Building Interiors finishes & materials
How to Inspect, Install, Troubleshoot & Repair Problems in Building Interiors
POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about troubleshooting problems with building interiors: cracks, damage, mold, odors, stains, smells, sounds, interior ceiling, wall, floor finishes, bulges, damage.
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Building interiors: inspect, troubleshoot, & repair:
These building interior troubleshooting articles explain how to inspect, diagnose problems in, and repair all components of building interiors: interior ceilings, floors & floor coverings, walls, trim, doors, windows, interior lighting, interior stairs and railings, hazardous materials, smells, stains on indoor surfaces, mold in buildings, building safety, noise and sound control, odors, building insulation & ventilation, building leaks, water entry and moisture control.
Information is provided about visual clues of building condition, such as evidence of a history of leaks, as well as evidence of hazardous materials and conditions such as the probable presence of animal allergens, asbestos, or mold.
We discuss how to identify and correct various building leaks, moisture, and venting
problems such as ice dams, blocked attic ventilation, excessive indoor humidity, how to prevent indoor mold, and how to respond to building floods and
similar emergencies. Stair and railing inspection and trip hazards are discussed.
Special types of building inspection are discussed including the inspection of mobile homes and Sears & Roebuck Kit Houses.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
Building Interiors: Defect Recognition, Repair, Prevention for Building Interiors, Insulation & Ventilation
This list of articles addresses building interior inspection and defects such as how to determine how old a building is, how to look for evidence of
animal or other allergens, how to find visual clues of the presence of asbestos in buildings or of amateur and improper asbestos removal, steps to prevent basement water entry or how to correct building leaks, chimney inspections, dealing with flooded buildings, building rot, and other topics that affect the building interior.
To find what you need quickly, if you don't want to scroll through this index you are welcome to use the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX to search InspectApedia for specific articles and information.
AGE of a BUILDING, HOW TO DETERMINE - How to Determine the Age of a Building from Visual or Documentary Clues, identity of various building materials, construction framing styles, foundation design, and general architecture.
ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN BUILDINGS provides a detailed guide to recognizing asbestos-containing materials in buildings and links to in depth articles about individual asbestos-containing building materials
CHINESE DRYWALL HAZARDS discusses Chinese drywall odors, sulphur smells, and corrosive outgassing hazards in buildings. Major costs to remove this product, repair or replace electrical wiring, plumbing, and HVAC components may be involved, and there may be immediate safety hazards due to damaged smoke detectors or carbon monoxide detectors in buildings where Chinese drywall outgassing has caused damage.
LOG HOME WALL INSULATION VALUES - discusses the insulation value of solid log wall homes compared with other structures, and it explains the principal errors people make when evaluating the cause of chilly log cabins.
RADIANT BARRIERS - how do radiant heat barriers work in buildings, how should they be installed, how effective are radiant heat barriers, what about "radiant barrier insulation" products such as ALFOL™?
ICE DAM LEAKS on ROOFS & in building attics and roof cavities, how to inspect for evidence of leaks, identify causes, and correct bad attic ventilation, improper roof venting, and these causes of attic mold or roof structure damage
THERMAL TRACKING STAINS how to recognize thermal tracking or thermal bridging & how to diagnose Stains on Ceilings & Walls, Building Air Leaks & Insulation Defects, as well as other indoor air quality or building concerns
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS series of articles on the causes and cures of high indoor moisture, wet basements, wet crawl spaces, and moisture related problems like attic condensation and mold.
WET BASEMENT PREVENTION - an easy to read guide for preventing wet basements by attention to multiple best construction practices, including the basics of foundation damp proof or waterproof coating, poor site drainage, bentonite clay for basement waterproofing, foundation membranes to prevent leakage, foundation drain tiles, proper backfill, and proper finish grading
WINDOWS & DOORS articles on window selection, installation, efficiency, leaks, diagnosis, and repair
WINTERIZE A BUILDING - how to protect a building and its plumbing and mechanical systems from freeze damage, how to shut down a building to minimize damage; how to de-winterize a building.
Question: Does a Small Ceiling Leak Stain Mean I Have a Big Mold Problem? - Exploring Interior Leak Stains on Ceilings and Walls
I am writing because I believe that I have a mold problem that has given (or contributed) to my needing sinus surgery for a fungal infection.
I live on the upper west side of NYC in a rent stabilized building that is mostly concrete and was built in the 60's I believe. I've had a leak in my closet on and off for about 5 years.
[Photo at left of a closet ceiling leak stain was not provided until later in this discussion - Ed.]
I live on the top floor. I believe the leak in the roof is fixed. However, I wouldn't let them scrap and patch my closet until I was sure that the leak was fixed. It's about a 12 inch by 12 inch area.
However in my panic, I did a really dumb thing. I used a diluted bleach and I cleaned and scraped the area.
I was going to let it dry and re-do the process, but in reading online, it was a bad move. Stupid actually. However, I used a respirator and goggles.
So my question is - Can I still send a mold test sample to your lab even though it has been bleached. I don't see any mold but while I was spraying, some brown watery stuff came out (might be because there is also brick I believe in the closet.)
I am hoping sending it to a lab would be easier and cheaper to do since I have to take two weeks unpaid off from work to have this surgery.
Thank you. I appreciate your time in reading this long email.
Reply: How to Explore Small Leak Stains for Hidden Damage, Mold, and Repair Need
A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem. And often an expert look at a stain can quickly identify its probable cause and its significance. (STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS)
That said, here are some things to consider:
Bleaching a leak-stained or mold-suspect wall: if you didn't get bleach in your eye, bleaching the stained drywall won't hurt anything, but it's not an effective remedy for mold on drywall or other soft walls. MOLD CLEANUP with BLEACH discusses using bleach
I'm not sure that sending in a bleached surface mold sample to a lab will produce a reliable result, especially if you cannot discuss the sample and case with the lab first. We have successfully processed samples of bleached mold on wall surfaces before.
But the appearance of bleached mold spores changes and can fool a hasty lab technician. For example the characteristic dark black of Stachybotrys chartarum spores appeared pink in bleached samples we processed. As an interesting aside, in such samples we also can often find viable spores that retain their original properties.
That's part of our reasoning that bleaching alone is an ineffective mold remedy for drywall.
Do you need a mold expert to test or clean the mold? For a 12-inch moldy area on an interior ceiling or wall made of drywall, unless exploration leads to a larger area, honestly, testing and or hiring a mold company is usually inappropriate - as is any visible mold area under 30 sq.ft.. in total size. See DO IT YOURSELF MOLD CLEANUP.
See MOLD / ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERT, HIRE ? for help in deciding when hiring an expert or using a lab is appropriate. There you'll read that where a mold-sensitive person or people with certain health worries are involved, extra care is needed.
That said, because you are mold-sensitive, here are some additional caveats: Even for a small mold cleanup, you may be better off having the cleaning performed by someone else, and certainly you'd want to take normal precautions: protective gear, washing up, don't put a moldy finger in your eye, clean up the dust and debris.
When to stop the small mold job cleanup: if in the course of the small moldy area cleanup it is discovered that there is or appears to be an area of moldy material larger than 30 sq.ft.., then the job should stop, be sealed off (use plastic and tape), and you should call a professional for advice and cleaning, as dust containment and similar measures may then be needed.
If you can send us photos of the leak area I may be able to make further comment.
Small Leak Follow-Up: Guessing at the Extent of Hidden Damage
Thank you for your expedient response! Your website info was amazing. That is where I learned that bleach was useless. And I know the area is too small, to warrant someone coming to test. IB
I can get someone to DIY clean it up (thanks to your website) But since I tested positive for Aspergillus fumigatus mold spores, I don't want to have surgery for a fungal infection and then have to get it again and have the surgery.
I want to know if I was exposed through my building. So that is why I thought I could send in a sample myself to the lab.
I don't want to alarm my building (17 floors) but many people have had leaks for years and if i have something, they most likely have something. With the mold info, maybe some of the seniors will allow someone to come in and inspect. Especially if I can get them to read your website info.
The DHCR has been useless in our leak problem. And if I had a positive test and had reason to have someone check our building, it might force the hand of the Rent Stabilization board and the DHCR.
It could render our building 'sick' and be forced to render the problem. I know that is more information than you need, but I wanted to be clear on why it was so important to me to test a small area myself.
Again, thank you so much for your time in reading this and listening to my problem.
I'm send some pictures as requested. It will be in a separate email.
Again, you and your website has educated me so much.
Comments on Closet Ceiling Leak Stain Photos
With apologies that I must repeat our earlier warning that a competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem, your photographs (above) of the leak-stained closet ceiling look as if there has been a leak of long standing duration, probably from plumbing or other drainage system above your unit.
The deterioration of the drywall (if that's what we're seeing) suggests that even though the visible area of the leak is quite small, less than 3 sq.ft., there is a good chance that water has passed over other areas of the ceiling and perhaps down one or more wall cavities on the interior or hidden side.
But we really cannot know the extent of moldy material nor hidden damage that might be present before this area is explored.
The drywall in the leak area needs to be removed and the cavity explored and cleaned, until there is a 24" margin of visibly clean materials on the cavity side.
If at any step in the procedure that exploration finds what appears to be a large area work stops and a professional is brought in to inspect, make a preliminary cleanup plan, set up containment, perform the necessary demolition and cleaning, and then repair the surfaces.
Opening the ceiling for inspection may also make it easier to see the leak cause, the track of water from the leak point, (thus knowing what else was wet) and of course to determine the extent of visibly moldy or damaged material.
If the cost for what should be a small handyman cleanup job begins to mushroom to a very large expense, have a mold remediation plan drawn up by someone who has no conflict of interest - no financial connection to the cleaning company, and have that same person perform a clearance inspection (MOLD CLEARANCE: FOLLOWUP STEPS) and test before the wall surfaces are put back.
The expense of bringing in a mold test expert or mold remediation expert is, as I said before, not appropriate for small cleanup jobs and certainly not for jobs under 30 square feet of demolition and/or cleaning.
Watch out: don't replace the removed ceiling or other surface coverings before the leak cause is identified and repaired. And don't let some idiot make a huge dusty mess throughout your apartment - that can be risky for both your physical health and your financial health.
"The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standards, March-April 1993
"Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards, January-February 1991
Access Ramp building codes:
Access Ramp Standards:
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources for good design of stairs and ramps etc. even where disabled individuals are not the design target.
ANSI A117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporated into the ADA)
ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standards)
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).
Asbestos Identification and Testing References
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
ASHRAE resource on dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries. The following three ASHRAE Handbooks are also available at the InspectAPedia bookstore in the third page of our Insulate-Ventilate section:
2005 ASHRAE Handbook : Fundamentals: Inch-Pound Edition (2005 ASHRAE HANDBOOK : Fundamentals : I-P Edition) (Hardcover), Thomas H. Kuehn (Contributor), R. J. Couvillion (Contributor), John W. Coleman (Contributor), Narasipur Suryanarayana (Contributor), Zahid Ayub (Contributor), Robert Parsons (Author), ISBN-10: 1931862702 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862707
2004 ASHRAE Handbook : Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Systems and Equipment : Inch-Pound Edition (2004 ASHRAE Handbook : HVAC Systems and Equipment : I-P Edition) (Hardcover)
by American Society of Heating, ISBN-10: 1931862478 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862479
"2004 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment The 2004 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Systems and Equipment discusses various common systems and the equipment (components or assemblies) that comprise them, and describes features and differences. This information helps system designers and operators in selecting and using equipment. Major sections include Air-Conditioning and Heating Systems (chapters on system analysis and selection, air distribution, in-room terminal systems, centralized and decentralized systems, heat pumps, panel heating and cooling, cogeneration and engine-driven systems, heat recovery, steam and hydronic systems, district systems, small forced-air systems, infrared radiant heating, and water heating); Air-Handling Equipment (chapters on duct construction, air distribution, fans, coils, evaporative air-coolers, humidifiers, mechanical and desiccant dehumidification, air cleaners, industrial gas cleaning and air pollution control); Heating Equipment (chapters on automatic fuel-burning equipment, boilers, furnaces, in-space heaters, chimneys and flue vent systems, unit heaters, makeup air units, radiators, and solar equipment); General Components (chapters on compressors, condensers, cooling towers, liquid coolers, liquid-chilling systems, centrifugal pumps, motors and drives, pipes and fittings, valves, heat exchangers, and energy recovery equipment); and Unitary Equipment (chapters on air conditioners and heat pumps, room air conditioners and packaged terminal equipment, and a new chapter on mechanical dehumidifiers and heat pipes)."
1996 Ashrae Handbook Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment: Inch-Pound Edition (Hardcover), ISBN-10: 1883413346 or ISBN-13: 978-1883413347 ,
"The 1996 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook is the result of ASHRAE's continuing effort to update, expand and reorganize the Handbook Series. Over a third of the book has been revised and augmented with new chapters on hydronic heating and cooling systems design; fans; unit ventilator; unit heaters; and makeup air units. Extensive changes have been added to chapters on panel heating and cooling; cogeneration systems and engine and turbine drives; applied heat pump and heat recovery systems; humidifiers; desiccant dehumidification and pressure drying equipment, air-heating coils; chimney, gas vent, fireplace systems; cooling towers; centrifugal pumps; and air-to-air energy recovery. Separate I-P and SI editions."
Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Historical use of brick in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the Kent Tavern in Calais, VT.
"Brick nogging is a European method of construction which was brought to the new world in the early-nineteenth century. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review.
Building Research Council, BRC, nee Small Homes Council, SHC, School of Architecture, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, brc.arch.uiuc.edu. "The Small Homes Council (our original name) was organized in 1944 during the war at the request of the President of the University of Illinois to consider the role of the university in meeting the demand for housing in the United States. Soldiers would be coming home after the war and would be needing good low-cost housing. ... In 1993, the Council became part of the School of Architecture, and since then has been known as the School of Architecture-Building Research Council. ... The Council's researchers answered many critical questions that would affect the quality of the nation's housing stock.
How could homes be designed and built more efficiently?
What kinds of construction and production techniques worked well and which did not?
How did people use different kinds of spaces in their homes?
What roles did community planning, zoning, and interior design play in how neighborhoods worked
Energy Savers: Whole House Systems Approach to Energy Efficient Home Design [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] - U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Supply Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Supply_Vent.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11880?print
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Exhaust Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Exhaust.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11870
"Energy Savers: Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Energy_Recovery_Venting.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11900
"Energy Savers: Detecting Air Leaks [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Air_Sealing_1.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438 "Falls in the home and public places are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, but are overlooked in most literature. This book is unique in that it is entirely devoted to falls. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insurance adjusters, architects, writers of building codes, attorneys, or anyone who cares for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when people will likely fall, what most likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. "
Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Gypsum Construction Guide, National Gypsum Corporation
Construction Handbook [purchase at Amazon.com] H17, Technical
Folder SA920 and PM2, PM3 and PM4, United States Gypsum Company, 125 South Franklin ST., PO Box 806278, Chicago, IL 60680-4124,
Humidity: What indoor humidity should we maintain in order to avoid a mold problem?
Ice Dam Leaks in building attics and roof cavities, how to inspect for evidence of leaks, identify causes, and correct bad attic ventilation, improper roof venting, and these causes of attic mold or roof structure damage
"Insulation: Adding Insulation to an Existing Home [copy on file as /interiors/Insulation_Adding_DOE.pdf ] - ," U.S. Department of Energy - tips on how to do your own check for the presence of absence of insulation in a home
Insulation: Selecting Insulation for New Home Construction [copy on file as /interiors/New_Home_Insulation_DOE.pdf ] - , U.S. Department of Energy -
"Your state and local building codes probably include minimum insulation requirements, but to build an energy-efficient home, you may need or want to exceed them. For maximum energy efficiency, you should also consider the interaction between the insulation and other building components. This is called the
"whole-house systems design approach" [copy on file as /interiors/Whole_House_Energy_Efficiency_DOE.pdf ] -
Insulation Types [copy on file as /interiors/Insulation_Types_DOE.pdf ] - , table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE. Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail.
Lath & Plaster Systems [copy on file as /interiors/LathPlaster_Nat_Gypsum.pdf ] - , 092300/NGC, National Gypsum Lath and Plaster Systems, National Gypsum Corporation, 800-628-4662 describing National Gypsum's Kal-Kore brand plaster base
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Metal Lath Specifications, Specification for metal lath and accessories, Lath and Plaster [copy on file as/interiors/Amico_lath-inside.pdf ] - from Amico, a lath and plaster accessory producer.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov
"A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. - PDF Document from NIS
Pergo AB, division of Perstorp AB, is a Swedish manufacturer or modern laminate flooring products. Information about the U.S. company can be found at http://www.pergo.com where we obtained historical data used in our discussion of the age of flooring materials in buildings.
Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of
piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall construction with long top girts, diagonal timber bracing, and small diameter logs
placed vertically along with concrete chinking to fill in the wall plane.
Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-construction/ and where plank houses were built by native Americans, see
Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228,
Photographer: Mike Meuser
06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank Houses are being sold to raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.
Plastering, PM 5, Product & Systems Technology, US Gypsum, May 1998, web search 10.5.2010, original source: http://www.usg.com/rc/technical-articles/plaster/
United States Gypsum Company, 125 South Franklin ST., PO Box 806278, Chicago, IL 60680-4124,
Paraphrasing from this document: USG uses the term shadowing in this document in describing the visual effect over gypsum board joints caused by the lower moisture absorption rate (take-up) and lower capacity than gypsum base face paper. Shadowing at joints occurs where veneer plaster is applied over tape joints, requiring a second coat to completely hide the tape, providing a visually uniform surface. USG Advises: "This [second] cover coat must be allowed to harden and dry before plaster application is started.
Plastering Skills, F. Van Den Branden, Thomas L. Hartsell, Amer Technical Pub (July 1, 1985), ISBN-10: 0826906575, ISBN-13: 978-0826906571 [purchase at Amazon.com]
Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe, Arizona - see rebath.com
Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or
ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2,
available from the publisher, Lawyers ^ Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com email@example.com and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC%20SCREEN.pdf ] -
Lighting, proper use of: proper aiming of a good flashlight can disclose hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on walls.
Manufactured & Modular Homes: Modular Building Systems Association, MBSA, modularhousing.com, is a trade association promoting and providing links to contact modular builders in North America. Also see the Manufactured Home Owners Association, MHOAA, at www.mhoaa.us. The Manufactured Home Owners Association of America is a National Organization dedicated to the protection of the rights of all people living in Manufactured Housing in the United States.
Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building flood and how to prevent mold growth in buildings by selection of building materials and by anti-mold construction details.
Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2, available from the publisher, Lawyers & Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com firstname.lastname@example.org and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
Steps and Stairways, Cleo Baldon & Ib Melchior, Rizzoli, 1989.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones