how to locate the source of, identify and correct various building sounds and noises indoors or on occasion, noises from outside that penetrate indoors at annoying levels.

While we touch on environmental noise coming from outside of buildings (aircraft noise, highway noise, noisy neighbors) the focus of this article series is on identifying and curing unwanted indoor noise sources in buildings - noise control.

To find what you need quickly, if you don't want to scroll through this index you are welcome to use the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX to search InspectApedia for specific articles and information.

See our ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING NOISE DIAGNOSIS for a complete list of building & building system noise diagnosis and cure articles including detailed articles on specific sound types, names, sources, causes, cures.

How are Noises Transmitted in Buildings?

Regardless of their source, noises are transmitted in buildings by two methods.

Airborne Sound: Sound waves traveling through air move between building areas - such as through open windows, doors, or stairwells.

Mechanically transmitted sound: When sounds move through solid building components such as floors, ceilings, walls, framing, carrying sound from one area to another the sound transmission is referred to more technically as impact insulation class transmission or IIC sound transmission.

In many cases the source of an annoying building sound may be obvious and we can move immediately to strategies for reducing that source to an acceptable noise level. But we also receive queries from people who have difficulty tracing a sound to its source, or who are unsure if a sound that they hear at a known source (say a humming sound at an electrical component) is normal or means trouble.

In our collection of sources of building sounds and noises, below, we describe common noises that may come from various sources and we link to more detailed diagnostic and repair advice for these problems.

Separately at SOUND CONTROL in BUILDINGS we provide a series of detailed articles on noise or sound transmission control - that is, methods for reducing unwanted building noise levels through building design, insulation, sound isolation, and noise barriers.

Find the Source of Building Noises by Keeping a Sound or Noise Event Log

To track a mystery-noise or sound to its source in a building, try keeping a noise log, noting the conditions, times, events, and information we list in our printable SOUND EVENT LOG.

We provide a sound event log in three formats:

Alphabetical List of Building Noises by Sound Source or Sound Type

Beginning below, we provide an alphabetically-ordered catalog of building noises and sounds, with suggestions for tracking down these disturbances.

Air Conditioning or Heat Pump System Noises

Air Leaks: How to Track Down Air Bypass Leak or Air Leak Noises in buildings

This topic has been moved to a new article found at AIR LEAK NOISES in BUILDINGS

Animal noise and animal-caused noises in buildings, diagnosis & cure

Raccoon outdoors on a downspout (C) Daniel Friedman

This article topic has been moved to a new article found at ANIMAL NOISES in BUILDINGS

Isn't that raccoon cute?

Watch out for bites, rabies, and for raccoons who like to find a way into the attic where they bat around the Christmas tree ornaments and leave little sooty footprints all over everything

Appliance Noises in buildings, Sources of

This article topic has been moved to a new article found at APPLIANCE NOISE DIAGNOSIS

Appliance noises in buildings are a bit easier to track down. If you are uncertain just which appliance is a noise source, or if it is a noise source, just try turning off individual appliances to check for cessation of noise. Appliance noises cover a wide range, from humming refrigerator compressors to rattling loose metal parts.

Chimney noises in or on buildings - Danger Signs?

Chimney damage (C) Daniel Friedman

This article topic has been moved to a new article found at CHIMNEY NOISE DIAGNOSIS

Watch out: A chimney fire sounds like a roaring freight train.

If you suspect a chimney fire and can do so safely, shut down your wood stove (close all air intakes) or close any chimney dampers as well, immediately exit the building, and call the fire department from outdoors.

Dripping Water Sounds in buildings, How to Track Down

This noise diagnosis and repair topic is now found at DRIPPING WATER SOUND SOURCES

Electrical Equipment or Electrical System Noises in buildings: diagnosis & cure

Please see details we have moved to ELECTRICAL SYSTEM NOISES

Watch out: Electrical System Noises can be signs of dangerous conditions: buzzing circuit breakers or fixtures may indicate that an electrical circuit is short circuiting or that a circuit breaker is not tripping when it should.

Fans and Fan Noises in buildings & How to Control Fan Noises

This topic has moved to FAN NOISES in BUILDINGS


Flooring and Floor Noises in buildings

Antique wood floor (C) Daniel Friedman

This information was moved to FLOORING NOISES in BUILDINGS

Also see FLOOR TYPES & DEFECTS - inspection, diagnosis, repair, and installation tips for resilient flooring, vinyl and asphalt floor tiles, wood flooring, tile floors, carpeting in buildings.

Ghost Noises or Odors in & Around Buildings

Among of our building inspection & diagnosis clients have been a few folks who were quite sure that noises and even some visions in buildings were due to the presence of spirits or ghosts.

In most cases sounds and odors were tracked to a physical source and speaking more accurately, if a physiological, psychological, or neurological cause of noise perception is ruled out, all other building noises can ultimately be tracked to a physical source inside or outside of the building.

Readers with suggestions about diagnosing unresolved odors - See ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE

or unexplained noises in buildings - See NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE

are invited to comment using the comment box found at the bottom of each InspectApedia article.

Hardware Noises in Buildings: hinges, locks, bolts, etc. can be sources of surprising building noises

Toilet paper holder squeaking (C) Daniel Friedman

We have traced creaking, chirping, and creaking noises to moving hardware, typically metal or wood or metal and wood parts moving across one another.

More often we find these building noise sources by tracking the sound to a point of origin, seeing something moving, and then relating the sound to the cause of movement. A squeak or creak may be traced to use of a particular building door such as a room passage door or a cabinet door.

Often a squeak or creak that seems to occur in regular intervals that diminish in volume is traced to a hinged fixture that moves when disturbed. Some examples include:

Health, Neurological, and Psychologically-Related Noise Complaints in buildings

Sleep Mate white noise generator (C) Daniel Friedman

An introduction to this topic is now found at HEALTH-RELATED NOISE PERCEPTION

Details about this topic are found at HEALTH RELATED NOISE COMPLAINTS. Health related noise and apparent noise sources can involve common aging or hearing disorders, dementia, or other serious medical conditions.

Hearing Disabilities and Building Noises

Hearing Disabilities and the ability to identify and track the source of noises in buildings can be difficult for the hearing impaired.


Heating System Noises & Building Temperature-Change Noises

A quick summary of common sources of heating noise problems is at HEATING SYSTEM NOISES in BUILDINGS

Or see our detailed heating noise diagnosis and repair article series on heating system noises found at HEATING SYSTEM NOISE DIAGNOSIS

Hissing Noises in buildings

This data was moved to HISSING SOUNDS in BUILDINGS

Humming Sounds at buildings


Howling Deck Noises: check wind, structure, surface textures

A summary of common sources of howling noises in buildings with links to howling noise diagnostic articles see HOWLING NOISES in BUILDINGS

(Nov 2, 2014) Carolyn said:

We just had our deck rebuilt, changing the warped wood for grooved composite boards held together by hidden Trex fasteners.

The new deck makes a howling sound when the wind blows. We ruled out the deck balusters and railing, so we know it is something to do with the decking. Our builder is as stumped as are we. Any ideas on how to get to the root of the problem and fix it?


Carolyn, if I could send you a prize for "best question" I'd do so.

Before posing a solution lets gain confidence in the noise cause.
I suspect the howling deck is a feature of one of the following, combined of course, with wind direction and site or terrain shape and features.

. Size / spacing of decking boards or gaps
. Framing orientation vs wind direction
. Wind over textured surface
. Wind through guardrails or balusters
. Wind redirection caused by decking,
. Something else we've not thought of

You could try a directional mike, even a mechanic's stethoscope but let's try something else first.

Try stapling house wrap first underneath the entire deck floor, from below, on the bottom of the joists. Don't worry, it won't be permanent.

For a complete discussion of howling noises traced to building decks including a completion of discussion of Carolyn's question above,
see HOWLING DECK NOISE- surface textures of decking, possibly framing, deck gaps, wind direction, other factors

Insect Noise and Insect-caused Noises in buildings: buzz, chirp, hum

Carpenter Bee closeup photo (C) Daniel Friedman

Insect noise and insect-caused noises in buildings include the following

Plumbing System Noises in buildings

Our article PLUMBING SYSTEM NOISE SOURCES lists the sources of all types of plumbing noises and traces them to their source.

For the broad topic of controlling plumbing noises in buildings

Roof Noise Transmission & Structural Noises in buildings: Sources, Causes, Remedies

Details about roof noise and sound transmission cause and remedy are
 ROOF NOISE TRANSMISSION. Excerpts are below.

Metal roof, Key West FL (C) Daniel Friedman

Certain building configurations, such as occupied attics or under-roof areas with cathedral ceilings, and metal roofed buildings may transmit noises to the building interior through the roof sheathing and building framing.

Where roof-transmitted sound reduction is most sought is in buildings located close to high noise areas such as under the flight path to airports.

Our photo of metal roofed homes (left) shows two older houses in Key West, Florida.

Types of Roof Noises & Sounds

Roof noises may be described as those attributed to an obvious source: the patter or even the roar of falling rain or hail, popping and cracking noises (perhaps due to thermal expansion and contraction of roof coverings, metal roofing, or roof structure), and transmitted noises from other external sources such as low-flying aircraft or nearby trains or auto & truck traffic from a nearby highway.

Accurate diagnosis of the source of roof noise transmission is important in deciding what remedy may work best.

For example, check during rainfall to accurately determine the loudest sound source - you might find that more noise is transmitted to the building interior through skylights than through the roof surface itself. man ear as cutting noise levels in half, a reduction of over 20 decibels is significant. - Colbond [2]


One frequently cited disadvantage of metal roofing is that it generates a noticeable noise when struck by rain, hail, or even dropping acorns. If installed directly to purlins with no roof sheathing, the noise might be heard in the building interior.

However, when installed over a solid substrate, with normal levels of insulation, the noise should not be noticeably different than with other roofing types.



Sound Transmission Class - STC & OITC: Sound Transmission Loss Properties for Building Walls & Roofs

Definition of STC or Sound Transmission Class

STC or sound transmission class is defined as the level of reduction of sound transmission from outside noise sources to the building interior.

Higher STC numbers mean higher resistance to sound transmission to the building interior, or as acousticians would describe it, higher STC means greater sound transmission loss between outdoors and the building interior. Typical STC values for metal buildings are STC=20 to STC=55.

OITC or Outdoor-Indoor Transmission Class describes the sound transmission loss properties of building exterior components like windows and walls against noise from traffic, trains, or low flying aircraft.

- General Steel Corporation [3]

See SOUND CONTROL in BUILDINGS for a series of articles on sound control in buildings.

Reader Question: (Jan 13, 2015) Bonnie said:

I had an Owens Corning roof installed with Tru Definition shingles. They installed a Ridge Vent with O'hagin vents and there are the T Top Vents.

During a wind storm I hear a sound coming from the front of the house that sounds like a horn sound. It goes on and off for the entirety of the wind storm. Had the roofer here and he can't pinpoint what is making the horn sound or how to fix it. Ideas?



I'd start by temporarily blocking off the ridge vent by simply taping some plastic over it.


Siding Noises, Possible Causes, Effects, Cures for Vinyl Siding

This material moved to a new article at SIDING NOISES & SOUNDS

Stair and Step Noises in buildings

Stair noises in buildings include noisy stair treads that may creak or snap when stepped-on. See

STAIRWAYS: Stair, Railing, Landing Safety Inspections, stair codes, stair design, stair hazards, stair inspection checklist


Wall Noise Transmission Articles

Noise transmitted through walls (or ceilings) from mechanical rooms (boilers, furnaces) or utility rooms (washing machine, dryer) can be reduced by using good sound isolation construction and insulating materials.

See SOUND CONTROL in BUILDINGS for a series of articles on sound control in buildings.

Causes of Water heater noises or sounds in buildings

Water heater noise (C) Daniel Friedman

WATER HEATER NOISES in buildings include

Crackling or popping sounds as the water heater is warming up, especially if the water supply is high in mineral content, leading to mineral deposits on the bottom of the water heater or on electric water heating elements

Water heater noises & sounds: see WATER HEATER NOISE DIAGNOSIS, CURE for details, diagnosis, and cure of water heater sounds.

Watch out: water heater noises can indicate a high level of water heater scaling that increases water heating cost, reduces the quantity of hot water available, and can reduce water heater life.

Water heater noises can also indicate that the heater has been set to a too-high temperature and may be unsafe, risking scalding or other hazards.

See these noise-related water heater articles:

Wind-caused noises in or at buildings

Wind Noise and wind-caused noises in buildings include a surprising number of mechanisms and sounds now discussed at WIND NOISES at BUILDINGS

Track Down Window & Door Related Noises in buildings

While sound-reducing or low-sound transmission windows using noise-reducing laminated glass and similar noise-reducing exterior or interior building doors are available, remember that as soon as you open a window for ventilation, the sound isolation benefit at that location is lost.

Sound-reducing doors should be of solid materials, have no glass windows or glazing, and should be sealed around the door perimeter with sound insulating foam or similar gaskets.


Continue reading at AIR LEAK NOISES in BUILDINGS or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.

Or see NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSTIC FAQs and NOISE / SOUND SOURCES FAQs - more questions & answers about building noise diagnosis and cure


Or select from this

Noise Diagnosis & Cure Article Series Contents

Suggested citation for this web page

NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE at - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice.


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