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Homasote® fiber board company & product information:
Here we give a brief history of the Homasote® company and we describe its products. We also discuss hHow to recognize/identify Homasote® insulating fiberboard building sheathing products used as exterior wall sheathing and as interior wall & ceiling surfaces.
This article series describes and provides photographs that aid in identifying various insulating board sheathing materials used on building walls and roofs, such as Homasote, Celotex, Insulite, and Masonite, Upsonboard, Nu-Wood and other insulating board sheathing products.
At FIBERBOARD SHEATHING IDENTIFICATION we explain that Low-density fiberboard panels and products trace their origin in the U.S. to Azel Storrs Lyman's 1858 patent for separating the fiber of wood and for the manufacture of paper and other purposes. (Jester 2014).
The Agasote Millboard Co. (Trenton N.J.) was formed in 1909, and as Jester notes, by 1916 that company was producing the widely-known Homasote brand fiberboard that probably has been a century-long thorn in the side of Celotex, Insulite Nu-Wood, and Masonite.
By 1910 in the U.S. the manufacturer of fiberboard made these products available to builders and homeowners for use as a sheathing product that was used on wall exteriors, wall and ceiling interiors, and even as roof sheathing.
In my personal experience and OPINION, and despite its description as quite weather resistant, general use of low-density fiberboard roof sheathing was a bad idea.
Image above: Homasote® 440 Sound Barrier panel fiberboard illustrated on sale at a Menards Lumber & Building Supply store.
[Click to enlarge any image]
Recycled Paper Comprises Homasote® Panels & Products
Definition of Homasote®: Homasote® brand wallboard and panels used for building sheathing and historically for walls and ceilings as well as underlayments are a cellulose-based product made from re-cycled paper using water to form a slurry that under pressure is formed into panels to which small amounts of additives are given before the product is cut to desired size.
While we generally describe Homasote® as well as other fiberboard panels as a "cellulose" or "wood fiber" product, currently Homasote's products are actually produced principally from recycled or "post-consumer" paper and newspaper.
Interestingly, cardboard is separated from the paper waste stream and re-sold since according to the company the long fibers in cardboard are not compatible with Homsote® production.
Homasote's paper input is pulped and mixed with hot water to produce a gray slurry that provides the characteristic color of the final Homasote® board product line. The gray results from ink content of the recycled newsprint used in production.
Small amounts of a wax emulsion and a biocide are added to the paper slurry before that raw material is formed into forming molds that squeeze out water before the boards are dried and cut to final size.
The company informs us that Homasote® board is weather-resistant, structural, insulating, and has 2-3 x the strength of "typical light density wood fiberboards". - Retrieved & excerpted 2017/11/08, original source: http://www.homasote.com/about
Does Homasote contain asbestos?
No, no one would not expect this product to contain asbestos and the company affirms that in comments at their own website (8 Nov 2017 see citation links below).
But some other fiberboard brand products, even though made of cellulose, may contain asbestos due to cross-contamination.
Homasote® Identification: check color & texture & cross section
Despite widespread use of the word Homasote® to describe brown fibrous and soft board panels, actually Homasote is gray or in my OPINION gray-tan in color, as it's produced from post-consumer paper.
However once installed the product may have been painted or covered-over so an inspector cannot assume that she will always find the gray color without some digging into the structure.
The Homasote picture shown here is from a discontinued product previously sold at Lowes stores.
According to Homasote®,
[Homasote brand fiberboard products in] cross section would not show layers of fiber since our products, unlike other fiberboards, are not layered.
With aging our products normally have a yellowish brown tint otherwise they are gray.
In all cases, unsanded Homasote Products all have very visible patterns on the face and back side surfaces. As far as I can tell, none of the samples shown below [at Unidentified Fiberboard Products] have our mold patterns.
Each fiber is coated with a wax emulsion thus making the panel weather resistant.
In a vertical application, should the panel get wet, the water will wick out the bottom as long as it’s installed properly and elevated off the bottom surface. In a horizontal application it will react like plywood and the water should not de allowed to pond on it especially after it stops raining.
Where structural shear strength is needed by using the company's recommended ring-shanked nails in a specified nailing pattern.
Current Homasote® Products & Homasote Company Information
As of November 2017 the following are excerpted from product information provided by the Homasote Company at the address given below.
440 SoundBarrier® is a special-density, structural board made from 100 percent environmental Homasote® cellulose fiber, a homogeneous composition manufactured with uniformly distributed protection against termites, rot and fungi and resistance to moisture. It also insulates, with twice the R-value of wood. Made with FSC® certified material.
4-Way® Floor Deck - a structural, noise-deadening subfloor and insulating, carpet underlayment made from multiple plies of Homasote® structural building board permanently bonded under extreme pressure with a water-resistant glue, trimmed to size and shaped with tongue-and-groove to form floor decking panels.
4-Way is used as a structural sub-flooring in low-rise condominium and apartment developments, motels, nursing homes, professional buildings and private homes, especially where noise control is a prime consideration.
Burlap panels - heavyweight jute fabric laminated to a nominal 1/2" structural Homasote® fiberboard, used in both residential and commercial construction as a finished paneling in its natural state or can be painted
ComfortBase® - resilient board that cushions hard concrete, Molded, 98% recycled post-consumer paper,
cellulose fiber structural panel available only in a 4’ x 4’ panel with kerfing on the
DesignWall Interior panels - sound deading wall panels, Guilford of Maine® FR 701 fabric laminated to ½" N.C.F.R.® structural Homasote
Easy-Ply Roof Deck - structural, load-bearing decking in residential and non-residential buildings, Molded, recycled post-consumer paper,
cellulose fiber structural panel made from 3 layers of 440 structural board with white
vinyl flitter interior finish. Also available without vinyl flitter finish.
Firestall® Roof Deck - nailable Class "A" fire rated structural roof decking, made of multiple plies of Homasote structural board and a face ply of UL-listed N.C.F.R.®
Homasote.® Firestall Roof Deck is composed of two materials. The interior facing ply is
composed of one layer of Class A, N.C.F.R. Homasote and the exterior facing is
composed of one or more plies; depending on overall thickness, of 440 Homasote
structural board. It is supplied in a 2’ x 8’ panel size with the tongue and groove on the
Homex® 300 - a Molded, recycled post-consumer paper with
wax binder, cellulose fiber structural joint filler, does double duty as light duty forming material for walkways, patios pool aprons and driveways and as an expansion joint where masonry or concrete walls meet outside aprons, walks, patios or steps.
Composition: Molded, recycled post-consumer paper,
cellulose fiber structural panel made from 440 Homasote structural board.
Ice Deck® O.T. - moisture-resistant structural panel that can be placed directly over indoor ice for temporary conversion of an ice rink for other activities.
N.C.F.R. Homasote® - ... structural building board and substrate for interior or exterior application, offering constant insulation against air, moisture and noise penetration. It is a UL fire-rated structural building board and UL recognized component in floor protectors and wall shields.
Fire Rated N.C.F.R. Homasote is made with 55% recycled, all wood fiber material completely impregnated with fire retardant chemical ingredients, treated for protection against termites, rot, fungus, and moisture absorption, and compressed into high-density, structural exterior building board. Made with FSC® certified material.
Nova Cork panels - Natural sustainable cork veneer over
440 Homasote panel; a molded, recycled post-consumer paper, cellulose fiber
PINnacle™ Tackboards - finely sanded, soft-textured, formaldehyde-free tackboard for interior and protected exterior use. Composition: FSC® certified material, 00% recycled wood fiber, Formaldehyde and asbestos free
Homasote® Company History & Contact Information
The Homasote Company, originally named the Agasote Millboard Company, was founded in the U.S. in 1909 by Eugene H. Outerbridge as an "offshoot" of the Bermuda Trading Company.
The Homasote Company's original product was sanded millboard panels used to form the lining and sides of railroad carriages, later used for Vehisote, applied as automobile tops installed on Ford, Buick and other vehicles. In World War I Homasote® panels were used to construct field hospitals and military hospitals.
In 1925 the company's board products were promoted as building and insulation materials. Older readers including the author [DF] will recall finding Homasote®or Thermasote® panels on walls and ceilings in homes and other buildings.
Starting in 1939, Homasote® was among companies providing modular constructed homes, making the company one of the early modular suppliers. The company's history page notes that their first modular home project in Valajo California put up 977 houses in 73 working days. Modern modular home construction is discussed at MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION.
That experience and product development was no doubt behind the use of Homasote's Precision Built System of Construction to put up 5000 miliatary homes in the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth VA (seen by this author).
The following is excerpted from the company's About-Us web page at http://www.homasote.com/about on 2017/11/08
... Homasote Company is the oldest manufacturer of building products made from recycled materials in the U.S., and the only manufacturer of its kind in the Americas. Our 600,000 square-foot factory complex [is in ] in New Jersey, ... Each production day we recycle (and keep out of landfills) up to 100 tons of recycled cellulose fiber.
Contact Homasote Company, 932 Lower Ferry Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628-0240 USA, Website: http://www.homasote.com/ Email: email@example.com
Asbestos Content in Gypsum-core Homasote exterior sheathing (gypsum board) product from 1940s.
Was there a Homasote product used in the early 1940s on the exterior of houses that looks like sheet rock? How long does this last for?
If it is still on the house, could it contain asbestos and/or contain mold due to lack of sunlight?
Was there "code" at some point that would have forced individuals who were to replace vinyl siding on the house over these boards to replace with proper products after a certain date?
Thank you, K.B.C.
Reply: Properties of Homasote® type fiberboard compared with gypsum-based exterior wall & roof sheathing boards
A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that help accurately diagnose a problem with sheathing, leaks, and mold or asbestos sources in buildings - the concerns you expressed.
That said, here are some things to consider:
Homasote® fiberboard sheathing is a wood fiber product, not a gypsum or plasterboard product. However there were indeed gypsum-based sheathing board products used on buildings both as wall sheathing (under siding and over studs) as well as roof sheathing.
Starting at the top of this article HOMASOTE HISTORY & PRODUCTS you will read that the ingredients of Homasote® panels are principally recycled newspaper with a small amount of a wax and a biocide.
Having inspected quite a few buildings that used this material, my OPINION is that it has proven surprisingly durable so long as it was kept dry.
Wet panel board or gypsum board material of any brand can become soft, and also one might find mold growth on the paper backing of the gypsum board.
Some Gypsum board and plaster board products indeed contain asbestos as does some joint compound
Watch out: Indeed some gypsum--based drywall products did contain asbestos into the 1980's. I have not, however, tested nor seen test results specifically for exterior wall sheathing using that material. I suggest sending a small sample, a square inch would be plenty, to a certified asbestos testing lab - the cost should be $10 - $50. U.S. Do let me know what you find as the results will be helpful to other readers.
Even when gypsum board or plaster board did not itself contain asbestos, some joint compounds did contain that material right up into the 1980's.
But used as an exterior sheathing, at the buildings I've seen, there was no top coating of joint compound and tape on this type of sheathing board (as there would be on drywall used for interior wall coverings).
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Recent questions & answers about how to identify the brand or manufacturer of fiberboard sheathing products used inside or outside of buildings
On 2016-08-28 23:56:05.571973 by (mod)
- asbestos used in wall papers & coverings
Watch out, Savannah. In addition to possible asbestos in some old wall coverings, some old wallpapers, particularly ones with green in the pattern, contained arsenic.
At ASBESTOS LIST of PRODUCTS we include what's probably the most-extensive list you'll find for asbestos-containing products found in or around homes.
There I haven't listed "asbestos containing wallpaper" but such products might have existed, particularly where an insulating or strengthening fiber was wanted or where fire resistance was a concern. Keep in mind that asbestos may be present in some plaster and gypsum products found beneath wallpaper too.
Research citing asbestos use in films and papers used on walls:
Breiner, R. "Asbestos-plastic film laminates." U.S. Patent 3,770,569, issued November 6, 1973.
Gerek, Gene, and Rowland S. Hartzell. "Asbestos-foam laminates." U.S. Patent 3,522,140, issued July 28, 1970.
Newman, Arnold H. "Insulated wallpaper." U.S. Patent 4,039,709, issued August 2, 1977.
Prain, Willis A., "Wallpaper steamers." U.S. Patent 3,158,139, issued November 24, 1964. (asbestos used in this device not directly in wallpaper)
SJJ, Langford AL, and Textiles Pearson. "Wallpaper (1827) n. Paper, or paperlike material, usually decorated in colors, which is pasted or otherwise affixed to walls or ceilings of rooms. Wall stress (1) In a filament‐wound pressure." - used atop asbestos cement wallboard
Werhane, Patricia H., Jenny Mead, Regina Swart, and Mollie Painter-Moreland. "South African Mining and Asbestos-Related Diseases (a)." Asbestos mining tailings were mixed with cow dung or mud used to paper or line walls in houses.
Lewis, Herman. "Cement composition." U.S. Patent 1,595,897, issued August 10, 1926. Used asbestos in wall lining products
On 2016-08-28 05:33:51.161373 by Savannah
I live in a 1920s home and noticed the wallpaper detaching from the plaster wall. I started pulling it off put realized it may contain asbestos. Anyone have experience, should I be concerned?
On 2016-01-24 21:03:28.247700 by (mod)
Woody, Fiberboard sheathing is a wood fiber product. You're welcome to use our page bottom CONTACT link to send me photos of your sheathing and of any markings on it.
On 2016-01-24 20:41:20.306241 by Woody
hey.. bought a 1940 house and have found various areas where asbestos has been located and re mediated but thought we had it all out.. found a Celotex board that only has Celeotex Lath.. this is a fiber board and need to find out if this was an asbestos product.. have a pick if that helps
I know per your articles that Celotex interior fiberboard usually does not contain asbestos but the directions on the back of mine talk about spraying it the day before installing it. My question is what might that spray do to the product?
I'm enclosing a picture of my product label. I find no other product marking however and want to be assured that it is not something containing asbestos.
Any thoughts would be appreciated. - Anon. by private email 2015/12/14
Thanks for the question and also for the image - it was one I've not seen and it contains helpful details.
In the article above in the Celotex section I've posted your image of the Celotex instruction label discussing wetting the wallboard before use in plastering
OPINION: The spray was intended to boost the adhesion of plaster when this board was used as a substitute for (earlier) wood lath. These products were somewhat water resistant, some including waxes specifically for that purpose.
Wetting wallboard 24 hours before installing it as a plaster base would have increased its moisture content a bit; I doubt it'd have become too soft to apply or the manufacturer wouldn't have advised spraying both sides.
In this context I wouldn't expect other problems (such as mold growth) from this step as the board was to be installed to studs or ceiling joists promptly.
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Jester, Thomas C., ed. Twentieth-century building materials: History and conservation. Getty Publications, 2014.
Wood Conversion Company, "NU-WOOD INTERIORS FOR EVERY WALL AND CEILING", [PDF] Wood Conversion Company, St. Paul Minnesota, (u1936),
retrieved 2015/12/04, original source: https://archive.org/stream/ Nu-woodInteriorsForEveryWallAndCeiling/ Nu-woodInteriorsForEveryWallAndCeiling_djvu.txt,
Wilson, Richa, Kathleen Snodgrass, "Early 20th-Century Building Materials: Fiberboard and Plywood", [PDF] (2007) United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Technology & Development Program, 073-2308-MTDC, retrieved 2017/07/29, original source: https://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/htmlpubs/htm07732308/
 Homasote® Company, 932 Lower Ferry Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628-0240 Tel: 800-257-9491 Ext 1332, or from outside the U.S. call 609-883-3300. Website: http://www.homasote.com/ , Email: Sales@homasote.com.
Thanks to Homasote CEO Warren Flicker for technical review and comment on this article.
Mark Cramer Inspection Services Mark Cramer, Tampa Florida, Mr. Cramer is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors and is a Florida home inspector and home inspection educator. Mr. Cramer serves on the ASHI Home Inspection Standards. Contact Mark Cramer at: 727-595-4211 mark@BestTampaInspector.com
John Cranor is an ASHI member and a home inspector (The House Whisperer) is located in Glen Allen, VA 23060. He is also a contributor to InspectApedia.com in several technical areas such as plumbing and appliances (dryer vents). Contact Mr. Cranor at 804-747-7747 or by Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
 Celotex Corporation, PO Box 31602, Tampa FL 33631, with offices in Atlanta, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas, Oakland and Philadelphia, and plants in six U.S. States is headquartered in Tampa, FL. Celotex is a national manufacturer of residential and commercial building materials. Website: www.celotex.com Tel: 800-CELOTEX
"Insulation Selector Guide", Celotex Corporation, web search 6/29/12, original source: http://www.silvercote.com/PDF/ThermaxInsulSelectorGuide.pdf, [copy on file as CelotexThermaxInsulSelectorGuide.pdf ]
"Celotex Blue Ridge Fiberboard", SturdyBrace®, produced by Blue Ridge Fiberboard Inc., 250 Celotex Dr., Danville VA 24541, product literature, web search 6/29/2012, original source: blueridgefiberboard.com/pages/sturdybrace.php, [Copy on file as Celotex_BlueRidge_SturdyBrace.pdf].
MSDS: original source: blueridgefiberboard.com/pages/sturdybrace/pdfs/SturdyBrace-msds-br.pdf
"Guide Specifications: SturdyBrace® Structural Fiberboard Wall Sheathing", 6/29/12, original source: blueridgefiberboard.com/pages/sturdybrace.php [Copy on file as SturdyBrace-guidespecs.pdf]
 Douglas Leen, Petersburg AK 99833, contributed the photograph of insulating board scraps from roof insulation removed from a building. Dr. Leen provides such a wide range of services, collectables, and historical information about the Northwest that a succinct description is difficult: flying dentist goes anywhere, antique forestry posters, historic campers, the tugboat Katahdin, in Alaska, Washington, and Wyoming. Mr. Leen can be contacted at email@example.com or at 907-518-0335
 Georgia Pacific: information about DensGlas gypsum board building sheathing can be found at the company's website at gp.com/build/product.aspx?pid=4674
 Pittsburgh Press, "Yesterday - in costly homes alone, Today even the simplest home can have this hidden comfort", The Pittsburgh Press, 19 April 1925, classified ads section. Web search 6/22/12, [Copy on file as Celotex_Ad_023_PP.jpg and more]
 pending research
Patents pertaining to building insulation & insulating board, Celotex & Insulating Board type products
"Sound absorbing board for walls and ceilings", Patent No. 1,554,180, issued to W.S. Trader, September 15,1925, first disclosed a wallboard constructed from "Celotex", a felted mass of strong bagasse fibers, so compacted as to be capable of use as an artificial lumber in that it can be sawed and nailed, and has sufficient strength in many cases to be substituted for lumber. That same patent mentions "Insulite", a building board made from wood pulp tailings and which likewise has a porous fibrous body portion and which is possessed of considerable strength so that the same can be nailed, etc. Celotex was preferred as an insulating material because its internal cells produce a sound-deadening insulating effect.
"Method and apparatus for drying moving material", Treadway B. Munroe et als, assigned to Dahlberg & Co., U.S. Patent No. 1,598,980, 7 September 1926, described a method and apparatus for drying sheets of artificial heat insulating lumber, known on the market as Celotex, improving the original process.
"Reenforced composition board", Treadway B. Munroe et als, U.S. Patent No. 1,578,344, 30 March 1926
"Insulating Structural Board", U.S. Patent 2,159,300, Armen H. Tashjian et als, assigned to William B. Miller, Lakewood OH, 23 May 1939, describes insulating structural boards of laminated construction for use as roof or floor slabs, and refers to "Standard insulating fiber boards, such as "Celotex", "Masonite", "Insulite", etc. that had excellent insulating properties but have relatively slight structural strength in flexure or bending under load, hence are not and cannot be used as structural slabs for load sustaining purposes, as roof or floor slabs, for example. [Adding structural strength ran into the problem of reducing the insulating value of the product.]
"Sound-absorbing chamber", Treadway B. Munroe et als, U.S. Patent No. 1,705,778, 19 March 1929 (using Celotex to construct a sound deadening chamber.
"Method of and apparatus for drying moving material", U.S. Patent 2,376,612, Carl G. Muench, New Orleans, assigned to Celotex Corporation, described a method and apparatus for drying sheets of artificial heat insulating lumber, preferably formed by the felting of bagasse fiber along with other materials necessary to make a satisfactory structural fiber board. 22 May 1945
"Sound-absorbing board for walls and ceilings," U.S. Patent 1,554,180, Sept. 15, 1925, Wilber S. Trader, assignor to Dahlberg & Company, Chicago IL. described an interior-use sound insulating product.
 "Insulite Co. v. Reserve Supply Co.," 60F.2d 433 (1932), Circuit Court of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, July 26, 1932. Web Search t/23/12. Quoting:
Rabbeted joints in material to which plaster or other material is applied are found in the Jones patent, No. 886,813. In this patent the composition is made up of plaster of paris, cement, or other like substance, combined with hair, wood fiber, sawdust, wool, wood shavings, excelsior, straw, or similar substances. The length of the lath covers three joists instead of four. The boards are arranged in staggered relation to each other and the joints are shiplapped. The specification states that after the boards or blocks are placed in position they may be covered with wallpaper or other similar material, which, of course, would include plaster.
"Machine for perforating Insulite Boards", U.S. Patent No. 1,306,283, Patented 10 June 1919, John K. Shaw, inventor from Minneapolis MN, describes improvements for machines for perforating Insulite Boards.
"Before you Build write for this mailing piece and a sample of Insulite", [advertisement], The Literary Digest, 13 September 1940.
 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, web search 6/22/12, original source: http://cameo.mfa.org/browse/record.asp?subkey=3644 [Copy on file as MFAB_Fiberboard.pdf]
 "Separating the Fiber of Wood", A.S. Lyman, U.S. Patent No. 21,077, 3 August 1858
 Standards pertaining to fiberboard insulating sheathing:
ASTM C 208-95 (2001) – Standard Specification for Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board. Type IV Grade 2 (Structural Wall Sheathing).
ASTM C 846-94 (2003) – Application of Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board for Wall Sheathing.
ASTM D 1554 - Definitions of terms Relating to Wood Based Fiber and Particle Panel Materials.
ASTM E-72 (1997)- Standard Method for Conducting Strength Tests of Panels for Building Construction.
ANSI /AHA - A194.1, Cellulosic Fiberboard.
U.S. Department of Commerce: PS57-73, Cellulosic Fiber Insulating Board
A.F.A. (2003): Fiberboard Sheathing test results
 "Properties of insulating fiberboard sheathing",
Forest Products Laboratory (U.S.)
Luxford, R. F. (Ronald Floyd), 1889 (1960), original report 1955, citation:hdl.handle.net/1957/2489, web search 6/29/12, original source: http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/2489
Design of Wood Structures - ASD, Donald E. Breyer, Kenneth Fridley, Kelly Cobeen, David Pollock, McGraw Hill, 2003, ISBN-10: 0071379320, ISBN-13: 978-0071379328
This book is an update of a long-established text dating from at least 1988 (DJF); Quoting: This book is gives a good grasp of seismic design for wood structures. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations.THE CLASSIC TEXT ON WOOD DESIGN UPDATED TO INCLUDE THE LATEST CODES AND DATA. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design.
Diagnosing & Repairing House Structure Problems, Edgar O. Seaquist, McGraw Hill, 1980 ISBN 0-07-056013-7 (obsolete, incomplete, missing most diagnosis steps, but very good reading; out of print but used copies are available at Amazon.com, and reprints are available from some inspection tool suppliers). Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
Defects and Deterioration in Buildings: A Practical Guide to the Science and Technology of Material Failure, Barry Richardson, Spon Press; 2d Ed (2001), ISBN-10: 041925210X, ISBN-13: 978-0419252108. Quoting: A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
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