Stair Tread Width & Stair Tread Nose Construction Details
STAIR TREAD DIMENSIONS - CONTENTS: Stair tread width & nosing design specifications & codes. Stair tread width or dimensional specifications. Stair Tread nose shape & size specifications. Stair Tread Width Requirements Vary by Open or Closed Stairway Risers. Stair Step Tread Nose Projection Requirements & Stair Code Citations. Photographs & Sketches Stair Tread Defects: too narrow tread width, too high tread riser, uneven tread risers. Broken or Breakaway .Effects of Stair Tread Lumber Type & Preservative Treatments on Risk of Damage & Stair Falls. Common causes of slippery stair treads, steps, or other outdoor walking surfaces. Use of Color to Indicate Stair & Step Changes Can Reduce Trip & Fall Injuries
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website.
Stair tread & step construction details & code specifications: this document provides building code specifications for stair treads: sketches, photographs, and examples of defects used in inspecting the step design on indoor or outdoor stairs and their treads, including the requirements for a projecting stair tread nose and the tread nose shape and dimensions.
We discuss the use of color or other visual clues to reduce trip & fall hazards. We also include references to key documents on building codes and stair and railing safety. Our photograph of badly worn stair treads (above) was provided courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates.
The stair tread is the horizontal walking surface (red arrow) of an individual step. The tread depth is measured from the forward edge of the step nose or edge of the step above out to the leading edge of the step being measured - the space beneath my foot in the photo at left.
Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum.
The stair tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge.
Stair risers: A stair riser is the vertical distance (green arrow) between the walking surface of two stair treads is the stair riser or riser height. Open riser stairs have no enclosure (my toe, shown below, would be facing into open space).
Closed riser stairs (shown below) include a vertical riser board (that my toe is kicking against). Stair risers are detailed
at STAIR RISER SPECIFICATIONS.
Don't confuse step riser height (defined above) with stairway headroom - the vertical space between the walking surface of a stair tread and the ceiling or other obstruction overhead (defined further
at STAIR HEADROOM).
Definition of Stairway Width or Stair Width - don't confuse stair width with stair depth
Watch out: it's confusing but many people refer to stair tread depth as stair step or tread width, including our Canadian stair dimension illustration just below.
If you stick to using the word stair tread depth you can avoid this confusion. Oops, that is, unless you start confusing tread depth with stair tread riser height. Stair tread depth is defined above as the horizontal distance from nose to nose or from riser face to nose on open riser stairs.
Stairway width is the horizontal width of the stair opening (blue arrow in our photo). For stairs enclosed by a wall on both sides, usually the stairway width is the distance between those walls.
Stair tread width (green arrow in our photo) is the horizontal left to right width of the stair tread.
At left our photo illustrates three different stair width measurements
Stair tread width (green arrow) (smaller than stairway width due to side trim boards)
Stairway width (blue arrow) over most of this stairway (nominally 36")
Stairway width near stair top (pink arrow) due to a wall projection (nominally 35")
Stair Tread Depth (Width) Requirements Vary by Open or Closed Stairway Risers
Closed stair treads using a solid riser are shown at the left of the sketch and open stair treads are shown at the right sketch.
Notice that the minimum stair tread thickness is increased when the stair tread is not supported by a solid riser.
Note that some of these dimensions pertain to Canadian building codes. U.S. stair codes and OSHA stair specifications may vary.
Step tread depth (=> 10") (measured 12" from smaller side of irregular stair shapes such as triangular treads on curves or spirals)
Step tread depth uniformity (<= 3/8" variation)
Stair tread depth for winder stairs (>= 6" at smallest point)
Stair tread uniformity for winder stairs at the 12" walk-line (<= 3/8" variation)
Stair tread slope (out of level on walking surface) - (slope or "rise" must be <= 1 in 48) -- Source: IRC
The stair treads shown in our photo are very dangerous not only because they are pitched and loose, but because there is danger of stairway collapse.
The tread slope and collapse risk are visually obvious. The stair inspector should be asking: "What caused this weird movement and who made these goofy repairs?" and "What other work did that person perform on this building?"
Stair Riser Height & Stair Tread Depth Dimensions - Example from BOCA Code 2001
Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum.
The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads.
Stair tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum.
The stair tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at right angle to the tread's leading edge.
My foot illustrates a stair tread depth that is less than 11 inches - the boot toe is against the stair riser and the heel extends well past the stair tread nose.
Stair Step Tread Nose Projection Requirements & Stair Code Citations
Definition of stair tread or landing nose or nosing
The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights. - IBC 1002 [14a]
While a tread nose is not required on stairs with open risers, closed riser stairs like these should have a tread nose projection that (for juirisdictions that require stair tread or step noses) are typically as specified below:
Tread nose projection past vertical riser below (3/4" to 1 1/2") required on stairs with solid risers (exceptions are below)
Tread nose projection uniformity (<= 3/8" variation)
Tread nose curve radius (=< 9/16")
Tread Nose not required if tread depth is => 11"
Tread Nose not required on open stair treads (open riser)
Watch out: some jurisdictions may have other stair tread nose design requirements and some may prohibit stair tread nose projections entirely.
Details about the proper design of stair tread nosings in shape & dimensions as well as history, research & stair tread nose hazard discussion are at STAIR TREAD NOSE SPECIFICATIONS
Effects of Stair Tread Lumber Type on Risk of Damage & Stair Falls
Opinion: Daniel Friedman.
Any broken away or uneven tread nose is a trip and fall hazard. A question sometimes arises about the role of choice of materials in the chances of a stair fall due to tread or tread nose breakage. Does the lumber type of species make much difference in this risk?
Possibly so insofar as treated wood Southern Yellow Pine lumber may present a greater chance of having a breakaway around knots than other choices such as cedar or even plastic wood deck & tread lumber materials.
Nevertheless, the decision to use treated lumber itself should have little useful bearing on a stair fall case as it's both common practice and in some regards is a safer choice to use treated lumber over non-treated pine or SPF since preservative treatments, by reducing the risk of structural rot, should make a wood stairway more durable and safer than more rot-prone choices. .
Most treated wood used in North America is Southern Yellow Pine (SYP) impregnated with preservative salts.
The wood is often quite wet with preservative when purchased, it will even squirt when nailed. But since cessation of the use of more toxic wood preservatives (such as CCA), treated wood is not more inherently hazardous when you remove a piece of the tread nose than any other wood, with a small, weak, technical exception.
SYP is generally a more knotty wood than some alternatives such as cedar decking.
A property of SYP is its inherent knottiness and tendency to warp. So depending on what alternative and more costly wood that might be use for decking, say cedar, there is a non-quantifiable greater chance that a knot appears at5 or close to the edge of a board and thus could end up on a stair tread nose.
The presence of a knot at the edge of wood used to build a stair tread produces a form of weakness of the wood in that area in that the weight of someone stepping on the edge of the tread nose might break the nosing away on either side of the knot. Openings around knots can also hold water and in a freezing climate an thus contribute to ice or frost cracking and damage to the wood in that area.
Breakaway on either side of a knot in the wood near the edge of the walking surface is what we observe in your video of the area of damaged tread nosing in your video.
We haven't established if the break occurred at the time of the fall or prior to it, but I consider it most likely that at least part of the tread nose was broken away before the fall because I observe breakaway of several inches on both sides, left and right, of the knot - not something that would be likely to occur by a single event of a single foot pressure over that area.
Watch out: Builders constructing wooden stair treads using dimensional lumber or 5/4 lumber (deck boards) should take care that the nose of stair treads does not include knots or other damage that increase the risk of a future stair tread breakaway.
What about slipperiness of treated wood decks or stairs when wet? Is treated lumber more slippery than other decking?
More slippery than what?
The hardness of lumber species varies as does surface texture; cedar (used on more expensive decks, steps, rails) for example has a somewhat more grainy surface and may be less slippery than treated wood when dry.
But I doubt that a coefficient of friction of wet vs dry woods by species has much useful bearing on a stair fall case as it is absolutely standard common practice to use treated lumber on outdoor decks, balconies, stairs, and even railings and balusters.
The really horrible stairs in our photo (left) are installed at a Poughkeepsie NY home surrounded by shade trees. The 2x6 treads (actually 5 1/2" in depth) are exactly 1/2 of the recommended tread depth and are covered with algae that will be hysterically slippery when wet.
And the faux hand railing made of pipe extends just about 20 inches above the stair treads - not a usable rail height. These stairs are treacherous. But we find algal growth can occur on all species of wood used for exterior stairs as well as on some other surfaces, even concrete.
Details about algae, ice, snow, water and other slippery stair and walking surfaces are found
at SLIPPERY STAIRS, WALKS.
Impact of Post-construction Wood Treatments & Preservatives on Exterior Deck or Stairway Slip Hazards
There are other treatments that can be applied to outdoor wood decks, balconies, rails, such as preservative stains (recommended by manufacturers but not required by codes). Such preservatives or stains are used on both treated wood and also on cedar decking, and some paints are also used on synethetic decking.
For wood surfaces these add-on products extend the life of the structure, improve its appearance, and many provide some water repellence to the surface - factors that further reduce the chances of formation of slippery algae on the walking surface.
These are the most common causes of slippery stair treads, steps, or other outdoor walking surfaces
Snow or ice in areas of freezing climates
Algal growth or on occasion fungal growth on the wood surface, largely affected by the presence or absence of sun exposure
Water improperly directed on the deck or stair surface due to mis-routing of roof drainage systems
Also see EXTERIOR STAIR FALLS for a catalog of causes of falls on stairs that includes surface conditions and other defects.
Use of Color or Lighting to Indicate Stair & Step Changes Can Reduce Trip & Fall Injuries
Here we illustrate cases of the presence or absence of visual cues that can inform a walker that she is approaching a step. The use of color to provide a noticeable contrast between the walking surface of a passageway or floor and its steps or stairs can reduce trips and falls for walkers in either direction.
Our photo (left) illustrates a handrail that is indeed "graspable" - a concern in any location, but particularly here at the Metropolitan Opera at an upper balcony where of necessity stairs are angled and steep.
You'll notice that the Met also gives visual clues (a light colored carpet strip) to help walkers discern the location of the stair tread edges.
Lighting Cues to Indicate Steps & Reduce Falls
At Lincoln Center in New York City, these exterior stairs make good use of lighting to reduce the chances of stair trips and falls.
Lack of Color, Lighting or Other Visual Clues Increases the Risk of a Stair Fall - Examples
The tile floor shown at below left includes a 4-inch step up into a bathroom. Because the same color tiles were used on the floors at both levels as well as on the step riser, it is very difficult to see that there is a step, especially in low light.
In fact the author (DF) tripped on this very step, located in a hotel in Tapalpa, Mexico. We placed a water bottle on the floor to provide a visual clue of the presence of the step riser for our photograph.
Stairs and steps can use a color change or a tile layout change to indicate a change.
In our photo at above left, taken in a restaurant in Rhinebeck, New York, it is still not clear from the upper walking surface whether or not we are approaching a step.
Throw Rug as Visual Cue of a Step?
Watch out: A throw rug or carpet at the top of a stairway is asking for a serious stair fall even if it does provide a color change. This is not a safe way to give a visual clue about the presence of a step.
Do not place slippery items such as a rug or towel on a smooth floor at the top of steps or stairways such as the steps shown in our photo (left).
Continue reading at STAIR TREAD NOSE SPECIFICATIONS or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
building code on stair tread relining
I have to skin some new construction stairs, i am going to go over the stairs with a hickory [tread] and was wondering is there a code on tread skins? - Mike
Reply: minimum vs maximum stair tread thickness: needs clarification
Re-covering worn stair treads by installing new treads atop the original ones is a common renovation procedure.
I haven't been able to find a code citation on your question but am still looking and will report here. As you may have noted from the sketches and text above, typically building codes for stairs specify minimum stair tread thickness (1" if supported by a riser at front, or 1 1/2" thick treads if the stairs are open-construction without risers), but they do not specify a maximum allowable tread thickness. . The ADA provides a comparison of stair standards among ADA and other requirements, also with no mention of tread thickness.
Watch out that your new stair skin doesn't create uneven step rise heights at the top or bottom of the stairs, nor a trip hazard at the top landing platform.
Also, let me know what you mean by "construction stairs" as OSHA has some different requirements for stairs depending on their intended use.
Question: 4/14/2014 Bernadette said: If my deck height is 5'6", how many steps would I need?
If my deck height is 5'6", how many steps would I need?
Reply: how to calculate the number of steps and the step riser height - and adding a trick or two
Bernadette, in our article on Stair Risers found at STAIR RISER SPECIFICATIONS we note that 7" is a reasonable step height. When calculating the exact riser height from stair tread surface to stair tread surface we divide the total rise height (you say 5'6") in inches (yours would be 66") by a good riser height (say 7") to get the number of steps we need, and then decide how to spread the fraction uniformly over all of the steps. This isn't the only approach but it works.
66" (total rise) / 7" (ideal step rise) = 9.42 steps. Since we can't build a fractional step, we round up (which gives a lower rise) or down (which gives a greater rise or step height).
Let's try just 9 steps.
66" / 9 steps = 7.3" per step rise - so we can if we want, build 9 steps of uniform rise of 7.3" each.
Or we can play tricks to make the job easier by constructing a landing at the first step that brings us up off the ground height by an amount to make all of the steps some other height that we want by changing the effective total rise. For example,
Assuming that we don't want our first step to end up in a hole to create a greater total rise, we can figure instead how high a landing platform would be above grade before the bottom-most step by building a regular stair with a nice step height that ends close to but less than our 66" total rise, then add a bottom level stair platform to bring the landing height up to the necessary level.
Here's an example, sticking with 9 risers but adding a landing platform:
9 risers x 7" rise per riser = 63" total rise
66" (required total rise) - (63" rise from our 9 risers) = 3" to make up by the landing platform.
So if we want we can make a large 3" tall platform at the stair bottom to serve as a final landing - which may be a good idea anyhow if the landing ground is not level. The platform must be at least 36" long in the direction of travel and at least as wide as the stairway.
So the total rise of 66" will be made up of the 3" platform plus 9 steps each of whose rise is 7".
9 (risers) x 7" (riser height) = 63" of riser height gain + 3" of platform height over bottom grade = 66" = 5'6" height that you cited.
Watch out: when measuring the total height gain needed to your deck. If the ground is not level you need to project a horizontal line out from the deck surface for the distance of the stairway run (horizontal distance of travel) and measure height or total height gain needed at that point. Else your stairs won't fit.
(July 8, 2014) Yvonne Haynes said:
Our Church has just lowered the porch floor which means the stone step down into the Church has increased in height. We have had a few stumbles and one fall. Is there a maximum depth that a step should have to be deemed safe? Thank you.
Yes please see inspectapedia.com/Stairs/Stair_Dimension_Specifications.php
If the riser height is more than about 7" or 7.5" it's too high for normal traffic.
Question: Do we have to rise the marble a bit from front edge in marble stairs to avoid falling?
(Sept 24, 2014) Mir Mohsin said:
Do we have to rise the marble a bit from front edge in marble stairs to avoid falling?
How should we make the nosing of the tread? Should it be rising a bit more
Stair treads should not be deliberately made to slope or "not level" and doing so, especially on marble stair surfaces that can be slippery when wet, you would be increasing the trip hazard.
You may need to install anti-slip tapes or strips on the treads.
(Oct 7, 2014) Rody said:
New exterior concrete stairs were built around the City Hall of Los Angeles without nosing. Is that legal now?
"Legal" in *any* building code jurisdictions is a final determination in the hands of the building code compliance inspector - for whom codes are guidelines.
Stair noses are indeed an interesting question since in some countries and jurisdictions experts do not agree that a stair nose reduces trips and falls.
Certainly I've seen alternative stair designs including a stairway whose risers sloped outwards from the riser bottom towards the top of the tread above.
Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
Eric Galow, Galow Homes, Lagrangeville, NY. Mr. Galow can be reached by email: email@example.com or by telephone: 914-474-6613. Mr. Galow specializes in residential construction including both new homes and repairs, renovations, and additions.
 "The Elimination of Unsafe Guardrails, a Progress Report," Elliott O. Stephenson, Building Standards, March-April 1993
 "Are Functional Handrails Within Our Grasp" Jake Pauls, Building Standards, January-February 1991
 Access Ramp building codes:
 Access Ramp Standards:
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act), Public Law 101-336. 7/26/90 is very often cited by other sources for good design of stairs and ramps etc. even where disabled individuals are not the design target.
ANSI A117.4 Accessible and Usable buildings and Facilities (earlier version was incorporated into the ADA)
ASTM F 1637, Standard Practice for Safe Walking Surfaces, (Similar to the above standard
 Falls and Related Injuries: Slips, Trips, Missteps, and Their Consequences, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, (June 2002), ISBN-10: 0913875430 ISBN-13: 978-0913875438 "Falls in the home and public places are the second leading cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States, but are overlooked in most literature. This book is unique in that it is entirely devoted to falls. Of use to primary care physicians, nurses, insurance adjusters, architects, writers of building codes, attorneys, or anyone who cares for the elderly, this book will tell you how, why, and when people will likely fall, what most likely will be injured, and how such injuries come about. "
 The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov
"A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. - PDF Document from NIS
 Slips, Trips, Missteps and Their Consequences, Second Edition, Gary M. Bakken, H. Harvey Cohen,A. S. Hyde, Jon R. Abele, ISBN-13: 978-1-933264-01-1 or
ISBN 10: 1-933264-01-2,
available from the publisher, Lawyers ^ Judges Publishing Company,Inc., www.lawyersandjudges.com firstname.lastname@example.org and also from the InspectAPedia Bookstore (Amazon.com)
 The Stairway Manufacturers' Association, (877) 500-5759, provides a pictorial guide to the stair and railing portion of the International Residential Code. [copy on file as http://www.stairways.org/pdf/2006%20Stair%20IRC%20SCREEN.pdf ] -
[14a] "Visual Interpretation Of The International Residential Code (IRC) 2006 Stair Building Code", The Stairway Manufacturers Association, [Portions of this document reproduce sections from the 2006 International Residential Code, International Code Council, Falls Church, Virginia.},
The Stairway Manufacturers Association website stairways.org provides free downloads of stairway handrailing profiles and dimensions
 Mold-Resistant Building Practices, advice from an expert on how to prevent mold after a building flood and how to prevent mold growth in buildings by selection of building materials and by anti-mold construction details.
 "The Dimensions of Stairs", J. M. Fitch et al., Scientific American, October 1974.
 Stair & Walkway Standards for Slipperiness or Coefficient of Friction (COF) or Static Coefficient of Friction (SCOF)
ASTM D-21, and ASTM D2047
UL-410 (similar to ASTM D-21)
NSFI 101-B (National Floor Safety Institute)
NSFI Walkway Auditing Guideline (WAG) Ref. 101-A& 101-B (may appear as ANSI B101.0) sets rules for measuring walkway slip resist
OSHA - (Dept of Labor CFR 1910.22 does not specify COF and pertains to workplaces) but recognizes the need for a "qualified person" to evaluate walkway slipperiness
ADA (relies on the ANSI and ASTM standards)
 A. Sacher, International Symposium on Slip Resistance: The Interface of Man, Footwear, and Walking Surfaces, Journal of Testing and Evaluation (JTE), ISSN: 1945-7553, January 1997 [more focused on slipperiness of polished surfaces
 Algae is widely recognized as a slippery surface - a Google web search for "how slippery is algae on steps" produced more than 15,000 results on 8/29/12)
 Slipperiness of algae on walking surfaces, warning, Royal Horticultural Society, retrieved 8/29/2012, original source: http://apps.rhs.org.uk/advicesearch/profile.aspx?pid=418
 Slipperiness of algae: "Watch your step, wet rocks and algae are slippery" Oregon State University warning 1977 retrieved 8/29/2012, original source: http://www.worldcat.org/title/watch-your-step-wet-rocks-and-algae-are-slippery/oclc/663683915
 Coefficient of friction of algae on surfaces [like stair treads]: Delphine Gourdon, Qi Lin, Emin Oroudjev, Helen Hansma, Yuval Golan, Shoshana Arad, and Jacob Israelachvili, "Adhesion and Stable Low Friction Provided by a Subnanometer-Thick Monolayer of a Natural Polysaccharide", Langmuir, 2008 pp 1534-1540, American Chemical Society,
retrieved 8/29/2012, Abstract: Using a surface forces apparatus, we have investigated the adhesive and lubrication forces of mica surfaces separated by a molecularly thin, subnanometer film of a high-molecular-weight (2.3 MDa) anionic polysaccharide from the algae Porphyridium sp. adsorbed from aqueous solution. The adhesion and friction forces of the confined biopolymer were monitored as a function of time, shearing distance, and driving velocity under a large range of compressive loads (pressures). Although the thickness of the dilute polysaccharide was <1 nm, the friction was low (coefficient of friction = 0.015), and no wear was ever observed even at a pressure of 110 atm over 3 decades of velocity, so long as the shearing distances were less than twice the contact diameter. Atomic force microscopy in solution shows that the biopolymer is able to adsorb to the mica surface but remains mobile and easily dragged upon shearing. The adhesion (adsorption) of this polysaccharide even to negatively charged surfaces, its stable low friction, its robustness (high-load carrying capacity and good wear protection), and the weak (logarithmic) dependence of the friction force on the sliding velocity make this class of polyelectrolytes excellent candidates for use in water-based lubricant fluids and as potential additives to synovial fluid in joints and other biolubricating fluids. The physical reasons for the remarkable tribological properties of the ultrathin polysaccharide monolayer are discussed and appear to be quite different from those of other polyelectrolytes and proteins that act as thick “polymer brush” layers.
 Jason R. Stokes, Lubica Macakova, Agnieszka Chojnicka-Paszun, Cornelis G. de Kruif, and Harmen H. J. de Jongh, "Lubrication, Adsorption, and Rheology of Aqueous Polysaccharide Solutions, Langmuir 2011 27 (7), 3474-3484
 "Coefficients of Friction for Ice", The Physics Factbook™, Glenn Elert, Ed., retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/GennaAbleman.shtml
 "Coefficients of Friction for Ice", The University of the State of New York Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics. New York: The State Education Department, 2002. Op. Cit.
 Serway Physics for Scientists and Engineers 4th edition (p. 126.)
 "How Slippery Is It", retrieved 8/29/12, original source http://www.icebike.org/Articles/howslippery.htm
 John E. Hunter, "Friction Values", The Source, Society of Accident Reconstructionists, Winter 1998. Study of frictional values of car tires involved in collisions on snow or ice covered roadways.
 Frictional Coefficients of some Common Materials and Materials Combinations, The Engineering Toolbox, retrieved 8/29/2012, original source: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/friction-coefficients-d_778.html [copy on file as Friction and Coefficients of Friction.pdf ]
 Stairways and Ladders, A Guide to OSHA Rules, OSHA, U.S. Department of Labor, 3124-12R 2003 - Web Search 05/28/2010 original source: http://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3124.pdf. OSHA regulations govern standards in the construction industry and in the workforce Quoting from OSHA whose focus is on workplace safety and so excludes discussion of falls and stair-falls in private homes:
OSHA estimates that there are 24,882 injuries and as many as 36 fatalities per year due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. Nearly half of these injuries are serious enough to require time off the job--11,570 lost workday injuries and 13,312 non-lost workday injuries occur annually due to falls from stairways and ladders used in construction. These data demonstrate that work on and around ladders and stairways is hazardous. More importantly, they show that compliance with OSHA's requirements for the safe use of ladders and stairways could have prevented many of these injuries. -osha.gov/doc/outreachtraining/htmlfiles/stairlad.html
 International Building Code, Stairway Provisions, Section 1009: Stairways and Handrails, retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://www.amezz.com/ibc-stairs-code.htm [copy on file as IBC Stairs Code.pdf]
 Model Building Code, Chapter 10, Means of Egress, retrieved 8/29/12, original source: http://www2.iccsafe.org/states/newjersey/NJ_Building/PDFs/NJ_Bldg_Chapter10.pdf, [copy on file as NJ_Bldg_Chapter10.pdf] adopted, for example by New Jersey. International Code Council, 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20001, Tel: 800-786-4452
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones