Reader Question: what can you tell me about Entran II leak-risk radiant heat tubing and how can I recognize it in a home?
I have heard that Entran radiant heat tubing is a problem. Is that correct?
Early Entran™ Tubing marked Entran or Entran II is at risk of leakage and failure where it is installed, particularly if the tubing was subjected to high temperatures. Entran-3 tubing does not have the same leak complaint history.
Our photo (left) illustrates Entran-3 radiant heat tubing - not the leak-prone product discussed here.
Entran radiant heat tubing, produced by Goodyear Tire & Rubber and was distributed by Heatway Systems between 1989 and 1994 and has been estimated to have been installed in abouit 10,000 homes in the U.S. and possibly in Canada. Specifically Entran-II was a rubber tubing product installed for radiant heat floors. It was also installed in driveway or sidewalk snow and ice melting systems.
The defect of concern with Entran-II tubing is that a plasticizer added for flexibility was found to leach out of the rubber if it was exposed to high temperatures. The loss of the plasticizer was associated with odor and smell complaints and ultimately with leaks in the tubing as with loss of plasticizer the tubing will crack.
We encountered this product first as part of an investigation into an odor complaint in a new home with radiant heat tubing stapled under hardwood floors. The installer, hoping to "drive out" the odor, ran the heating system at higher-than-recommended operating temperatures, leading to a double fault: the flooring was damaged (gapping) from the excessive temperature and ultimately the tubing leaked.
You may identify Heatway Entran II tubing by noting its orange color and imprinted markings where you see radiant heat tubing at the supply and return radiant tubing manifolds that are usually close to the heating boiler.
If the tubing was stapled-up beneath a wood floor and subfloor, by moving insulation (you may have to also remove ceiling coverings) you can also inspect the tubing and its condition.
In our OPINION unless you already see visible leaks, cracks, or damage, it is not easy to determine the remaining life of the Heatway Entran-II tubing. If the tubing was never subjected to high temperatures (which should have been the case with a properly installed and operated radiant heat floor system) the remaining life could be good.
If you suspect that the tubing is already leaking (leaks may not be visible if tubing is embedded in a concrete slab) a pressure test or infra-red scanning and thermography can not only detect the leak but can detect where it is occurring. Of course if the tubing has leaked in a finished ceiling you'll probably see water stains.
Class Action Settlement May Offer Financial Relief to Homeowners where Entran II Tubing Was Installed
Only for homeowners who filed a claim prior to 19 November 2009, a financial settlement offered limited damage payments for homeowners in two categories, depending on the actual extent of leak damages that occured due to Entran-II tubing.
The product names involved included Twintran, Nytrace, Entran II Trace, Entran II Wire, Entran 2, Entran 2 Trace, and Entran 2 Wire. Details were at www.entraniisettlement.com or could be obtained by calling 800/254-9222. A follow-up check of these contacts in 2012 lead nowhere.
Details about PEX tubing and other plastic tubing choices are at
Question: how to fix leaks in radiant heat tubing in a slab
Jan 1, 2017 Anonymous [by private email) wrote:
I have had radiant heat in a concrete slab for a little over 10 years now it was wonderfull ,but six months ago it started leaking we found the leak and busted the concrete and found a pin hole in the hose. spliced the hose fix and check had no leak. in the last six months have had 3 other leaks, all in different places. had to replace the laminate floor twice.
I shut the valves and blowed out the lines, but the floor is now too cold for my wife. was wondering if it would be possible to install a smaller hose inside the7/8 pex hose with maybe a1/2 inch hose? i have two zones with open syestem ,app 190 ft total - Anonymous 2017/01/02
Reply: options for re-lining or repairing leaky radiant heat tubing in a slab?
Interesting idea and not one I've seen before. There are pipe relining systems for larger diameters, principally for drains. I worry that your piping reliner won't push past connectors even if otherwise you could shove it through the tubing.
There are other relining options such as using a cured in place piping repair (CIPP) or an internal coating, epoxy or something else.
NuFlow provides an expoxy relining system: http://www.nuflowtechnologies.com/products/epoxy-lining/ intended for re-lining by coating copper or galvanized pipe. I'm not sure it's rated for plastic piping (assuming that's what you have) in part because plastic flexes. But you might ask the company how their system would work on flexible tubing encased in a concrete floor.
Epoxy Water Pipe Relining Systems
Nu Flow North America,
1313 Boundary Road, Oshawa, ON L1J6Z7 Tel: +1 (905) 433-5510
Watch out: there is some question of the efficacy of re-lining pipes. Questions include
One cannot inspect the pipe interior to see where the lining material adhered or didn't adhere so you could be spending a wasted sum with an unpredictable life far less than the typically-claimed 60 years
Adhesion of these liners may not work at all on plastic piping such as PEX
If the pipe is already corroded, thinned or leaking, then the "repair" is itself very thin at that location - that is there's only the liner, no pipe material. Under pressure and temperature such a repair may be short-lived.
Research on Epoxy Water Pipe Relining System Effectiveness & Life
Robles, Dan, "What the Insurance Industry Needs to Know about Epoxy Water Pipe Liner", (2013), retrieved 2017/01/02, web article, original source: http://insurancethoughtleadership.com/what-the-insurance-industry-needs-to-know-about-epoxy-water-pipe-liner/
and in that article citations of
Impact of an Epoxy Pipe Lining Material on Distribution System Water Quality by Ryan Price and supervised by Andrea M. Dietrich, PhD., Chair, Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute.
PUBLIC WORKS TECHNICAL BULLETIN 420-49-35 15 June 2001 IN-SITU EPOXY COATING FOR METALLIC PIPE; Department of The Army; U.S. Army Corp or Engineers.
Layman's Guide to Epoxy Paint / Coating Failures.
ASTM F2831 – 12: Standard Practice for Internal Non Structural Epoxy Barrier Coating Material Used In Rehabilitation of Metallic Pressurized Piping Systems.
2014 Pipe Relining Guide - http://www.trenchlessonline.com/pdfs/2014-pipe-relining-guide.pdf
If you can, send me photos of the floor, the tubing, the opening you cut, the hole you found, and the repair. That will let me comment in a way that at least *sounds* smarter. <g>
Other questions about change in heat transfer through a double-thickness of pipe make assessment of the effectiveness tricky too. You might think about increasing water velocity and temperature but that, in turn, risks exceeding the temperature rating of the tubing. See RADIANT HEAT TEMPERATURES
Finally, where did the leaks occur? What can we say about cause? Were pinholes in the tubing or in brass connectors?
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Solar Age Magazine was the official publication of the American Solar Energy Society. The contemporary solar energy magazine associated with the Society is Solar Today. "Established in 1954, the nonprofit American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is the nation's leading association of solar professionals & advocates. Our mission is to inspire an era of energy innovation and speed the transition to a sustainable energy economy. We advance education, research and policy. Leading for more than 50 years.
ASES leads national efforts to increase the use of solar energy, energy efficiency and other sustainable technologies in the U.S. We publish the award-winning SOLAR TODAY magazine, organize and present the ASES National Solar Conference and lead the ASES National Solar Tour – the largest grassroots solar event in the world."
Steve Bliss's Building Advisor at buildingadvisor.com helps homeowners & contractors plan & complete successful building & remodeling projects: buying land, site work, building design, cost estimating, materials & components, & project management through complete construction. Email: email@example.com
Steven Bliss served as editorial director and co-publisher of The Journal of Light Construction for 16 years and previously as building technology editor for Progressive Builder and Solar Age magazines. He worked in the building trades as a carpenter and design/build contractor for more than ten years and holds a masters degree from the Harvard Graduate School of Education.
Excerpts from his recent book, Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, Wiley (November 18, 2005) ISBN-10: 0471648361, ISBN-13: 978-0471648369, appear throughout this website, with permission and courtesy of Wiley & Sons. Best Practices Guide is available from the publisher, J. Wiley & Sons, and also at Amazon.com
J. Boucher, "Radiant Subfloor Panels," Journal of Light Construction, (18:7), pp. 75-81, April 2000.
Portland Cement Association: www.concretethinker.com/Papers.aspx?DocId=8 indicates that
- tubing for radiant heat in a concrete slab is installed UP TO two inches below the surface of the slab
- the slab is insulated from the ground at all sides to direct heat upwards to the living space [this is our preferred design for a cold northern climate]
Radiant Panel Association,
P.O. Box 717,
1433 West 29th Street,
Loveland, CO 80539
Phone: (970) 613-0100 or (800) 660-7187,
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: rpa-info.com www.radiantpanelassociation.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=1 offers design guidelines at http://www.radiantpanelassociation.org/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=115 including these insulation R-value and coverage details:
Application#, Minimum R-Value, and Insulation Coverage
The following insulation alternatives are given for Slab on Grade construction:
Alternate #1 [(Ti-To)x0.125)=R-value, with coverage from perimeter to below frost line ["Ti-To" means we calculate the necessary R-value as (Ratio of indoor to outdoor temperature) x 0.125]
Alternate #2 R-value=5, with coverage 4' horizontal or vertical at perimeter
Alternate #3 R-value=5, with coverage under entire slab and slab edge [this is our preferred design for a cold northern climate]
The Radiant Panel Association offers education and publications in radiant heat design. See radiantpanelassociation.org
R. Groff, "Mixing Forced-Air and Boiler Heat," Fine Home Building, (No. 85) pp. 86-87, January 1994.
Heatway Corporation, "Radiant Heat Installation", Heatway Corporation, 3131 W. Chestnut Expwy, Springfield MO 65802, Tel: 417-864-8161
Hydronic Radiant Heating Division,
The Hydronics Institute,
P.O. Box 218,.
Berkeley Heights, NJ 07922
Phone: (908) 464-8200
Dan Holohan, Hydronic Radiant Heating: A Practical Guide for the Nonengineer Installer, 1998. Dan Holohan Associates, Inc., 63 North Oakdale Avenue, Bethpage, NY, 11714; Phone: (800) 853-8882; $20.00.
J. Siegenthaler, Modern Hydronic Heating, Delmar Publishers. 1995. Available from Delmar/Thomson Learning, Order Fulfillment, P.O. Box 6904, Florence, KY 41022; Tel: 800-347-7707. ISBN: 0-8273-6595-0.
J. Siegenthaler, "Hydronic Radiant Heat for Wood-Framed Floors,"The Journal of Light Construction, (11:11) pp. 34-37, August 1993.
J. Siegenthaler, "Radiant Slab Techniques,"The Journal of Light Construction, (10:11) pp. 21-24, August 1992.
J. Siegenthaler, "Radiant Slab on a Tight Budget," The Journal of Light Construction, (13:10) pp. 47-50, July 1995
Olsen, B. & Lidelt, D., Existing Knowledge on Possibilities and Limitations of Radiant Floor Cooling- #4014, , 1996. Part of the January 25-29, 1997 ASHRAE Winter Meeting Technical Program. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 1791 Tullie Circle NE, Atlanta, GA 30329; Phone: (800) 527-4723; website: www.ashrae.org
J. Truini, "Adding Radiant-Floor Heating," Home Mechanix, (91:792) pp. 56-61, Feb 1995.
N. Nisson, "Can Radiant Floor Cooling Succeed Despite Design Limitation?"Energy Design Update, (17:5) pp. 5-8, May 1997.
"Canadian Study Details the Impact of Carpets on Radiant Floor Heating," Energy Design Update, (18:11) pp. 12-13, November 1998.
B. Kaercher, Jr. , "Electric-Radiant Floors,"Fine Home Building, (No. 75) pp. 68-72, June/July 1992.
Heatway, Goodyear Square Off in Court Over Radiant System Failures," Energy Design Update, (18:10) pp. 2-4, October 1998.
Ohio Jury Says Goodyear’s Entran 2 Hosing Was Not Defective," Energy Design Update, (20:4) pp. 5-7, April 2000.
C. Wardell,"Radiant Floor Systems,"Custom Builder, (10:6) pp. 26-30, Sept/Oct 1995..
Takagi radiant heat systems: Takagi offers pre-assembled radiant heating system installation packages including for do-it-yourself'ers, and including systems that combine radiant heat flooring with domestic hot water production using a gas-fired tankless water heater. See takagi.com for more information. "The T-KJr model (gas inputs up to 140,000 BTU per hour) is the smallest unit in the Takagi line-up. The T-KJr is perfect for light residential (i.e. small apartment units) and radiant heating applications." Also see Tankless Water Heaters.
Passive Solar Design Handbook Volume I, the Passive Solar Handbook Introduction to Passive Solar Concepts, in a version used by the U.S. Air Force - online version available at this link and from the USAF also at wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFH/pshbk_v1.pdf
Passive Solar Design Handbook Volume II, the Passive Solar Handbook Comprehensive Planning Guide, in a version used by the U.S. Air Force - online version available at this link and from the USAF also at wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFH/pshbk_v2.pdf [This is a large PDF file that can take a while to load]
Passive Solar Handbook Volume III, the Passive Solar Handbook Programming Guide, in a version used by the U.S. Air Force - online version available at this link and from the USAF also at wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFH/pshbk_v3.pdf
"Passive Solar Home Design", U.S. Department of Energy, describes using a home's windows, walls, and floors to collect and store solar energy for winter heating and also rejecting solar heat in warm weather.
"Solar Water Heaters", U.S. Department of Energy article on solar domestic water heaters to generate domestic hot water in buildings, explains how solar water heaters work. Solar heat for swimming pools is also discussed.
"Heat-Transfer Fluids for Solar Water Heating Systems", U.S. DOE, describes the types of fluids selected to transfer heat between the solar collector and the hot water in storage tanks in a building. These include air, water, water with glycol antifreeze mixtures (needed when using solar hot water systems in freezing climates), hydrocarbon oils, and refrigerants or silicones for heat transfer.
"Solar Water Heating System Freeze Protection", U.S. DOE,using antifreeze mixture in solar water heaters (or other freeze-resistant heat transfer fluids), as well as piping to permit draining the solar collector and piping system.
"Solar Air Heating" U.S. DOE also referred to as "Ventilation Preheating" in which solar systems use air for absorbing and transferring solar energy or heat to a building
"Solar Liquid Heating" U.S. DOE, systems using liquid (typically water) in flat plate solar collectors to collect solar energy in the form of heat for transfer into a building for space heating or hot water heating. The term "solar liquid" is used for accuracy, rather than "solar water" because the water may contain an antifreeze or other chemicals.
 PB (polybutylene with mechanical fittings) Piping leaks: especially in mobile homes and in the U.S. South, for example trailers and double-wides throughout Florida that were piped with this material - per M Cramer. See "Polybutylene Piping: Time Bomb?" Daniel Friedman, Journal of Light Construction, August 1996 [Technical Q&A].
 Polybutylene Plumbing (plastic pipes): gray plastic water supply piping cracked, leaked, and resulted in a class action and settlement.
Eric Galow, Galow Homes, Lagrangeville, NY. Mr. Galow can be reached by email: email@example.com or by telephone: 914-474-6613. Mr. Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions.
 PB Technology Center (information about PB Pipes) Tel: 800-338-7732, also see the 1990 PB Pipe recommendations published by the Polybutylene Product Line Committee of the Plastic Pipe and Fittings Association.
 Zurn Manufacturing, Zurn Pex, Inc., Highway 11 East, Commerce, TX 75428, Tel: (903) 886-2580
provides information about installing and using PEX piping including Type b PEX through their website. Quoting from the company's website
Zurn was founded in 1900 in Erie, PA. It originally manufactured a patented backwater valve, and it now manufactures and distributes one of the largest plumbing products packages in the world! Zurn includes: the Specification Drainage Operation, AquaFlush flush valves, AquaSense sensor-operated plumbing products, AquaSpec commercial faucets, Wilkins, Zurn Light Commercial, Flo-Thru, the Chemical Drainage Systems, Zurn PEX Plumbing Systems and Zurn Radiant Heat.
 Zurn Pex Plumbing
Products Liability Litigation, United States Court of Appeals
FOR THE EIGHTH CIRCUIT, No. 10-2267, Filed 6 July 2011, Quoting:
Minnesota homeowners brought this action1 against Zurn Pex, Inc. and Zurn
Industries, Inc (Zurn) alleging that brass fittings used in the company's cross linked
polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems are inherently defective. In pretrial motions
the homeowners sought class certification for their consumer protection, warranty, and
negligence claims, and Zurn moved to strike the testimony of two of the homeowners’
experts. After denying Zurn's motion to strike the expert testimony, the district court2
granted the homeowner requests for class certification for their warranty and
negligence claims, but denied it for their consumer protection claims. Zurn appeals
from the district court's certification order. We affirm.
Web search 4/12/12, original source: www.ca8.uscourts.gov/opndir/11/07/102267P.pdf
 Chemax, "Cross-Linked Polyethylene Tubing and Water Contamination", retrieved 2/17/2013, original source: http://www.chemaxx.com/polytube1.htm [copy on file as [Water Contamination chemical investigation.pdf]
 Ingun Skjevrak, Anne Due, Karl Olav Gjerstad, Hallgeir Herikstad "Volatile organic components migrating from plastic pipes (HDPE, PEX and PVC) into drinking water", Water Research Volume 37, Issue 8, April 2003, Pages 1912–1920
High-density polyethylene pipes (HDPE), crossbonded polyethylene pipes (PEX) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes for drinking water were tested with respect to migration of volatile organic components (VOC) to water. The odour of water in contact with plastic pipes was assessed according to the quantitative threshold odour number (TON) concept. A major migrating component from HDPE pipes was 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol (2,4-DTBP) which is a known degradation product from antioxidants such as Irgafos 168®. In addition, a range of esters, aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and terpenoids were identified as migration products from HDPE pipes. Water in contact with HDPE pipes was assessed with respect to TON, and values ⩾4 were determined for five out of seven brands of HDPE pipes. The total amount of VOC released to water during three successive test periods were fairly constant for the HDPE pipes. Corresponding migration tests carried out for PEX pipes showed that VOC migrated in significant amounts into the test water, and TON ⩾5 of the test water were observed in all tests. Several of the migrated VOC were not identified. Oxygenates predominated the identified VOC in the test water from PEX pipes. Migration tests of PVC pipes revealed few volatile migrants in the test samples and no significant odour of the test water.
 Andrew J. Whelton, Ph.D., M.ASCE; Andrea M. Dietrich, Ph.D., Aff.ASCE; and Daniel L. Gallagher, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE, ”Contaminant Diffusion, Solubility, and Material Property Differences between HDPE and PEX Potable Water Pipes.” J. Environ. Eng., 136(2), 227–237.
Abstract: the objectives of this work were to identify differences between the composition, bulk properties, contaminant diffusivity and solubility for new high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe and crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) pipe, as well as determine which contaminant and polymer properties are useful for predicting contaminant fate in water pipe. Variations in PE pipe density (0.9371–0.9547 g/cm3) , crystallinity (69–72%), crosslinking (60 and 76%), and oxidative induction time (33 to >295 min .) were detected. While numerically these differences seem minor, results show that slight material differences have a notable effect on contaminant diffusivity and solubility. Nonpolar contaminant diffusivity and solubility were best predicted by bulk density. Polar contaminants were more soluble and diffused faster through PEX than HDPE pipes because PEX pipes contained a greater amount of oxygen. For all materials, dipole moment and Log Kow were good predictors of contaminant fate and molecular volume was only useful for predicting diffusivity and solubility values for haloalkane and nonpolar aromatic contaminants.
 Andrew J. Whelton, Andrea M. Dietrich, and Daniel L. Gallagher. (2011) Impact of Chlorinated Water Exposure on Contaminant Transport and Surface and Bulk Properties of High-Density Polyethylene and Cross-Linked Polyethylene Potable Water Pipes. Journal of Environmental Engineering 137:7, 559-568
Online publication date: 1-Jul-2011. Abstract:
The aim of this work was to determine if the aging of polyethylene (HDPE, PEX-A and PEX-B) water pipes by exposure to chlorinated water altered polar and nonpolar contaminant diffusivity and solubility by analyzing new, laboratory-aged, and exhumed water-distribution system polyethylene (PE) pipes. After 141 days of aging in pH 6.5 water with 45 mg/L free chlorine, the surface chemistry and bulk properties of PEX-A pipe were unaffected. Carbonyl bonds (σ=1,713 cm−1) were detected on the surfaces of HDPE and PEX-B pipe, and these oxygenated surfaces became more hydrophilic, resulting in statistically significant increases in diffusion rates. All 10 contaminant and four pipe material combinations had diffusivity increases on average of 50% for polar contaminants and 5% for nonpolar contaminants. Contaminant solubility was slightly increased for aged PEX-A and slightly decreased for PEX-B pipes. Toluene and trichloromethane diffusivity and solubility values for 7- to 25-year-old buried water utility pipes were similar to values for new and laboratory-aged HDPE-based materials. Because chlorinated water exposure alters how polar contaminants interact with aged PE pipes, results of this work should be considered in future health risk assessments, water quality modeling, pipe performance, and service-life considerations.
 Website: GreenBuildingAdvisor.com, "PEX vs Copper", retrieved 2/18/2013, original source: http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/ community/forum/green-products-and-materials/ 16256/pex-vs-copper [copy on file as PEX vs Copper _ GreenBuildingAdvisor.pdf]
 Website: GreenBuildingAdvisor.com," How Safe is PEX tubing?", retrieved 2/18/2013, original source: http://www.greenbuildingadvisor.com/ blogs/dept/qa-spotlight /how-safe-pex-tubing [copy on file as How Safe is PEX tubing_GreenBuildingAdvisor.pdf]
 Lauren Hunter, "California’s PEX Battle Continues", Remodeling Magazine, June 2010, Website: Builderonline.com, "x", retrieved 2/18/2013, original souirce: http://www.builderonline.com/legislation/californias-pex-battle-continues.aspx [copy on file as California’s PEX Battle Continues - Plumbing, Legal Issues, Legislation - Builder Magazine.pd]
 Contractor Magazine, "California approves PEX for plumbing — again- Contractor Magazine.pdf", retrieved 2/18/2013, original source: http://contractormag.com/news/ california-pex-plumbing-1234 [copy on file as California approves PEX for plumbing — again- Contractor Magazine.pdf]
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Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones