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Building environmental hazards: this website provides consumer advice on indoor and building related environmental hazard inspection, detection, remediation. These articles explain building indoor environmental hazard inspection, detection, and remediation procedures giving advice from un-biased experts.
Example topics include explanation, testing and remedy procedures for building hazrds from: asbestos, mold, IAQ, toxic gases, fiberglass, sewage backups, bacterial hazards, lead, radon, UFFI, noise pollution, oil spills, odors & smells, ozone, other potential building indoor contaminants.
See building environmental topic links listed above at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article or scroll down through the descriptive list of building-related environmental topics discussed at InspectApedia.
The photo at page top shows steel chemical drums that we discovered on a residential property during a home inspection.
Not only did these steel drums raise a question of possible environmental contamination of this site, even worse,
they were uphill and close to a stream, raising a still more broad question of area contamination.
At left is a microscope photograph of particles in a dust sample collected in a pottery studio.
See the detailed list of article links listed at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article for our full list of environmental topics.
AIR FILTERS, OPTIMUM INDOOR choices of filter types and filter location for optimum indoor air quality (IAQ) on hot air heating and air conditioning systems
Arts & Crafts materials, hazards & toxicity: general classes include clays, dyes, glazes, solvents, minerals, pigments, photochemicals. Rossol lists hazardous materials commonly found in arts & crafts workshops, pottery studios, art workshops & art schools form an extensive list.
Some examples include: ultra fine particles, even in nanoparticle size ranges, of inorganic compounds (antimony, cadmium, copper, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, titanium, zinc) used in paints, inks, and other colored materials; glazes and enamels, including ceramic glazes containing other metals such as nickel, and rare earths, selenium, vanadium; stained glass workshops offering exposure to arsenic and even uranium, along with soldering fluxes or solders containing barium, boron, lead, lithium, potassium, sodium; dyes including textile dyes (more than 2000); 
Our own forensic lab photo (above-left) illustrates the dominant particles found in a surface dust sample that had collected glazing compound materials from work surfaces in an art school in the Northeastern U.S.
ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN BUILDINGS provides a detailed guide to recognizing asbestos-containing materials in buildings and links to in depth articles about individual asbestos-containing building materials
BLOOD in ART WORKS, TESTING FOR - This article describes and evaluates alternative forensic procedures that were used to test for the presence of blood in a red inscription inside of the lid of an antique wooden memento box that is attributed to the property of and is inscribed and signed "Frida Kahlo".
BPA - Bisphenol-A or BPA, endocrine disruptor widely used in certain plastics, food contains, many other products
DUCT SYSTEM & DUCT DEFECTS - how to find, clean up or remove, or prevent contamination problems and indoor air quality problems in duct systems: asbestos, fiberglass, flooding, mold, water, and other duct contaminants
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES, a Recommended Electromagnetic Field EMF Survey Protocol and Procedure to document site conditions and to improve measurement reliability for the assessment of potential EMF exposure risks
EXTERIORS of BUILDINGS: conditions contributing to moisture, mold, mildew, mites, insects, water entry, ice dam leaks, basement water entry, dampness, and related health concerns for allergy and asthma or other respiratory distress
The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is one of the National Institutes of Health within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The National Toxicology Program is headquartered on the NIEHS campus in Research Triangle Park, NC.
FIBERGLASS INSULATION MOLD: occurrence of mold contamination in fiberglass insulation can be impossible to see with the naked eye, but can be significant
FRAGRANCES & SCENTED CANDLES can deposit "soot-like" marks on walls/ceilings and can contribute to health and respiratory complaints. Sometimes the soot marks (thermal tracking) left burning candles, especially scented candles, is mistaken for mold on surfaces. [In Process - DJF]
Sampling for gases in air such as VOC's, MVOC's, toxic chemicals, and combustion products.
Unfortunately no single test or tool can detect all possible building contaminants. We use methods and equipment which can test for common contaminants. If the identity of a specific contaminant is known in advance we can also test for a very large number of specific contaminant gases in buildings.
We use gas sampling equipment provided by the two most reliable companies in the world, Draeger-Safety's detector-tubes and Drager accuro™ bellows pump, the Gastec™ cylinder pump and detector-tube system produced by Gastec or Sensidyne, and we also use Sensidyne's Gilian air pump.
For broad screening for combustibles and a number of other
toxic gases and for leak tracing we also use Amprobe's Tif 8850 and TIF 8800. All of these instruments, their applications, and sensitivities (minimum detectable limits) for specific gases are described in our Gas Sampling Plan online document.
Heating System Safe and Unsafe Venting & CARBON MONOXIDE - CO - article by DJF on CO testing devices and the calculation of allowable carbon monoxide leakage from gas fired furnaces (Original: ASHI Technical Journal)
HUMIDITY CONTROL in Buildings: What is the proper level for indoor humidity and how do we obtain it in buildings? How Low Should You Keep Indoor Humidity to Avoid a Mold Problem
ANIMAL SMELLS may be due to current or prior pets in a building, pet urine or fecal waste, cat boxes, animal hair, dog dander, cat dander (are allergens and are indicators of the level of prior pet activity), dust tracked in by dogs. But animal odors in buildings can also occur
when an animal such as a mouse or rat has died in a building cavity. A dead animal smell has been described by our clients with a wide variety of terms ranging from a vague noxious stink that seemed to vary with humidity to a sweet sickly smell. Dead animals or even insect nests
in building plumbing, especially building vents, can also produce unexpected sewer odors - see Septic and Sewer gas odor links discussed below.
BOAT & CAR SMELLS & ODORS - smells inside of an automobile, camper, RV, or truck may be due to a range of problems ranging from dangerous burning brakes or an actual engine fire, to leaks in the climate control system, to hard-to-cure mold contamination of carpeting, seating, headlines, and sound proofing. This article explains the range of causes of odors in vehicles, what they might mean, and how best to get rid of the offensive, unhealthy, or unsafe smell.
DRAIN ODORS: Plumbing Drain Noises - Diagnosis & Repair guide. This article discusses the cause, diagnosis, and cure of plumbing drain noises. A drain noise can also be a clue to plumbing drain odor sources. That "blub blub" or "glug glug" noise you hear from a building drain might mean that there is a problem with the drain system itself, such as a partial drain blockage, a drain venting problem, a drain odor problem, or even a failing septic system. This article explains the causes and cures for plumbing drain noises, and we refer to key companion articles that assist in that diagnosis.
DUCTWORK ODORS: (DUCT & AIR HANDLER ODORS) odors in HVAC ducts, air handlers, blowers, for both warm air heating and air conditioning systems can be traced to a variety of sources such as leaks and mold in the duct system, a leaky (and unsafe) heat exchanger sending flue gases or even carbon monoxide into building air
See CARBON MONOXIDE - CO
HEAT EXCHANGER LEAKS), dead animals in the ducts or air handler, or even a bad blower motor that is overheating. |
GAS ODORS: A Toxic Gas Testing Sampling Plan for Residential Indoor Air Investigations. This document outlines gas toxicity levels and gas testing procedures we use in field IAQ and environmental health investigations for a range of indoor gases which may be produced by building product outgassing, mold and MVOCs, mechanical systems, fire damage, or contamination from nearby industrial, beauty parlor, dry cleaning, or other activities which often produce noxious or toxic odors and gases.
MOLD & MVOC ODORS & SMELLS: This website provides information and procedures for finding, testing, cleaning and preventing indoor mold, toxic black mold, green mold, testing building indoor air quality, and other sick house / sick building investigations. Here are research articles, inspection and testing procedures, and contact information for expert services.
We give in-depth information about indoor air quality problems: causes of respiratory illness, asthma, or other symptoms such as neurological or psychological problems, air quality investigation methods, and remediation procedures such as mold cleanup, handling toxic mold contamination, and building or mechanical system repairs. We offer advice on mold prevention and mold-resistant construction resistant to indoor problem molds such as the Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Stachybotrys chartarum groups.
MOLD ODORS FAQ: If we smell mold, is mold present and is that a problem? Most people have a pretty good idea of moldy or musty smell as associated with mold. If you smell mold or find it at important levels in screening samples of air, dust, or vacuumed surfaces, (by quantity or by particle type in samples) it is probably there.
MOLD ODORS WET WEATHER: Why do mold odors occur in our home following rain? Odors at exterior outlets sure sound as if there has been leakage into the wall and a probable mold colony.
We need an expert visual inspection and possibly invasive sampling, combined with building history, to find and follow leak paths and high humidity cavities in order to inspect the most-likely mold reservoir targets in a building. The odors may be MVOC's which may be produced by some mold genera/species at varying levels as humidity, temperature, air pressure, and other variables change.
OIL FILL PIPE LEAKS at the oil storage tank filler or vent piping can be diagnosed and repaired
Extensive free un-biased oil storage tank inspection and testing advice for property buyers and owners. This document lets you know what to ask about oil storage tanks, what oil tank leak tests to order, how to interpret oil tank testing results, what to do if there is a buried fuel or petroleum storage tank at a property, what to do if there is or was a leaky oil storage tank or petroleum storage tank, and how to reduce the chances of an oil leak or oil spill in the future.
We include detailed information about underground (buried) oil storage tanks (USTs), aboveground oil storage tanks (ASTs), above ground fuel storage tanks, reporting and cleaning up oil tank leaks, and choosing among oil tank leak testing methods.
We discuss how to find buried oil tanks, how to remove or abandon oil tanks and how to recognize evidence that there was a previous oil tank at a property even if the oil tank may have been removed (or
perhaps left buried in place). We discuss what to do if an oil tank has already been removed or abandoned.
We provide links to every U.S. state regulatory agency concerned with oil and other storage tanks and to regulatory agencies in Canada and other countries. Environmental damage from oil leaks, oil spill cleanup, are also discussed.
We discuss oil spill cleanup, oil spill and odor remediation, and bioremediation, for fuel oil or heating oil. LP Gas tanks are also addressed. Home heating oil tank leak and environmental contamination risks are important concerns for building owners and home buyers as major cleanup and tank replacement costs can be involved.
OZONE Odors & Ozone "deodorizers": The Use of Ozone Generators Indoors for Control of Odors and Mold Removal in Buildings: A Summary of Hazards and False Claims.
Ozone is widely promoted by ozone generating equipment companies and cleaning services for use in indoor building environments to deodorize, disinfect, "kill" mold, and for "general health". Ozone generators are also promoted for use to reduce the level of airborne particles, pollen, animal dander, and allergens, ostensibly to improve indoor air quality for asthmatics and people with allergies.
While there are some important uses of ozone (such as for medical disinfection under controlled conditions), in general this is an idea which ranges from bad to dangerous in the home.
This article series explains the effects of using ozone in buildings for these purposes and warns consumers about misapplication of and health risks from ozone in buildings. Because at least some of these claims are based on marketing desire, not good science, and because ozone exposure can be both dangerous and ineffective indoors, we have collected some information and references on this topic.
OZONE GENERATORS: The Hazards of Ozone & Ozone Gas Generators. This article gives an overview of the hazards associated with use of ozone indoors as a "mold remedy" or as an "air purifier". Ozone is widely promoted by ozone generating equipment companies and cleaning services for use in indoor building environments to deodorize, disinfect, "kill" mold, and for "general health".
While there are some important uses of ozone (such as for medical disinfection under controlled conditions), in general this is an idea which ranges from bad to dangerous in the home. This article explains the effects of using ozone in buildings for these purposes and warns consumers about misapplication of and health risks from ozone in buildings.
Because at least some of these claims are based on marketing desire, not good science, and because ozone exposure can be both dangerous and ineffective indoors, we have collected some information and references on this topic.
PAINT FAILIURES & ODORS: How to Diagnose, Correct, & Prevent Paint Failure on Buildings. Paint odors: solvents and other chemicals in building paints or coatings are often a source of odor or paint smell complaints, even where low-VOC paints are in use.
PET ODORS: from dogs, cats, or other pets, source identification, testing, removal, are discussed beginning at our article "Cat Dander: how to inspect and test a building for past or current presence of cats, cat hair, cat dander, and cat allergens"
This article discusses methods to check a building for animal allergens (cat, dog, etc) using as an example, Cat Dander: how to inspect and test a building for past or current presence of cats, cat hair, cat dander, and cat allergens.
Here are research articles, inspection and testing procedures, and contact information for expert services. We give in-depth information about indoor air quality problems: causes of respiratory illness, asthma, or other symptoms such as neurological or psychological problems, air quality investigation methods, and remediation procedures such as mold cleanup, handling toxic mold contamination, and building or mechanical system repairs.
PLASTIC ODORS: see Siding Odors below. This discussion also pertains to other vinyl or plastic materials used in buildings such as diagnosing odors from plastic trim, plastic or vinyl windows, window screens, doors, or similar materials.
SEPTIC or SEWER ODORS: Diagnosing and Curing Sewer Gas Smells and Septic Tank Odors. This sewer odor article series describes how to diagnose, find, and cure odors in buildings including septic or sewage or sewer gas smells or "gas odors" in buildings with a focus on homes with a private onsite septic tank but including tips for owners whose home is connected to a sewer system as well.
Sewer gases are more than an obnoxious odor. Because sewer gas contains methane there is a risk of an explosion hazard. In addition some writers opine that there are possible health hazards from sewer gas exposure, such as a bacterial infection of the sinuses (which can occur due to any sinus irritation). Depending on the sewer gas source and other factors such as humidity and building and weather conditions, mold spores may also be present in sewer gases.
SEWER GAS ODORS at DRAINS: Diagnosing Clogged Drains & Septic System Backups: Is it a blocked drain or the septic system? - A First Step for Homeowners.
This article series explains how to investigate slow or blocked drains and septic system backups to distinguish between a probable septic system failure versus a probable blocked building drain. When a building drain is clogged or slow, or when there is a septic system backup, it's important to determine where the problem lies, since the repair steps can be quite different and costs can vary widely.
SIDING ODORS: VINYL SIDING, PLASTIC WINDOWS, TRIM SMELLS: Siding, window, screen, & other "plastic" odors: We've investigated a number of reports of strange odors in residential buildings that were ultimately traced to vinyl or plastic which was outgassing. we have observed this
phenomenon with vinyl siding, plastic or vinyl window or door screens, and plastic or vinyl windows.
A key diagnostic step was the observation that the odors
were strongest when the material under investigation was exposed to sunlight or other sources of heat. [This article is under development, September 2007, and we welcome content suggestions or questions].
SEPTIC SYSTEMS HOME BUYERS GUIDE - Buying a Home With a Septic Tank. This article discusses septic tank care and maintenance and addresses some causes and cures of septic odors indoors or outside.
VINYL CHLORIDE HEALTH INFO - dioxin (carcinogen) and HCL (acid) hazards from vinyl building products such as siding, windows, trim, especially if these substances are burned, also during production, possibly during outgassing in or on homes
Water Odors: How to Identify Odors in Drinking Water. This article discusses how to identify, diagnose, and cure common odors that may be present in drinking water. We also discuss which of these odors may warn of unsanitary conditions.
OIL STORAGE TANKS - Petroleum tanks, underground tanks, and above ground tanks, also other fuel tanks
OIL TANKS - The Oil Storage Tank Information Website: Buried or Above Ground Oil Tank Inspection, Testing, Cleanup, Abandonment of Oil Tanks
See Radon Enviro-Scare for a full discussion of the normal cycle of public fear that accompanies the discovery and publicity of various environmental hazards, including radon gas and see Enviro-Scare, the Cycle of Public Fear for our article about consumer environmental safety worry cycles that change over time.
For a Thorough Background in Radon Hazards, Radon Mitigation, & the History of Radon Concerns in the U.S. also see these articles reprinted/adapted/excerpted with permission from Solar Age Magazine - editor Steven Bliss.
"Defeating Radon" part 1 - Terry Brennan, Bill Turner, Solar Age Magazine - How does radon get into buildings, how do I know if a building has a radon gas problem, how can I solve radon problems in existing homes, and what can I do to prevent radon from entering new homes. Part 1: where Radon comes from, how to diagnose radon
STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS, building code specifications, sketches, photographs, and examples of stair & railing safety defects used in inspecting indoor or outdoor stair railings or handrails and related conditions for safety and proper
The Septic System Information Website - Home Owners and Home Buyers Guide to Septic Systems,
Septic Inspectors Guide, Septic Repair Guide, Septic Design: Extensive, Detailed Consumer and Industry Information on Septic System Inspection, Testing, Maintenance, Repairs, Alternative Designs for on-site waste disposal
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 Gregory Brown, P.E., Eastern Environmental Engineering Services, Califon NJ, Tel: 908-832-5098, Email: email@example.com. Mr. Brown, a licensed professional engineer in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, provides environmental / compliance, investigation, and remediation services and is the contributor of ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS, New Jersey - Update on New Jersey Environmental Regulations that impact real estate transactions.
 "Arts and Crafts, an Industrial Hygiene Challenge", Monona Rossol, The Synergist, May 2012, pp. 34-37American Industrial Hygiene Association.
 Encyclopedia of Toxicology, 2d Ed., Bruce Anderson (Editor) eta als, Academic Press, ISBN-10: 0127453547, ISBN-13: 978-0127453552 - Quoting:
The second edition of the Encyclopedia of Toxicology continues its comprehensive survey of toxicology. This new edition continues to present entries devoted to key concepts and specific chemicals. There has been an increase in entries devoted to international organizations and well-known toxic-related incidents such as Love Canal and Chernobyl. Along with the traditional scientifically based entries, new articles focus on the societal implications of toxicological knowledge including environmental crimes, chemical and biological warfare in ancient times, and a history of the U.S. environmental movement.
With more than 1150 entries, this second edition has been expanded in length, breadth and depth, and provides an extensive overview of the many facets of toxicology.
Also available online via ScienceDirect - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com.
 Encyclopedia of Toxicology, Chemicals & Concepts, Philip Wexler (Editor), Academic Press, 1998, ISBN-10: 012227220X,
ISBN-13: 978-0122272202 - Quoting:
The Encyclopedia of Toxicology provides a comprehensive collection of concise and readable explanations of basic principles in toxicology and the potential hazards of chemicals. Written by highly qualified contributors and containing a broad selection of topics, the Encyclopedia of Toxicology is of value to both toxicologists and non-toxicologists, including physicians, attorneys, regulators, safety managers, and environmental engineers-anyone whose work involves the health and safety issues of common and uncommon substances. The Encyclopedia of Toxicology plays a critical role at the intermediate level by offering more detail than a dictionary while remaining accessible to the generalist in risk assessment, regulation, and consulting. The Encyclopedia includes entries related to research and clinical toxicology, risk assessment, ecotoxicology, epidemiology, radiation, noise, information resources, organizations, and education. With more than 750 entries, extensive cross-references, a detailed index, and numerousreferences to primary and secondary literature, the Encyclopedia will be an indispensable resource.
 Encyclopedia of Clinical Toxicology: A Comprehensive Guide to the Toxicology of Prescription and OTC Drugs, Chemicals, Herbals, Plants, Fungi, Marine ... Clothing and Environmental Toxins, Irving S. Rossoff, Informa Healthcare, 2001, ISBN-10: 1842141015, ISBN-13: 978-1842141014 - Quoting:
An encyclopedic guide to the physical properties and symptomatology, this book describes adverse effects and interactions often not reported by manufacturers and not published in PDRs and the other standard compendia. It is compactly written and easy to read, designed for quick reference and retrieval of vital information about the effects, interactions, and lethal doses of thousands of toxic substances that can destroy health, seriously endanger health, or cause death, and that are in many cases documented nowhere else. An exceptionally complete word index of some 100 pages helps readers locate any topic by reference to substance headings, which are organized A-Z in the text.
 Arts, Crafts, & Theater Safety (ACTS), 181 Thompson Street, #23
New York, NY 10012-2586
Telephone: (212) 777-0062
E-Mail: ACTSNYC@cs.com, web search 5/9/12, website: http://www.artscraftstheatersafety.org/ - Quoting:
ACTS is a not-for-profit corporation that provides health, safety, industrial hygiene, technical services, and safety publications to the arts, crafts, museums, and theater communities. A part of the fees from our consulting services goes to support our free and low-cost services for artists. We gratefully accept donations, but do not solicit them from the artists who call here for help and advice. We recognize that artists and performers are among the least affluent groups in society.
ACTS also will not accept money or take advertising in our publications from manufacturers of artists materials or businesses whose interests could conflict with ours. We want artists to know that we have no financial incentive to make our product and safety recommendations.
 The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, Monona Rossol, Allworth Press, 2001, ISBN-10: 1581152043
ISBN-13: 978-1581152043 - Quoting:
Dozens of at-a-glance tables and charts present vital information about art materials, ingredients, technical hazards, proper protective equipment, and safe work practices simply and accurately. This brand-new third edition is now completely revised and expanded to detail lifesaving new safety and ventilation equipment, present urgent new discoveries on toxins and pollutants found in arts and crafts materials, and explain the controversies surrounding new government regulations. A virtual lifesaver for all art and craft workers.
 The Health & Safety Guide for Film, TV & Theater, Monona Rossol, Allworth Press, 2000, ISBN-10: 1581150717
ISBN-13: 978-1581150711 - Quoting:
Definitely a necessity for anyone involved in professional or amateur entertainment, this handbook is the only resource to offer all vital information about health and safety issues affecting the performing arts. Covered are topics relevant to every type of performance venue: stage, film, television, theme parks, circuses, parades, fireworks displays, and beyond. The author outlines safeguards against hazardous materials such a theatrical paints, certain makeup, pigments, and solvents, and recommends protective measures for woodworking, welding, using fog and other special effects. Safety checklists, agencies to contact for help, and other important tips are included.
 Electrical Safety in the Theatre, Broadway Press, web search 8/9/11, original source: http://www.broadwaypress.com/PDFs/LTSpdfs/LTSchpt13.pdf - quoting: Referring to the NEC will provide the technician with details
specifically related to the theatre and moreover, these regulations will
be better suited to the needs of the theatre.
 Illustrated theatre production guide, John Holloway, Focal Press, 2002, ISBN 0240804937, 9780240804934
 How to Build Theater Stairs, an Illustrated Guide, Ben Teague, www.benteague.com, Amateur Theatre Division, December 2004, web search 8/9/11, original source: http://www.benteague.com/features/Stairs.pdf
Note that Mr. Teague warns that his designs and advice do not comply with building codes.
 "Mold/IAQ investigation, The Art School at [privacy deletion]", Daniel Friedman, 7/22/2005 (private publication). A request for indoor mold contamination investigation at an art school found significant levels of ultra-fine dust traced to a large variety of stored artists materials including glazes & pigments, some of which may be hazardous, including high levels of asbestos, talc, lead, and heavy metals.
 BLOOD in ART WORKS, TESTING FOR, Daniel Friedman, This article describes and evaluates alternative forensic procedures that were used to test for the presence of blood in a red inscription inside of the lid of an antique wooden memento box that is attributed to the property of and is inscribed and signed "Frida Kahlo".
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Or choose the The Home Reference eBook for PCs, Macs, Kindle, iPad, iPhone, or Android Smart Phones. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAEHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto, have provided us with (and we recommend) Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates' Technical Reference Guide to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
Kansas State University, department of plant pathology, extension plant pathology web page on wheat rust fungus: see http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/path-ext/factSheets/Wheat/Wheat%20Leaf%20Rust.asp
"A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home",
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htm
US EPA - Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Building [ copy on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Mold_Remediation_in_Schools.pdf ] - US EPA
US EPA - Una Breva Guia a Moho - Hongo [on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Moho_Guia_sp.pdf - - en Espanol
Allergies, Allergens, Allergy Testing in Buildings - References & Products
"IgG Food Allergy Testing by ELISA/EIA, What do they really tell us?" Sheryl B. Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, Clinical Laboratory Director, Bastyr University Natural Health Clinic - ELISA testing accuracy: Here is an example of Miller's critique of ELISA
http://www.betterhealthusa.com/public/282.cfm - Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients
The critique included in that article raises compelling questions about IgG testing assays, which prompts our interest in actually screening for the presence of high levels of particles that could carry allergens - dog dander or cat dander in the case at hand.
http://www.tldp.com/issue/174/IgG%20Food%20Allergy.html contains similar criticism in another venue but interestingly by the same author, Sheryl Miller. Sheryl Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, is an Immunologist and Associate Professor of Basic and Medical Sciences at Bastyr University in Bothell, Washington. She is also the Laboratory Director of the Bastyr Natural Health Clinic Laboratory.
Allergens: Testing for the level of exposure to animal allergens is discussed at http://www.animalhealthchannel.com/animalallergy/diagnosis.shtml (lab animal exposure study is interesting because it involves a higher exposure level in some cases
Allergens: WebMD discusses allergy tests for humans at webmd.com/allergies/allergy-tests
Asbestos in Your Home U.S. EPA, Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
Asbestos NESHAP Adequately Wet Guidance, EPA340/1-90-019, December 1990, U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Stationary Source Compliance Division, Washington, DC 20460,original web source: http://www.epa.gov/region04/air/asbestos/awet.htm
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print, text and images available at InspectAPedia.com).
"Handling Asbestos-Containing roofing material - an update", Carl Good, NRCA Associate Executive Director, Professional Roofing, February 1992, p. 38-43
EPA Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in Buildings, NIAST, National Institute on Abatement Sciences & Technology, [republishing EPA public documents] 1985 ed., Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
Fiberglass in Buildings: hazards, testing, cleanup, prevention: references & products
For more information about fiberglass as an indoor air quality concern see:
Fiberglass carcinogenicity: "Glass Wool Fibers Expert Panel Report, Part B - Recommendation for Listing Status for Glass Wool Fibers and Scientific Justification for the Recommendation", The Report on Carcinogens (RoC) expert panel for glass wool fibers exposures met at the Sheraton Chapel Hill Hotel, Chapel Hill, North Carolina on June 9-10, 2009, to peer review the draft background document on glass wool fibers exposures and make a recommendation for listing status in the 12th Edition of the RoC. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is one of the National Institutes of Health within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The National Toxicology Program is headquartered on the NIEHS campus in Research Triangle Park, NC. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is one of the National Institutes of Health within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The National Toxicology Program is headquartered on the NIEHS campus in Research Triangle Park, NC.
Following a discussion of the body of knowledge, the expert panel reviewed the RoC listing criteria and made its recommendation. The expert panel recommended by a vote of 8 yes/0 no that glass wool fibers, with the exception of special fibers of concern (characterized physically below), should not be classified either as known to be a human carcinogen or reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. The expert panel also recommended by a vote of 7 yes/0 no/1 abstention, based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in well-conducted animal inhalation studies, that special-purpose glass fibers with the physical characteristics as follows longer, thinner, less soluble fibers (for 1 example, > 15 μm length with a kdis of < 100 ng/cm2/h) are reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen for the listing status in the RoC. The major considerations discussed that led the panel to its recommendation include the observations of tumors in multiple species of animals (rats and hamsters). Both inhalation and intraperitoneal routes of exposure produced tumors, although inhalation was considered more relevant for humans.
World Health Organization International Agency for Research on Cancer - IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans - VOL 81 Man-Made Vitreous Fibers, 2002, IARCPress, Lyon France, pi-ii-cover-isbn.qxd 06/12/02 14:15 Page i - World Health Organization, 1/21/1998. - Fiberglass insulation is an example of what IARC refers to as man made vitreous fiber - inorganic fibers made primarily from glass, rock, minerals, slag, and processed inorganic oxides. This article provides enormous detail about fiberglass and other vitreous fibers, and includes fiberglass exposure data.
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol81/mono81.pdf - the article (large PDF over 6MB)
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol81/mono81-6A.pdf - article details
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol81/mono81-6C.pdf - studies of cancer in experimental animals in re vitreous fibers such as fiberglass;
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol81/mono81-6E.pdf - summary of data reported & evaluation
http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol81/mono81-6F.pdf for the article references
To search the IARC monographs on various environmental concerns and carcinogens, use http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/PDFs/index.php
Health Effects of Carbon Dioxide - see "National Advisory Committee for Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) for Hazardous Substances; Proposed AEGL Values, Federal Register Document", http://www.epa.gov/EPA-TOX/2002/February/Day-15/t3774.htm note that these are proposed guidelines
Carbon Dioxide CO2: Geologic Sequestration Health Effects: "Vulnerability Evaluation Framework for Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide [on file as /hazmat/CO2_EPA_VEF-Tech_Doc_072408.pdf ] - ", US EPA, EPA430-R-08-009, July 2008, web search August 2010,original source: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/downloads/VEF-Technical_Document_072408.pdf
GTSP, 2006: Carbon Dioxide Capture and Geologic Storage: A Core Element of a A Global Energy Technology Strategy to Address Climate Change (PDF, 37 pp., 6.05 MB, About PDF). April 2006, JJ Dooley et al. Global Energy Technology Strategy Program (GSTP)
IPCC, 2005: Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Metz, Bert, Davidson, Ogunlade, de Coninck, Heleen, Loos, Manuela, and Meyer, Leo (Eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, The Edinburgh Building Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge CB2 2RU England
Fluorine, Its Compounds, and Air Pollution,: a Bibliography with Abstracts, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, December 1976. Web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://nepis.epa.gov.
NOTE: because the EPA's original source of this document in PDF format is damaged we have created a text image file, converted to a new PDF for readability.
Formaldehyde: US EPA. UFFI (Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation) was previously considered a hazard (formaldehyde outgassing). Subsequent research virtually closed concern regarding this material; however formaldehyde appears to remain a health concern for sensitive individuals.
Nitrogen Oxides: Air Quality Criteria for Oxides of Nitrogen, Vol III of III, US EPA, EPA600/8-91/049cF, August 1993, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://nepis.epa.gov [Large PDF 25MB] Key chapters in this document evaluate the latest scientific data on (a) health effects of NOx measured ill laboratory animals and exposed human populatIOns and (b) effects of NOx on agricultural crops, forests, and ecosystems, as well as (c) NOx effects on visibility and nonbiological materials. Other chapters describe the nature, sources, distribution, measurement, and concentratiOns of NOx m the environment These chapters were prepared and peer reviwed by experts from various state and Federal government offices, academia, and private industry for use by EPA to support decision makIng regarding potentIal risks to public health and the enVIronment Although the document IS not intended to be an exhaustIve literature reVIew, It IS intended to cover all the pertinent literature through early 1993
Ozone Warnings - Use of Ozone as a "mold" remedy is ineffective and may be dangerous.
Sampling for gases in air such as VOC's, MVOC's, toxic chemicals, and combustion products.
Unfortunately no single test or tool can detect all possible building contaminants. We use methods and equipment which can test for common contaminants. If the identity of a specific contaminant is known in advance we can also test for a very large number of specific contaminant gases in buildings.
We use gas sampling equipment provided by the two most reliable companies in the world, Draeger-Safety's detector-tubes and Drager accuro� bellows pump, the Gastec� cylinder pump and detector-tube system produced by Gastec or Sensidyne, and
we also use Sensidyne's Gilian air pump. For broad screening for combustibles and a number of other
toxic gases and for leak tracing we also use Amprobe's Tif8850. All of these instruments, their applications, and sensitivities (minimum detectable limits) for specific gases are described in our Gas Sampling Plan online document.
Radon Gas U.S. EPA Radon level maps, web search 2005, original source: http://www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/zonemap/zmapp33.htm
"Table Z-1 Limits for Air Contaminants, 1910.1000 Table Z-1" OSHA standard for air contaminant limits (http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=9992) - includes for CO2, Carbon dioxide.........| CAS No. 124-38-9 | 5000 ppm | 9000 mg/m3 limits for carbon dioxide as an air contaminant.
Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd Ed., GS deHoog, J Guarro, J Gene, & MJ Figueras, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, 2000, ISBN 90-70351-43-9 (you can buy this book at Amazon)
"A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htm
"Disease Prevention in Home Vegetable Gardens,"
Department of Plant Microbiology and Pathology,
Department of Horticulture, University of Missouri Extension - extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=G6202
Fifth Kingdom, Bryce Kendrick, ISBN13: 9781585100224, is available from the InspectAPedia online bookstore - we recommend the CD-ROM version of this book. This 3rd/edition is a compact but comprehensive encyclopedia of all things mycological. Every aspect of the fungi, from aflatoxin to zppspores, with an accessible blend of verve and wit. The 24 chapters are filled with up-to-date information of classification, yeast, lichens, spore dispersal, allergies, ecology, genetics, plant pathology, predatory fungi, biological control, mutualistic symbioses with animals and plants, fungi as food, food spoilage and mycotoxins.
Analysis of Modern Paints, Thomas J.S. Learner, Research in Conservation, 2004 ISBN 0-89236-779-2
[Chemistry of modern paints, overview of analytical methods, pyrolysis-gas chromatography signatures of basic modern paints and their constituents, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for paint analysis, direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry, and analysis in practice - technical reference useful for forensic paint science, focused on art works. One of our most useful texts in forensic investigation of paint failures and paint problem diagnosis - for building investigators as well as art conservators. -DF]
Although oil remains an important binding medium in artists' paints, today's synthetic resins are being used with increasing frequency. This was true during much of the twentieth century, when artists such as David Alfaro Siqueiros, Jackson Pollock, and Pablo Picasso used commercial or industrial paints based on synthetic resins. The growing popularity of synthetic resin materials carries important implications for the conservation, preservation, and treatment of modern art.
This volume outlines the techniques that are currently employed to analyze the synthetic resins used in modern painting materials, such as pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, and direct temperature-resolved mass spectrometry. For each technique, results are given for standard samples of the principal classes of synthetic binding media, various pigments and extenders, tube paint formulations, and microscopic paint fragments taken from actual works of art.
Primarily intended for conservation scientists, conservators, researchers, and students of conservation, this book will also be of interest to other museum professionals.
Art, Biology, and Conservation: Biodeterioration in Works of Art, Robert J. Koestler et als. Eds., Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2003, ISBN 1-58839-107-8 Series of excellent research and advice articles on art work conservation of special use to conservators and also to building, artifact, and art forensic investigators. MOMA. - DF
Despite the perception that artworks are timeless and unchanging, they are actually subject to biological attack from a variety of sources—from bacteria to fungi to insects. This groundbreaking volume, which publishes the proceedings of a conference held at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in 2002, explores how the development of these organisms can be arrested while preserving both the work of art and the health of the conservator.
The richly illustrated text, containing the writings of over 40 scientists and conservators, is divided into sections on stone and mural paintings, paper, textiles, wood and archaeological materials, treatment and prevention, and special topics. The artworks and cultural properties discussed include, among many others, Paleolithic cave paintings, Tiffany drawings, huts built by early Antarctic explorers, and a collection of toothbrushes taken from Auschwitz victims. --
Robert J. Koestler is a research scientist at The Metropolitan Museum of Art; Victoria H. Koestler is a freelance writer and editor; A. Elena Charola is a freelance conservation scientist; and Fernando E. Nieto-Fernandez is a biologist at Old Westbury College, New York.
Cultural Heritage and Aerobiology, Methods and Measurement Techniques for Biodeterioration Monitoring, Paolo Mandrioli, Guilia Caneva, and Cristina Sabbioni, Eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2003 ISBN 1-4020-1622-0 This is a translated and revised edition of the original Italian version. This book is the first to give a general overview of the application of aerobiology (the science that studies the biological components of the atmosphere) to the conservation of our cultural heritage. Aerobiological monitoring makes it possible to estimate the risks of degradation of artefacts of historical or artistic importance by airborne microorganisms (airborne spores and vegetative structures) according to the types of materials forming the artefacts, to the conditions of the microclimate and to the type of environmental pollution, thus enabling the planning of preventive or reparative intervention. Among the book's main features are: + Aspects of the biodeterioration of different materials (paper, wood, fabrics, parchment, leather, stone, glass, metals, plastic, etc.). + Methods for measuring environmental parameters, both physical (microclimatic) and chemical (pollutants). + Methods and techniques of aerobiological monitoring. + Specific problems concerning the different types of environments. Audience: The subject is thoroughly explored, thus supplying a useful tool to those who are in charge of the conservation of our cultural heritage (libraries, archives, museums, churches, hypogea, monuments, archaeological sites, etc.). See our book review of this reference.
Exterior Paint Problems on Historic Woodwork [Copy on file as /exterior/Preservation_Brief_10_ Exterior_Paint_Problems_on_Historic_Woodwork.pdf ] - , Kay D. Weeks and David W. Look, AIA, U.S. Department of the Interior, National Parks Service Preservation Brief No. 10. Web search 02/01/2011, original source: http://www.nps.gov/hps/tps/briefs/brief10.htm
Microscopy of Textile Fibres (Microscopy Handbooks, 32), P H Greaves, Garland Science; 1 edition (January 1, 1995), ISBN-10: 1872748244, ISBN-13: 978-1872748245 [We ordered our copy from the British publisher - now it's on Amazon.
These 3 fiber books have been essential forensic lab references supplementing our McCrone Research courses on forensic microscopy; also of use to textile conservators. - DF
An up-to-date practical guide to the properties and characteristics of textile fibres, with clear advice on sampling, specimen preparation and examination procedures.
Modern Paints Uncovered (Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings), Thomas Learner, Getty Publications (March 1, 2008),ISBN-10: 089236906X, ISBN-13: 978-0892369065 Over the past seventy years, a staggering array of new pigments and binders has been developed and used in the production of paint, and twentieth-century artists readily applied these materials to their canvases. Paints intended for houses, boats, cars, and other industrial applications frequently turn up in modern art collections, posing new challenges for paintings conservators.
This volume presents the papers and posters from "Modern Paints Uncovered," a symposium organized by the Getty Conservation Institute, Tate, and the National Gallery of Art and held at Tate Modern, London, in May 2006. Professionals from around the world shared the results of research on paints that have been available to artists since 1930--the date that synthetic materials began to significantly impact the paint industry.
Modern Paints Uncovered showcases the varied strands of cutting-edge research into the conservation of contemporary painted surfaces. These include paint properties and surface characteristics, analysis and identification
Paint Handbook: testing, selection, application, troubleshooting, surface preparation, etc., Guy E. Weismantel, Ed., McGraw Hill Book Company, 1981
[Excellent but a bit obsolete paint theory and practice, also a bit light on field investigation methods, out of print, available used. Very useful reference for paint testing, selection, and paint failure diagnosis - focus on non-artistic use of paints such as on buildings, roofs, marine coatings. -DF]
How to select and apply the right paint or coating for any surface. The first major reference to help you choose the correct paint or other finish to do the job best on a particular surface exposed to a particular environment. Experts in the field give full advice on testing surface preparation, application, corrosion prevention, and troubleshooting. The handbook covers wood, metal, composites, and masonry, as well as marine applications and roof coatings. A ``must'' working tool for contractors, architects, engineers, specification writers, and paint dealers
Paint Magic, Jocasta Innes, Frances Lincoln; 4th edition (August 17, 2006), ISBN-10: 071122272X, ISBN-13: 978-0711222724 - Paint advice for home decoration, including painting techniques such as antiquing, bambooing, bleaching, color washing, combing, decorative painting, dragging, dyeing, gliding, graining, japanning, lacquering, lining, marbling, porphyry, rag-rolling, sponging, staining, stencilling, stippling, tortoiseshelling, trompe l'oeil, and vinegar painting - DF
Paint and Surface Coatings, Theory and Practice - [purchase at Amazon.com], R. Lambourne & T.A. Strivens, Ed., Woodhead Publishing Ltd., William Andrew Publishing, 1999 ISBN 1-85573-348 X & 1-884207-73-1
[This is perhaps the leading reference on modern paints and coatings, but is a difficult text to obtain, and is a bit short on field investigation methods. Encyclopedic reference on the composition, production, properties, use, and testing of paints and coatings - DF]
Provides a comprehensive reference source for all those in the paint industry, paint manufacturers and raw materials suppliers, undergraduate and postgraduate students, and industrial paint users.
Quality Assessment of Textiles, Karl Marshall, Kindle Edition, Springer; 2nd edition (October 31, 1993, ASIN: B00193F3BI The damage which can occur in certain fibrous raw materials or during the production and storage of textiles is expertly described in this book by Karl Mahall. He particularly shows how to find concealed textile defects by using microscopic analysis. The examples represent typical cases that the author encountered during forty years of experience in the industry. Well-illustrated with impressive photographs, they invite you to follow each step and learn to apply the same methodology in practice. This book is especially useful as a manual for both chemical and textile engineers and quality engineers. It is also a useful reference for others in the textile industry in general.
Understanding Ventilation, John Bower, The Healthy House Institute, ISBN 0-9637156-5-8, 1995 [General building science-DF - ** Particularly useful text. Mr. Bower has retired from the field but his book continues to be important]
"Moisture Control in Buildings: Putting Building Science in Green Building," Alex Wilson, Environmental Building News, Vol. 12. No. 5. [Good tutorial, "Moisture 101" outlining the physics of moisture movement in buildings and a good but incomplete list of general suggestions for moisture control - inadequate attention given to exterior conditions such as roof and surface drainage defects which are among the most-common sources of building moisture and water entry.--DJF]
Why House Paint Fails [on file as /exterior/Why_House_Paint_Fails_FPL1.pdf ] - , Mark Knaebe, US FPL, web search August 2010, original source: http://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/finlines/knaeb95a.pdf
Why Paint Jobs Fail [on file as /exterior/Why_Paint_Fails_Bennett.pdf ] - , web search, August 2010, original source: http://www.bennette.com/pdf/whyfail.pdf, four pages describing alligatoring, bleeding, blistering, etc. Bennette Corporation, P.O. Box 9088, Hampton, VA 23670, Phone: 757-838-7777, Toll Free: 800-869-2929
Fax: 757-827-0529, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: www.bennette.com quoting: Bennette Paint Manufacturing Company, Inc. is a Virginia corporation which was founded in Newport News, Virginia in 1966 by James P. Bennette, Sr. In 1984, Mr Bennette sold the company to his employees through an Employee Stock Ownership Plan (ESOP). Today the company has a modern manufacturing plant, research laboratory, central warehouse and general offices located at 401 Industry Drive, Hampton, Virginia. From these facilities the company is able to supply quality paints and coatings through its company owned distribution and service centers and authorized dealers located in Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Bennette Paint Manufacturing Company, Inc. also owns and operates Bennette Equipment Company which specializes in the sale, service, and rental of paint spraying and pressure cleaning equipment.
Supplemental Guidelines for Removing Paint From Interior and Exterior Wood Surfaces [on file as "/exterior/Paint_Removal_USGSA.pdf ] - , US General Services Administration, Historical Preservation Technical Procedures, 06400-02, web search August 2010, original source: //w3.gsa.gov/web/p/Hptp.nsf/0/40aff5a115b6a9e5852565c50054b4f4?OpenDocument
"Peeling Back Paint Layers For a Glimpse Into the Past," James Barron, The New York Times, 25 Feb 2010, p. A26
"Staining and Microbiological Infestation of Acrylic Paintings on Hardboard", Ulrik Runeberg, Conservator (Dipl. Rest./M.A.), Museo de Arte Contemporáneo de Puerto Rico, San Juan Presented,April 2007 conference in Richmond Virginia, sponsored by the AIC (American Institute for Conservation), this paper discussed the staining and microbial infestation of acrylic paintings on hardboard. - private correspondence, ER <->DF 12 September 2006. The following quotation is from the paper's abstract: "Hardboard served as a common and popular support for many modern paintings that were carried out from the mid - 1920’s, and still is used occasionally in contemporary art. Many artists rejected hardboard as an inferior industrial construction material of low aesthetical value, whereas others considered the processed and compressed wood fiber boards to be a stable, light and economic alternative to solid wood panels and other rigid supports. "From the conservator’s critical point of view, the many disadvantages of this type of support include: high acidity, hygroscope characteristics, tendency of ‘off-gassing’, (>tendency of) warping, occasional flaking of painting material in the case of tempered hardboard. The deterioration of paintings on hardboard depends on a number of factors including: the quality of the hardboard, prevailing storage conditions, and the preparation of the support by the artist. While there are many paintings on hardboard that are in very good condition, this paper will focus on those paintings that are heavily deteriorated and damaged. "A very characteristic damage found on porous painting layers such as acrylic colour on hardboard, is the formation of stains. Generally, those stains are described without any differentiation as ‘fox-spots’. The examination of various paintings concerned led to the conclusion, that there exist different kinds of stains that need to be discriminated against each other, to ensure an appropriate conservation and restoration treatment. "This paper aims to characterize and differentiate the stains, and will provide preventive and practical treatment proposals for the conservation and restoration of affected paintings. Questions such as ‘What are the stains composed of?’ and ‘Which may be the causes?’ will be addressed. Stains may consist of a variety of contents, such as: Ligneous residues, fungal infestation, bacterial activity, a combination of microbial and support induced discolouration [SID], a ‘symbiotic relation’ of ‘SID’ and fungal infestation, or the blooming of ingredients from the original painting materials. A range of microscopic analysis of the actual microbiological infestation of selected samples will be provided. The paintings that were examined, sampled and treated, are part of the Puerto Rican heritage, and were all kept in excessive humid tropical conditions, before they entered the Conservation Department of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Puerto Rico. "Conservation treatment options of stained paintings on hardboard will be discussed. A high level of acidity (caused from SID and/or micro-organisms) may require measures of reduction, disinfection and neutralization. Treatment methods that reduce the ligneous stains and residues of micro-organisms, and neutralize affected areas in painting layers include stain removal through the application of soaking compresses (poultices), and de-acidification through alkaline material. "Other aspects of deterioration, that do not have to do directly with the formation of stains, but also are typical for hardboard as painting support, will be mentioned briefly." - U.R.