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Classes of harmful or irritating mold & mold related illnesses:
This document lists classes or types of mold (harmless to toxic) and names types of common mold-related illness. We provide: definitions of cosmetic mold, allergenic mold, & pathogenic mold - three levels of concern.
Definitions of & Explanations of Mycotoxins, Mycoses, Mycotoxicoses. What's the difference between fungal mycoses & fungal mycotoxicoses & what are the usual pathways of infection? Comparing two types of Mycoses: primary pathogens vs opportunistic pathogens. Examples & Symptoms of Mycotoxicoses.
We explain the types and classes of mold or fungal related illnesses, and we provide definitions and comparisons among mold-illness terms that otherwise can lead to confusion: cosmetic mold, allergenic mold, toxic mold, toxic black mold, pathogenic mold, mycoses or mycosis, mycotoxicoses or mycotoxicosis, and primary versus opportunistic pathogens.
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"Cosmetic mold" refers to mold genera or species which are unlikely to be a health hazard nor to cause damage to the building structure.
A common example found on framing lumber, often from time of construction, is black mold in the Ophistomacae group including Ophistoma sp. and Ceratocystis sp. which are commonly known as "blue stain" fungi.
If these are present in the finished living space it may be appropriate to clean and coat the stained areas for cosmetic reasons.
More costly measures are unlikely to be justified.
"Allergenic mold" is not normally dangerous in small quantities, but can be a problem for people who are particularly allergic to mold or who have asthma. In large quantities it is more likely to be a problem for these individuals.
Allergenic mold can be cleaned or removed by people who are not personally mold-sensitive by using ordinary cleaning methods and while wearing appropriate respiratory protection and gloves.
People who are particularly mold sensitive should avoid working with or disturbing moldy materials which might cause a reaction or increase their sensitivity. Where large areas of this mold are involved, e.g. in excess of 30 sq.ft., professional cleaning is likely to be needed.
Mold in this group can cause infections in humans, including not only people at particular risk (such as those having a compromised immune system) but also people who are normal and healthy. In general, fungal or mold-related illnesses that are classed as mycoses result from a fungus that actually grow on or in human (or other animal) tissues.
Please also read about the difference between fungal mycoses & fungal mycotoxicoses in DEFINITIONS OF & EXPLANATIONS OF MYCOTOXINS, MYCOSES, MYCOTOXICOSES (found below).
In most general terms we often include this group in our "Toxic mold" category below, but properly it is a separate group.
Toxic mold can present serious health risk to humans or animals by producing or containing chemical poisons. Unlike the pathogenic molds discussed above, Health effects from toxic mold exposure may be temporary irritation or more serious longer term illness, immunosuppression, neurological disorders, or cancer.
Mycotoxins can be produced by or are contained some fungal spores and may remain present in the fungal material (potentially also in fungal hyphae) even if the mold spores are not viable - i.e. have been "killed" by a chemical disinfectant (bleach).
When a toxic mold has been identified as contaminating a building, advice from a mold professional is appropriate. The average homeowner should not attempt to clean up this type of contamination.
Watch out: What is misleading, in fact in our opinion downright dangerous about the term "toxic black mold" is that people may be misled to believe that only black mold is harmful.
Not only is this not at all the case, but in many building mold investigation cases dark colored molds (which may be black, dark brown, or other dark colors) are selected for sampling, resulting in important errors when assessing the risk of building mold contamination:
Actually our use of the prefix "fungal" is redundant as both mycoses and mycotoxicoses originate in the fungal kingdom.
Mycoses are pathogens that attack healthy or weakened individuals, as we distinguish in a moment, and in seriousness range from an irritating skin fungal infection to potentially fatal invasion of bodily tissues in the lung (aspergillosis) or even the head and brain.
What characterizes fungal mycosis is that the fungus is actually growing on or in the tissues or organs of the person or animal affected. (Both athlete's foot (tinea) and aspergillosis involve such fungal growth on or in a person's tissues - a foot or a lung for example).
The usual path of infection for mycoses is from breathing in spores or by skin contact.
Mycotoxicoses are examples of “poisoning by natural means” and thus are analogous to the pathologies caused by exposure to pesticides or heavy metal residues.
In other words, unlike a mycosis (fungus growing in an organ), a mycotoxicosis acts on a person other animal by producing a chemical that itself is a poison. 
The usual path of infection for mycotoxicoses are eating contaminated food but breathing in spores or skin contact infections also occur.
A more accurate characterization of the Fifth Kingdom (molds) with respect to mold related illness (mycoses) start by dividing the causing pathogenic fungi into two categories
The most important mycotoxins that may affect humans or other animals are aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.
These poisons may enter the body by eating contaminated food (most common means) but also by inhalation or skin contact (such as some of our clients who report severe and some protracted medical symptoms that ensued after unusually high exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum or Memnoniella echinata [the author] during moldy building demolition or cleanup.) 
The symptoms of a mycotoxicosis depend on the type of mycotoxin; the amount and duration of the exposure; the age, health, and sex of the exposed individual; and many poorly understood synergistic effects involving genetics, dietary status, and interactions with other toxic insults.
Thus, the severity of mycotoxin poisoning can be compounded by factors such as vitamin deficiency, caloric deprivation, alcohol abuse, and infectious disease status. In turn, mycotoxicoses can heighten vulnerability to microbial diseases, worsen the effects of malnutrition, and interact synergistically with other toxins.  J.W. Bennett and M. Klich
A mycotoxin is a poison produced by a fungus. "Poison" as used here is properly understood to cause illness or death to a human or
Mycotoxins are made by fungi and are toxic to vertebrates and other animal groups in low concentrations. [1
Quoting from Bennett and Kilch in Clinical Microbiology in an authoritative article that itself cites 290 expert sources:
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals.
Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. ...
While all mycotoxins are of fungal origin, not all toxic compounds produced by fungi are called mycotoxins. The target and the concentration of the metabolite are both important. Fungal products that are mainly toxic to bacteria (such as penicillin) are usually called antibiotics.
Molds (i.e., microfungi) make mycotoxins; mushrooms and other macroscopic fungi make mushroom poisons. The distinction between a mycotoxin and a mushroom poison is based not only on the size of the producing fungus, but also on human intention. Mycotoxin exposure is almost always accidental. In contrast, with the exception of the victims of a few mycologically accomplished murderers, mushroom poisons are usually ingested by amateur mushroom hunters who have collected, cooked, and eaten what was misidentified as a delectable species.
Mycotoxins are not only hard to define, they are also challenging to classify.
Due to their diverse chemical structures and biosynthetic origins, their myriad biological effects, and their production by a wide number of different fungal species, classification schemes tend to reflect the training of the person doing the categorizing. Clinicians often arrange them by the organ they affect.
Thus, mycotoxins can be classified as hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, immunotoxins, and so forth.
Cell biologists put them into generic groups such as teratogens, mutagens, carcinogens, and allergens.
Organic chemists have attempted to classify them by their chemical structures (e.g., lactones, coumarins); biochemists according to their biosynthetic origins (polyketides, amino acid-derived, etc.); physicians by the illnesses they cause (e.g., St. Anthony's fire, stachybotryotoxicosis), and mycologists by the fungi that produce them (e.g., Aspergillus toxins, Penicillium toxins). None of these classifications is entirely satisfactory. -  J.W. Bennett and M. Klich
Not all fungi produce mycotoxins, and even fungi that do produce them do not always do so - depending on growing conditions such as what particular "food" substrate the fungus is growing upon.
Interestingly, and part of our objection to "killing" mold as a mold remedy, is that some mold spores that contain mycotoxins continue to do so even after the a mold spore been rendered unable to "grow" further. Thus a "dead" mold spore can still be harmful to humans. (Fungal products that are toxic to plants are called phytotoxins.)
A more complete categorization that helps people understand the risk associated with all types of mold growths found in buildings on building surfaces would use the following categories, all of which are discussed in thios article: 
PATHOGENIC, TOXIC, OR "INFECTIOUS" MOLD - here we include both mycoses and mycotoxicoses
Attempts to "kill" mold, such as by using bleach, are inappropriate and ineffective since some spores can be dangerous even if they have been made not viable.
This is why simply spraying or "bleaching" a moldy surface with a disinfectant is not effective. Actual cleaning or removal of contaminated materials is the appropriate step when fungal-contamination is found indoors.
An effective mold cleanup is entirely possible and often leaves a building cleaner than when it was originally constructed. A mold clearance test following professional remediation is used to assure that the cleanup has been effective.
But unless the original causes of mold growth are corrected (usually leaks and building water entry) the problem is likely to recur. Finally, the object of mold cleanup is not normally to produce a sterile indoor environment.
Mold is normal material found in outdoor air and is present virtually everywhere.
The cleaning objective is to clean up or "remove" problematic levels of allergenic or toxic mold and to bring the remaining level of common fungal spores in a building down to levels commonly found in buildings which have not suffered leaks, water entry, and problematic mold growth.
Reference: some of the notes from this page are paraphrased from a guest column, "Understanding the Health Effects of Mold," by Dr. Ajit S. Arora, MD, PhD, appearing in AIHA's magazine "The Synergist," September 2003,
See our main website (below) for very important additional information such as mold testing, cleanup and mold remediation guideline resources.
Continue reading at MOLD CONTAMINATION LEVELS or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Or see MOLD CONTAMINATION IN BUILDINGS - home
Or see MOLD EXPOSURE STANDARDS definitions of "problematic levels" of mold.
Or see MOLD DOCTORS - ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE for help in finding a physician specializing in mold exposure, mold related illness, or environmental medicine.
Or see MOLD RELATED ILLNESS for a complete, detailed list of health complaints associated with mold exposure.
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I have been trying for months to find a mold doctor, mold test lab or mold treatment clinic that will do mold testing in humans. I have been sick for over two years and to date my doctors are still not sure what is wrong with me. I have seen a total of 17 physicians, but still I have no diagnosis. The latest finding is one doc who thinks I might have MS. However, I have been reading the symptoms of mold poisoning which also mimic the symptoms of MS.
Unfortunately, I can't get any of my doctors to agree with one another on the mold theory. They keep telling me that if you remove yourself from the [mold-contamination] situation - you should get better. That hasn't happened to me, thus why they think it is something else.
Therefore, I wanted to know if you can point me in the right direction for mold testing in humans. I don't mean skin testing - I've had that done twice already - and I was positive for molds among other things. I need the kind of testing to diagnose whether or not the mold in colonizing in my body.
I want to clarify that my symptoms started over two years ago - when I purchased a used vehicle. The initial symptoms started about the second day I was driving the car (I bought the car in Dec.). It started with a burning/irritating throat (almost like chemical/dirt was being blown into my throat). Then it progressed to a cough, respiratory problems, shortness of breath, chest pain, muscle aches, light-headedness and so on.
Because I am no longer driving the car - doctors feel I should have gotten better. However, I stopped driving the car for several months. Then I got the car re-detailed (thinking at first it was in the detailing b/c an environmental dr mentioned that when I had a visit). I got back in the car for one month. The first 3 weeks I did not turn on the heat. The last week I turned on the heat and I got that same burning/irritating throat (which takes a while to subside). It was then that I knew my illness was coming from the car and I haven't driven it since.
My sister has been helping me diagnose and we both feel that there is mold/fungus in the AC/heating unit and is something that my body just won't tolerate. I've told every doctor I've visited - they sill feel that if I'm not driving the car anymore I should have gotten better.
I am over my head with anger and frustration!! Out of 17 doctors, not one believes that's possible. I'm a person who rarely gets sick. Any of my friends and co-workers can vouch for me. That's why when I bought that car - it was the only new thing in my life - and I know it made me sick and I have been sick ever since. Because it's the car involved - it seems like it's making it more difficult to get a diagnosis.
I live in PA - are their any mold doctors or human mold-exposure testing labs around my area that test for mold in humans? Any help you can give me is much appreciated. - Christine
I am not a doctor and emphasize that I am only reporting on my experience as a field investigator, but it seems that while removing yourself from a mold-contaminated environment is recommended and often gives relief of symptoms and complaints, the medicine is more complex than that:
First, some mold exposures can produce ongoing, long-lasting, even permanent symptoms, for example the development of adult-onset asthma.
Second, moving out of a known mold-contaminated environment does not itself guarantee that the new environment is free of mold, allergens, indoor air quality concerns, etc.
Put another way, if on removing oneself from an environment suspected of causing or contributing to health related complaints, the complaints stop or diminish, that's very suggestive about that environment. But the converse does not hold. That is, someone suffering from apparently-building-related complaints may find that some of those complaints may persist.
A physician specializing in environmental medicine along with building inspection by a highly qualified field investigator can work together to help sort out these concerns.
Take a look at MOLD DOCTORS - ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE for help in finding a physician specializing in mold exposure, mold related illness, or environmental medicine.
At MOLD RELATED ILLNESS for an introduction and see MOLD RELATED ILLNESS SYMPTOMS for a complete, detailed list of health complaints associated with mold exposure. Warning: our MOLD RELATED ILLNESS SYMPTOMS list is not a medical document, has not been peer-reviewed by the medical profession, and is not in a medical sense authoritative. It does, however, collect both substantiated mold-related-illness complaints and a wide sampling of the nature and range of other complaints from people who believe or fear that mold or similar exposure has been a factor in their physical or mental health.
About the effects of the indoor environment in an automobile: indeed we have investigated complaints of odors, smells, and mold contamination in automobiles. Keep in mind that for some individuals, particularly people who are sensitive to chemical smells and even perfumes, some plastics, vinyls, and carpets used in automobiles might, especially when new, be an irritant or a response trigger. And mold in automobiles, typically due to a leak that has wet insulation or carpeting, can be difficult to track down and clean.
At BOAT & CAR SMELLS & ODORS we discuss the car odor problem, and at CAR SMELL - Mold DEODORIZING we report on tracking down, cleaning, and removing smells from mold in cars, campers, and similar vehicles.
Usually the best place to start tracking down an illness is with the doctor who is your general care physician. Typically he or she will refer you to an appropriate expert based on that discussion and examination. Our OPINION is that as long as you are consulting a physician who has experience and expertise in environmental medicine, pulmonology, allergy, mold-related-illness, or similar fields, and as long as the physician took time to hear your concerns, case history, and to examine you, that person is in the best spot to answer a critical diagnostic question:
Are your health complaints ones that have been associated with environmental exposure to irritants, contaminants. If the answer is "yes" or even "sometimes" then that doctor's advice can help set the direction for inspection and testing of environments where you have spent time in buildings or automobiles.
I recently had a urine test done by a company called Bio signs, this test detects mycotoxins that may present from molds. In my case it detected a severe systemic yeast infection due to moderate exposure to a myotoxin produced from toxic black mold. This test cost almost $600.00, but to be able to go to a doctor and give them the exact exposure information and to know what is happening in my body made that investment well worth the money. I also had the peace of mind knowing that leaving the infected area was not something I could second guess anymore. It has been priceless in so many ways and knowing that it is all not in my head gives me the strength to fight to get my health back. I can not explain the turmoil I have been through as my body has rejected the exposure, hives, very high blood pressure, anxiety, liver elevation to hepatitis B, severe vision problems, constant bronchitis and pneamonia and my bowels do not function. I would encourage anyone that feels like they just have to know to take this test. I have a long road and pray that it has not done to much damage. Knowledge is power and I have been on my own crusade to explain the hasards of Mold. I am only 44 years old and I was healthy five years ago before i rented my business space and now I feel like I am double in age..Good luck and I hope this helps in your quest for health. - Nikki 10/19/11
That test sounds very costly, I'd want to know more about its accuracy and how the results should be interpreted. For example, was your doctor able to confirm that a mycotoxin exposure was the cause of yeast infection? I'm no MD but certainly I've had yeast infections simply from taking antibiotics.
Equally seriously, if your doc confirms that s/he blames mycotoxin exposure for an illness, that expensive test is not diagnostic nor prescriptive about the source of your mycotoxin exposure. You'll want to determine that source and correct it. I'd start by a thorough inspection and investigation of the places where you spend the most time, most likely at home or at work. I'd also consider however, that an acute exposure to some molds and MVOCs could be a source of medical complaint even if is not chronic and therefore not in the home or office, but rather elsewhere.
Watch out: People who suspect that their illness is caused or contributed to by environmental contaminants such as indoor mold exposure should ask their primary physician for a referral to an M.D. who has expertise in environmental medicine. This step is particularly important because in our OPINION the fear and frustration that naturally plague anyone who suffers from an illness for a long time without finding successful treatment can make people vulnerable victims for a plethora of "cures" that lack medical basis, are not supported by sound research, and in some cases may be dangerous. In the medical profession there's a saying, A man who treats himself has fool for a physician. If your doctor doesn't listen to you with care and respect, or never even looks at you (maybe spending too much time looking instead a the computer) then I agree it's time to try elsewhere.
Quoting from Bennett and Kilch in Clinical Microbiology:
Human exposure to mycotoxins is further determined by environmental or biological monitoring. In environmental monitoring, mycotoxins are measured in food, air, or other samples; in biological monitoring, the presence of residues, adducts, and metabolites is assayed directly in tissues, fluids, and excreta.  J.W. Bennett and M. Klich
Keep us posted, as what you learn will certainly help other readers, and if you have further specific questions about our website articles I'll be glad to research and reply.
People should realize that antibiotics ARE mycotoxins. They are the same. Indeed, they will cause systemic fungal infection. Differentiating between systemic and digestive yeast infections are difficult; the best course of action is to treat both simultaneously. Eating a diet that starves fungus (low carb/sugar) while rotating natural antifungals (olive leaf, oregano oil, tea tree oil) along with re-alkalizing the body chemistry as well as balancing hormones and increasing immunity/replenishing healthy gut bacteria is the only way to cure fungal disease.
To the person asking about coming into contact with molds then removing yourself from the environment: it is simply not that easy. Just like people, fungi require a food source. Once they get inside of you, they are able to live off of you. They simply do not just "come from the environment"; on the contrary, they are a highly invasive species that has no regard other than it's own preservation.
If you are seeking a fungal doctor, look into shows like "Know The Cause" by Doug Kaufmann, do a search for Dr. Greg Emerson, look into products by BioActive Nutrients, NSC24, and Dr. Ohhira. This is [Glen's recommended] source for fungal information in regards to human disease.
Testing for internal fungal disease can be tricky. Fungi exhibit dimorphism, or the ability to change depending on the environment. This means a mold can be a yeast when at incubating temperatures and so forth. The best test you can do: Look at your tongue. If it has either: a thick coat of white film, or large, red bumps towards the back, you have a fungal problem. Do you have dry skin? Fungal. Acne? Fungal. IBS? Fungal. The list goes on, and on, and on until infinity. - Glen - 3/16/12
Thanks Glen, for the interesting comments. But your comments are not quite accurate and in some cases are dangerous.
The literature on mycotoxins and mold related illness is enormous. We include some representative, authoritative, and quite credible citations in our reply to your remarks.
Watch out: We agree that a yeast infection in the mouth can be an annoying side-effect of taking antibiotics, but it would be nothing short of stupid to refuse to take an antibiotic when necessary and as prescribed by your doctor. For example, typhoid fever, which is generally successfully treated using a strong (fluoroquinolone group) antibiotic, can otherwise be fatal in up to 30% of cases. Having to treat a yeast infection as a side effect of curing typhoid fever seems a small price to pay. While rehydration is an important component in treating typhoid, eating and drinking a healthy diet won't cure typhoid fever once it has been contracted.
And to add a bit more accuracy to Glen's comments above, there are many fungal illnesses that will not manifest as an oral yeast infection, starting at your feet with athlete's foot and including life-threatening Aspegillosis - a fungal infection of the lung.
A mycotoxin is a poison produced by a fungus. "Poison" as used here is a chemical that causes illness or death to a human or
The widely used antibiotic Penicillin, originally produced by two genera of the Penicillium fungus first found on an orange  indeed is produced by that fungus not as a gift to humans but to enable the fungus to flourish on some of its food surfaces by trying to kill off other fungi that might land there.
But in use as a medicine for humans or other animals, Penicillin is NOT a mycotoxin nor is it acting as a mycotoxin. See our
citation Bennett and Klich  below and our more extensive set of definitions of fungal illnesses in the article above. We also cite an enjoyable book about the history of how Penicillin was developed .
Finally, your suggestion that fungal disease in humans can be cured by diet is dangerously misleading. While we applaud eating a
healthy diet and recognize that eating properly can help one's immune system, there is absolutely no doubt that for a fungal
infection, ranging from in the sinuses to life-threatening Aspergillosis infections of the lungs, expert medical care is
absolutely necessary and may include the use of specific antibiotics that target fungal infections or in some cases may require
A review of medical texts that enumerate the wide range of fungal infections and mold related illnesses (Mycoses) that affect humans and animals will illustrate that successful treatment, choice of medication, and other measures vary widely but none relies on diet as sufficient. 
Watch out: Mold-related illnesses range from the irritation of athlete's foot to life threatening aspergillosis. In short, your advice to cure mold-related illness by diet could kill someone.
(Apr 7, 2015) Anonymous said:
I have a caravan and it has 60% water ingress i have asthma and copd what are the effects of mould on me
I don't know what you mean by 60% water ingress: that sounds as if 60% of water falling on your caravan leaks inside?
IN any event, with COPD this is a question to take to your doctor: you should make clear that you own a leaky caravan that might be mold contaminated - since you havent indicated you've actually found mold there.
(Apr 21, 2011) Wanda said:
The area I need to clean is in the shower we have stripped the walls and we would like to save the base of the shower. There are at least (2) furring strips that are wood and I can't get to them to clean. What should I do?
We don't understand quite where the furring strips are nor if they are moldy. Also, if they are moldy, there could be mold on other surfaces in that same area. So the total area of moldy surfaces may be more than you think.
For small moldy surfaces (we use the example of the space between a floor joist and the plywood subfloor) that are dry and undamaged, sealing those areas may be sufficient to prevent detectable levels of problem mold from showing up in your indoor occupied space. Just be sure that the leaks that caused mold are repaired and that there is no hidden structural damage from rot.
(Jan 24, 2012) Ms Norma said:
Please can you help direct me to a Registered (?) Licensed "Professional" Mold Inspector and a Removal Service for Mold, and Attorney.
Recently, after having my Kitchen flood while on the phone;
The cabinets were removed: the drywall, and the cabinets were covered with black mold (the back and under the base cabinets, (in an visible area of more than 60 sq ft), and with the amount of mold, it appears it has been cultivating for years.
Over the past years there have been three flooding incidents:
The source of the Floods:
• This incident: the plumber discovered a rusted drywall screw which had pieced the copper tubing.
• Second incident: Earlier this past summer: There was a ‘Roof flashing leak’ around the sewer gas stack on the roof. This water leak went through these same walls and spread through the walls into other rooms
• The third incident: near ten years ago: the Water Heater flooded the inside hall.
MY AGE and HEALTH: I am 79, live in Florida, and have had to depend on Medical Breathing Treatments, and was told I have asthma since this water heater incident happened.
• I have contacted My Primary Care, and My Respiratory Physicians’ for Letters, (not sure of the Legal wording needed)
The insurance Company Adjuster tells me: they will only allow $800.00 to clean up the mold and I should return the cabinetry to the kitchen.
I live in a Condo, whereby I have two insurance policies:
• Condo Co-op Insurance policy: it covers the outside up to the drywall inside.
• Home Owners Insurance policy: it covers the inside of the Condo.
They both are placing blame on the other. Therefore, I am trying to locate an Attorney whom can review my policies and advise me as to what funds ate available to me.
Another situation, which your articles advise against is:
The Cabinet Company also advised me: (The Cabinet Company has removed the spotted drywall, however I was able to obtain some tape samples.)
• They are a mold removal service: they can clean up and make the mold safe.
• They see ‘No point in replacing the drywall with GREENBOARD’.
And, If I WANT (it should be ‘NEED’) New Cabinets: I will have to pay for them myself.
CAN YOU provide me with some Inspectors, type of Attorney, and any other guidance to help me with this situation?
(June 9, 2012) S McCumsey said:
We have bits of mold on the ceiling and upper wall of our bathroom. Suspect that the fan wasn't doing the job which are are going to correct. After surface cleaning can we sand off the remaining mold if it isn't too deep or do we have to remove the drywall? We have fine colonies that wiping doesn't remove. We are planning to replace the tile as well but not in the immediate future. The grout has mold and we expect we will have to pull it all out.
It is rarely effective to try to "sand" drywall to clean mold. The effective repair for moldy drywall is to remove and replace it. However, if the total moldy area is trivial in size, and if I were very confident that the ONLY mold on the drywall were from an exterior source - such as condensation on that surface - and therefore if I were confident that we didn't risk more mold on the hidden side of the drywall nor a leak hidden inside the wall or ceiling cavity, then I might be tempted to surface clean the small area (say a square foot or less), let it dry, coat it with a lacquer primer sealer or a fungicidal sealant paint, and then repaint the surface. That little repair, combined with proper moisture handling to avoid a new mold problem could be effective, though it's not our "standard" recommendation. Just be sure you're not ignoring a hidden leak or mold reservoir.
The grout mold runs into the same issue. If the wall is intact and we are sure that there were no leaks into or behind the tiled surface, surface cleaning could be sufficient.
(May 9, 2015) Robert A. Jungst said:
Is hydrogen peroxide useful in treating mold?
The object in mold cleanup is to remove the mold = any household cleaner would suffice = from cleanable surfaces, to dispose of materials that can't be cleaned (such as moldy drywall) and to correct the cause of the mold growth. Hydrogen peroxide is an effective cleaner for wounds.
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 J.W. Bennett and M. Klich, "Mycotoxins", Clinical Microbiology Reviews, doi: 10.1128/CMR.16.3.497-516.2003 Clin. Microbiol. Rev. July 2003 vol. 16 no. 3 497-516 retrieved 8/12/12, original source: http://cmr.asm.org/content/16/3/497.full [copy on file as Mycotoxins.pdf]
 Eric Lax, The Mold in Dr. Florey's Coat: The Story of the Penicillin Miracle, John MacRae Books, 2004, ISBN-10: 0805067906
ISBN-13: 978-0805067903 Quoting: The discovery of penicillin in 1928 ushered in a new age in medicine. But it took a team of Oxford scientists headed by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain four more years to develop it as the first antibiotic, and the most important family of drugs in the twentieth century. At once the world was transformed—major bacterial scourges such as blood poisoning and pneumonia, scarlet fever and diphtheria, gonorrhea and syphilis were defeated as penicillin helped to foster not only a medical revolution but a sexual one as well. In his wonderfully engaging book, acclaimed author Eric Lax tells the real story behind the discovery and why it took so long to develop the drug. He reveals the reasons why credit for penicillin was misplaced, and why this astonishing achievement garnered a Nobel Prize but no financial rewards for Alexander Fleming, Florey, and his team.