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Complete guide to building mold contamination:
What to Do About Black Mold and other Indoor Air Quality IAQ Contaminants. How to test, remove, or prevent mold contamination. How to deal with mold related illness.
Tthis website answers just about any thing you want to know about what to do about mold contamination in buildings: how to find, test, remove, clean-up or prevent indoor mold contamination. These mold-action & indoor environment investigation & cleanup articles provide expert, un-biased information for owners, occupants, inspectors.
How to recognize mold, how to test for unsafe mold, how to clean up or remove mold, how to prevent mold contamination in buildings, and what mold related illnesses and symptoms have been reported are all discussed in depth.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
How to Find, Test, Inspect For, Remove, & Prevent Indoor Mold Contamination: what to do about mold in buildings
Here we give detailed and authoritative information and procedures for finding, testing, cleaning and preventing indoor mold, toxic black mold, green mold, testing building indoor air quality, and other sick house / sick building investigations.
[Click to enlarge any image]
We also provide research articles on mold hazards and on the accuracy and reliability of various mold testing methods. We suggest the most effective building inspection and testing procedures for mold and similar indoor contaminants, and we provide a directory for expert services.
We give in-depth information about mold and other indoor air quality problems: causes of respiratory illness, asthma, or other symptoms such as neurological or psychological problems, air quality investigation methods, and remediation procedures such as mold cleanup, handling toxic mold contamination, and building or mechanical system repairs.
We offer advice on mold prevention and mold-resistant construction resistant to indoor problem molds such as the Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp. and Stachybotrys chartarum groups.
To find what you need quickly, if you don't want to scroll through this index you are welcome to use the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX to search InspectApedia for specific articles and information.
Article Series Contents
MOLD CONTAMINATION IN BUILDINGS - home - CONTENTS: building mold contamination guide: How to Find, Test, Inspect For, Remove, & Prevent Indoor Mold Contamination what to do about harmful indoor mold.
MOLD / ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERT, HIRE ? - when should you hire someone, and how to be sure you hire someone with the right expertise - don't rely on "mold tests" alone without an expert visual inspection that produces a report telling you if there is a mold problem, if so where it is, how big it is, and what cleanup is needed, and finally what steps should be taken to prevent future mold growth in the same building.
Six Basic Approaches for Cleaning Up Indoor Air, Mold Contamination, or Similar Indoor Air Quality Problems
The US EPA lists six basic strategies for reducing the level of indoor air pollutants. These six approaches, source removal, source substitution, source encapsulation, local exhaust, ventilation, exposure control, and education, can apply to an indoor airborne mold particle or mold-volatile-organic-compound MVOC odor as well.
We list and describe these approaches just below, followed by descriptions of key indoor mold contamination articles.
1. Source management of indoor air contaminants such as mold and MVOCs
The US EPA describes three indoor air pollutant source management approaches:
But preventing mold problems in the first place (MOLD PREVENTION GUIDE) is still better. For toxic, allergenic, or pathogenic mold contamination in buildings, this step is by far the most important.
The location of both visible and hidden mold reservoirs must be found, and problematic (non-cosmetic) mold cleaned-up or in essence "removed".
Any step other than cleaning off or removing mold, such as use of mold sprays, air cleaners, OZONE generators , will be comparatively ineffective, and worse, by making you think the mold problem has been handled, you may be fooled into leaving harmful mold in the building.
If you suspect or know that there is a mold problem in a building you need to know the extent of cleanup needed, whether mold is cosmetic (inexpensive to clean), allergenic, or toxic (requiring special care).
For small areas of mold contamination, generally where less than 30 square feet of contiguous mold is present, simple building cleaning and renovation procedures are all that's needed and testing is usually not appropriate. Most building mold contamination falls in this first category.
You need to know whether or not to hire a professional to inspect, test, find the mold, and write a cleanup plan, whether or not to hire a mold cleaning company, how to clean up mold, how to test to be sure the cleanup was successful, and how to prevent mold in the future.
At MOLD / ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERT, HIRE ? we provide guidelines to help decide when it is probably justified to bring in a mold expert to perform mold inspection and testing in a building.
[Mold] Source substitution: this approach to IAQ contaminants refers to selecting a less toxic material, such as low-VOC paints. IAQ problem source substitution may pertain to mold remediation in selection of encapsulants but otherwise it is less significant than source removal.
[Mold] Source encapsulation: this approach to IAQ pollutant management, where the contaminant is mold, might include the use of encapsulant sprays or coatings to immobilize mold or dust particles that remain on surfaces after cleaning.
Encapsulation is not usually a good substitute for mold removal. More subtle is the question of the priority of removing toxic or allergenic or pathogenic mold contamination suspected to be inside of a building cavity such as an enclosed wall or ceiling.
Self-Encapsulated mold contamination, a term we invent for this discussion, refers to a building mold reservoir that appears to be enclosed in a wall, ceiling, or floor cavity such that one might suspect that the mold is not affecting building occupants.
Watch out: these apparently "self encapsulated" mold problems in building cavities are often not as benign as we might wish. As the building environment varies in temperature, moisture, light, and air movement, a presumed "encapsulated" mold reservoir may indeed release problematic levels of mold spores or MVOCs into building air.
However, in our opinion, while self-encapsulated mold reservoirs in a building should be removed and the cause of the mold growth should be found and corrected, if the self-encapsulated mold reservoir does not appear to be affecting the rest of the building, the remediation might be handled as a non-emergency.
But don't wait to find and fix building leaks that may not only be causing hidden mold contamination but also building rot or other problems.
2. Local Exhaust of Contaminated or Moldy Indoor Air or of other indoor air pollutants
Local exhaust during mold cleanup is also a critical step in controlling the movement of moldy dust during a mold cleanup project in a building.
By using air handlers that in essence blow indoor air from the mold remediation work-space outdoors, we assure that air pressure inside the mold-contaminated area is lower than air pressure in nearby building areas.
This pressure difference can prevent cross-contamination of moldy dust and debris from the mold area into other building areas.
Emergency local exhaust in a mold contaminated building can be installed promptly on the discovery of a large problem mold reservoir using fans to blow indoor air from the moldy area and moldy odors (MVOCs) outdoors. This step is not, however, a substitute for cleaning and removing the problem mold.
Watch out: local exhaust is not an effective remedy for indoor mold contamination - the mold must be removed. And local exhaust can interfere with the safe operation of heating appliances by creating backdrafting
Local exhaust can also cause unanticipated movement of other remote indoor air pollutants (mold, gases, or other problems) through various building areas.
Local exhaust is effective in removing "point sources" of indoor air pollutants such as temporary VOC contamination from indoor painting (PAINTS & COATINGS ODORS) or odors from kitchens and bathrooms (PLUMBING SYSTEM ODORS).
3. Ventilation of the building to dilute contaminated indoor air
Ventilation uses fresh outdoor air to dilute polluted indoor air in buildings. While national and local building codes provide specifications for the amount of fresh air needed or recommended in buildings, ASHRAE and EPA standards typically give 15 cmf of fresh air per person as a benchmark.
Increased building fresh air ventilation is needed for special situations such as during painting or floor re-finishing.
At VENTILATION in BUILDINGS we provide in depth information about building intake, balanced, and exhaust fresh air ventilation systems.
4. Exposure control to reduce the impact of moldy or contaminated indoor air
Exposure control as a means of controlling the impact on people of contaminated indoor air refers to limiting the amount of time that people spend in suspect or known-contaminated areas. Actually all of the indoor air pollutant and mold contamination control strategies impact the level of exposure of building occupants.
Watch out: individual sensitivity to mold, MVOCs or other indoor pollutants varies widely, so even if some building occupants appear not to be bothered by indoor mold contamination, that same indoor mold level could be very serious for others.
At an audiology clinic we investigated the staff had no indoor mold complaint, even though they knew that extensive mold growth was visible over a suspended ceiling in the offices. But when an asthmatic client entered for a hearing test he experienced a very serious reaction to the indoor mold levels.
5. Air Cleaning / Filtration to reduce the impact of indoor mold or other air pollutants
Watch out: air cleaners or purifiers (AIR CLEANER PURIFIER TYPES) are not a substitute for removing a problematic indoor mold reservoir, and portable air cleaners in general are not capable of effectively cleaning and making safe the air supply in a building.
6. Education of building owners and occupants to control indoor mold problems or other indoor air pollutants
Where a building has or might have a significant indoor mold contamination problem, building owners and managers as well as occupants benefit from knowing
How to set priorities of attention - what tasks should be addressed first Mold test results may be of assistance to physicians if mold related illness or other illnesses are involved.
See MOLD or INDOOR AIR EMERGENCY RESPONSE
When a mold problem is serious enough to merit hiring a professional versus when it is appropriate for building owners or occupants to simply clean up the mold themselves.
See MOLD / ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERT, HIRE ?
When mold testing is useful and when it is unnecessary.
At MOLD TEST REASONS we discuss medical and other more basic reasons to test for mold in buildings.
Watch out: mold "tests" may be inaccurate and without an expert building inspection mold tests alone are not a reliable means of characterizing mold risk at a building.
The "MOLD ACTION GUIDE" contains sufficient information to address these questions. This website offers more in-depth articles on these and related environmental and indoor air quality topics.
Helpful Articles Offering Detailed Advice on How to Find, Test, Clean up, Remove, & Prevent Indoor Mold Contamination
Mold Action Guide: follow this easy step by step outline of what to do about mold. We emphasize that for small areas of mold contamination, generally where less than 30 square feet of contiguous mold is present, simple building cleaning and renovation procedures are all that's needed and testing is usually not appropriate. Most building mold contamination falls in this first category.
At DO IT YOURSELF MOLD CLEANUP we provide suggestions for a do-it-yourself cleanup of small areas of mold.
MOLD LEVEL REPORTS Reporting the Results of Mold and IAQ Investigations & Clearance Inspections: what should be included
OUR FIELD INVESTIGATION SERVICE [not available for hire, limited pro-bono consulting] our senior expert goes (or actually went) where no one else wanted to look, uses non-invasive tools and sophisticated testing equipment for mold, gases, moisture, air quality, contaminants, Building problem diagnosis.
MOLD RELATED ILLNESS - Asthma, Allergies, Lung, Neurological, Other Complaints?
The following articles provide detailed information about mold-related illnesses.
ALLERGEN TESTS in BUILDINGS advice about how to test, what to look for, in evaluating the level of dog, cat, or other animal allergens in a building
ANIMAL ALLERGENS: Dog, Cat, and Other Animal Dander - Cleanup & Prevention Information for Asthmatics and regarding Indoor Air Quality.
ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN BUILDINGS provides a detailed guide to recognizing asbestos-containing materials in buildings and links to in depth articles about individual asbestos-containing building materials
RECOGNIZING ALLERGENSWhat various indoor allergens look like - identification photos to help identify pollen, dust mites, animal dander, toxic or allergenic mold - Common Mold and other Allergens, Irritants, Remedies & Advice
Rodent control issues, including dander, fecal, and urine contamination of Buildings and Building insulation are discussed at our MOLD ACTION PLAN page.
OZONE WARNINGS - Use of Ozone as a "mold" remedy is ineffective and may be dangerous.
MERULIPORIA incrassata- "Poria" the house eating fungus Meruliporia incrassata or perhaps a different mold, Serpula lacrymans - which one is the "house eating fungus" - what it house rotting mold like in a building and under the microscope
MOLD DETECTION - Mold Identification Photos and Tips
These articles explain how to find and recognize mold in a building.
The articles include mold recognition photos, methods of visual inspection for mold, and explanation of how to cut
your mold investigation cost and trouble by learning to recognize stuff that is not mold at all. We also
explain that not all black mold is harmful. Some is cosmetic only. Visual inspection can answer some of these questions without
HOW to FIND & TEST for MOLD in Buildings - Looking for Mold - A "how to" photo and text primer on finding and testing for mold in Buildings
STUFF THAT is NOT MOLDbut is often mistaken for it - things you may not want to test. Not all "black mold" is toxic or harmful.
TRAPPED MOLD BETWEEN WOOD SURFACES - do we need to look for, find, remove, or try to kill mold on mating wood surfaces such as between floor joist tops and subfloor underside, or between a wall sill plate and the subfloor surface? What about between layers of wood flooring and subflooring?
LIGHTING, PROPER USE of discloses hard to see but toxic light or white mold colonies on building surfaces - read this if you're doing your own tape sampling for mold.
MOLD INVESTIGATION TIPS for Home Inspectors & Mold Inspectors on how to find mold, where to look, what is likely to be important. Advice to Building inspectors intending to inspect or test for toxic or problematic mold indoors, mold inspection methods, and mold test methods which are valid or invalid
HOW to SEND a MOLD SAMPLE to A Lab: 6 Easy Steps for a Mold Test: How to Collect Mold Samples Using Adhesive Tape and Plastic Bags - a low-cost high-quality and very easy method to send a mold sample to a mold laboratory for analysis Use this simple, economical mold test
kit by following our instructions on how to collect and mail mold samples to a lab.
AIR SAMPLES: MOLD TESTING Samples & their interpretation - a brief tutorial
on indoor air sampling for mold - are spore counts per cubic meter of air accurate and valid? Using air sampling to determine if a mold problem is "present" or "absent" and the role of cultures for "viable spore sampling" are criticized. Air sampling used alone is an unreliable way to look for mold and is highly questionable as a means of characterizing a precise mold exposure level indoors.
TOXIC MOLD TESTING METHODS COMPARED, also Toxic Gas Testing Methods and MVOC's - valid vs. invalid methods, recommendations compares air sampling for mold, surface or tape sampling for mold, culture or swab sampling for mold, and gas MVOC sampling methods for mold or other toxins, and organizes links to papers on each of these topics.
A Comparison of Some Indoor Air Sampling Devices - simultaneous application of popular sampling cassettes and slide samplers allows comparison of typical particle collection variation by device in actual field use. A field study in process by DJF, 2008 - 2005 (Technical Paper)
Burkard personal air sampler used by many residential investigators (we use multiple units simultaneously in some investigations). We also employ other residential building sampling equipment for surface, air, vacuum, and bulk sample collection methods as well as for gases.
Alternative, low-cost air sampling equipment and methods such as the mini-vacuum pump and Zefon Air-o-Cell or Allergenco-d cassettes or MCE filter cassettes for viable, non-viable or other forensic particle identification in Buildings. A field study in process by DJF, 2005 - 2006 (Technical Paper)
Allergenco Mk-III time-lapse impaction air sampling equipment - study changes in particle dispersion under varying conditions (furnace on/off) A field study in process by DJF, 2004 - 2010 (Technical Paper)
MOLD CULTURES - Validity and Usefulness of Mold Cultures & Culture-Based Home Test Kits for mold
For a quick to understand overview of the validity and usefulness or perhaps not-usefulness of culture tests for mold, see Validity of Cultures (settlement plates or swabs) to find toxic mold in Buildings which is an overview and critique of using mold cultures, settlement plates, petri
dishes, and cultured swab samples, and air sample testing limitations for determining what's in a Building, and which tests are useful in different situations.
For more thorough detail see SHORTCOMINGS of MOLD CULTURE TESTS which lists a number of detailed concerns about viable spore traps and culture media for Building problem detection
MOLD CLASSES, LEVELS - Mold Hazard levels, Mold Spore Count Validity, Interpreting Mold Counts, and Classes of Mold
MOLD EXPOSURE STANDARDS: Exposure Standards for Mold, Levels of Severity of Indoor Mold Contamination - Various Published Standards of Permissible Mold Exposure Limits: at what level is toxic or allergenic mold a problem? - What does your "spores per cubic meter of air" or "spore count" really mean - if anything?
MOLD EXPOSURE RISK LEVELS: How to Determine Mold Contamination Probability or Mold Exposure Risk Levels in Buildings Based on Visual Inspection
Robigus, Lord of Fungus - a brief history of the Legend of Wheat Rust Fungus
Robigus, the Roman God and Lord of Crop Fungi, is by legend the power who arranged that wheat rust, a crop destroying fungus, would plague humanity. This punishment was in retribution for the cruelty of a boy who set fire to straw he had tied to a foxes tail. Indeed, wheat rust leaves crops looking burned, and leaves as much as 40% of the crop destroyed. Robigus, a fertility god, protected crops against diseases.
At the Robigalia festival each April 25th, red-colored offerings (wine) were made to appease this god of the rust-red colored wheat rust fungus or wheat leaf rust a parasitic fungus, Puccinia recondita.
Rusts, or Uredinales, include Puccinia rusts that invade corn, cotton, mint, sugar cane, and wheat, also Melampsora - flax, Hemileia - coffee, Cronartium - pine, Uromyces - chickpea, bean,
and many others. There are about
5000 species in this group.
Our lab photo (left) shows typical Urediniospores from an air sample where rust spores were frequent. (These are not wheat rust spores).
Wheat leaf rust causes small (1/32") reddish-brown pustules or blisters to appear on the surface of plant leaves.
The wheat leaf rust Puccinia recondita spores may also produce a reddish brown dust (mold spore powder).
Mature wheat leaf rust fungus pustules and their fungal spores may be dark brown or even black. Wheat leaf rust spores live only on live leaves but survive the winter on leaf fragments, periodically reaching epidemic proportions in the wheat crop.
Interestingly, the location of wheat rust on the plant can indicate its source: rust on upper plant leaves suggests that spores blew into the wheat field from a more distant location, while wheat rust pustules found on lower plant leaves indicate that the rust fungus over-wintered on leaves in the local field.
In addition to application of systemic wheat foliar fungicides such as Tilt, Quadris, and Mancozeb, some varieties of wheat are bred to resist this fungus, and experts note that resistant species are the best way to control wheat rust epidemics. More information about wheat leaf rust is at the Kansas State University Website.
Rust spores can be quite beautiful, belying the crop damage they may cause, as our lab photo of Pileolaria brevipes (a rust spore found in an air sample we collected in San Diego, CA) shows at left.
While InspectAPedia.com focuses attention on building and indoor environmental concerns, the history and forensic work on Puccinia recondita is so important to the world's wheat crop and serves so well as an example of good investigative work that we have included this expanding topical section.
Good Laboratory and Microscope Procedures are critical in making sense of field samples. Competent, trained, experienced aerobiologists, mycologists, and microbiologists can identify sample contents with good accuracy.
Depending on the experience of the laboratory, it is also possible to interpret the meaning of the sample for the Building and its occupants.
Laboratory professionals who have also performed the field inspection can make useful extrapolations from lab results. Hasty work by disinterested parties may be less useful for Building occupants and owners.
This paper presents a summary and critique of some popular methods used to examine indoor
air quality to test for presence or absence of problematic levels of toxic or allergenic mold or other bioaerosols.
we will describe and critique
specific "testing" or "sampling" methods used to
"test" Buildings for mold in the course of a Building investigation.
The appropriateness of testing at all is discussed on this and other pages at
our website. our website InspectAPedia.com/sickhouse.htm includes more broad discussions of the overall approach to Building
investigation, as do many expert references cited at that web. For a more
comprehensive collection information about mold test methods see https://InspectAPedia.com/indoor_air_quality/IAQ_Methods_Compared.php.
Watch Out: interpret all
quantitative data with great caution. Individual samples of particles in air
show tremendous variation from minute to minute, making "ok" test results a
thing to view with care. In situations of particular risk additional or
periodic testing should be considered.
Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd Ed., GS deHoog, J Guarro, J Gene, & MJ Figueras, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, 2000, ISBN 90-70351-43-9 (you can buy this book at Amazon)
 US EPA - Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Building [ copy on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Mold_Remediation_in_Schools.pdf ] - US EPA
Kansas State University, department of plant pathology, extension plant pathology web page on wheat rust fungus: see http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/path-ext/factSheets/Wheat/Wheat%20Leaf%20Rust.asp
"A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home",
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htmA
US EPA - Una Breva Guia a Moho - Hongo [on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Moho_Guia_sp.pdf - - en Espanol
"Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) ASHRAE Standard", Ranish Joshi, Arctic India Sales, reviews the basics of IAQ, emphasizes the importance of both source control and removal of contaminants when improving indoor air quality, warns about bringing inside contaminants from outdoors, and reviews the pertinent ASHRAE IAQ standards for buildings.
"IgG Food Allergy Testing by ELISA/EIA, What do they really tell us?" Sheryl B. Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, Clinical Laboratory Director, Bastyr University Natural Health Clinic - ELISA testing accuracy: Here is an example of Miller's critique of ELISA
http://www.betterhealthusa.com/public/282.cfm - Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients
The critique included in that article raises compelling questions about IgG testing assays, which prompts our interest in actually screening for the presence of high levels of particles that could carry allergens - dog dander or cat dander in the case at hand.
http://www.tldp.com/issue/174/IgG%20Food%20Allergy.html contains similar criticism in another venue but interestingly by the same author, Sheryl Miller. Sheryl Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, is an Immunologist and Associate Professor of Basic and Medical Sciences at Bastyr University in Bothell, Washington. She is also the Laboratory Director of the Bastyr Natural Health Clinic Laboratory.
Allergens: Testing for the level of exposure to animal allergens is discussed at http://www.animalhealthchannel.com/animalallergy/diagnosis.shtml (lab animal exposure study is interesting because it involves a higher exposure level in some cases
Allergens: WebMD discusses allergy tests for humans at webmd.com/allergies/allergy-tests
Fifth Kingdom, Bryce Kendrick, ISBN13: 9781585100224, is available from the InspectAPedia online bookstore - we recommend the CD-ROM version of this book. This 3rd/edition is a compact but comprehensive encyclopedia of all things mycological. Every aspect of the fungi, from aflatoxin to zppspores, with an accessible blend of verve and wit. The 24 chapters are filled with up-to-date information of classification, yeast, lichens, spore dispersal, allergies, ecology, genetics, plant pathology, predatory fungi, biological control, mutualistic symbioses with animals and plants, fungi as food, food spoilage and mycotoxins.
"Disease Prevention in Home Vegetable Gardens,"
Department of Plant Microbiology and Pathology,
Department of Horticulture, University of Missouri Extension - extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=G6202
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones