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ROOFING INSPECTION & REPAIR
AMERICAN CEMWOOD ROOFING
BEST ROOFING PRACTICES
BUILT UP ROOFS
CATHEDRAL CEILING VENTILATION
CERTIFICATIONS for ROOFING CONTRACTORS
CHIMNEY FLASHING Mistakes & Leaks
COLD WEATHER ROOF TROUBLE
DECKS, ROOFTOP CONSTRUCTION
EPDM, RUBBER, PVC ROOFING
EXTRACTIVE BLEEDING on SHINGLES
FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD
FLASHING on BUILDINGS
FLAT ROOF MOISTURE & CONDENSATION
Green House or Solarium Roof Leaks
HEAT TAPES & CABLES for ROOF ICE DAMS
ROOF ICE DAM LEAKS
MASONITE WOODRUF FIBERBOARD ROOFING
NOISE CONTROL for ROOFS
PLASTIC ROOFING TYPES
PVC, EPDM, RUBBER ROOFING
ROOF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES - PHOTO GUIDE
ROOF CLEANING RECOMMENDATIONS
ROOF COLOR RECOMMENDATIONS
ROOF DORMER TYPES - PHOTO GUIDE
ROOF INSPECTION SAFETY & LIMITS
ROOF JOB PROBLEMS, RESOLVING
ROOF LEAK DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
ROOF NOISE TRANSMISSION
ROOF REPLACEMENT SNAFUs
ROOFING FELT UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREMENTS
ROOFING MATERIALS, Age, Types
ROOFING TILE SHAPES & PROFILES
ROOFING UNDERLAYMENT BEST PRACTICES
SADDLE CONSTRUCTION at CHIMNEYS
SNOW GUARDS & SNOW BRAKES
STANDARDS for ROOFING
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
TEST LABS - ROOF SHINGLE
TREES & SHRUBS, TRIM OFF BUILDING
TRUSSES, Floor & Roof
UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREMENTS on ROOFS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
WALK-ON ROOF SURFACES
WARRANTIES for ROOF SHINGLES
WORKMANSHIP & ROOF DAMAGE
Flat and built-up roofs: this article describes flat and low-slope built-up roofing or BUR roofing materials, choices, installations, inspection, defects, built-up roofing repairs, and BUR product sources.
Our page top photo shows a worn-out multi-ply BUR roof. We were measuring the width between roofing seams to determine the number of plies that was probably installed.
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Built-Up roofs or BUR or "tar and gravel" roofs (if tar and gravel top coat were applied) are constructed traditionally using multiple layers of heavy-weight roofing felt (roof plies) cemented together by hot mopped asphalt. Cold applied asphalt methods are also used for some BUR roofs.
[Click to enlarge any image]
Carson Dunlop's sketch (left) illustrates a 4-ply built-up roof installation.
Built up roofing is usually used on flat or low-slope roofs (less than 3" rise in 12" of run). We have found an occasional BUR on steeper slopes, including a tar and gravel steep slope roof whose gravel kept washing down into the building's gutter.
The Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers' Association (ARMA) describes BUR as follows:
-- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
Examples of Flat & Low Slope Roof Defects
Thanks to Carson Dunlop for providing the sketches (below) of these common low slope or flat roof defects. We illustrate blisters in built-up roofing membranes (these can occur in modified bitumen roofs and EPDM roofs too), alligatoring or cracking (sketch and photo just below) on flat roofs, particularly where tarred surfaces or un-coated modified bitumen roof surfaces are exposed without gravel or mineral granule protection.
Our right-hand photo shows our client inspecting built-up roofing installed on a low-sloped roof with surrounding parapet walls. The roof was worn, badly cracked, having been "repaired" with multiple coatings of tar - it needed to be replaced.
Ponding, a problem on flat roofs likely to lead to leaks, is illustrated just below.
Any roof needs to drain properly to survive. The flooded BUR (photo, above right) in New York is likely to leak soon as it does not drain, leaving ponding over much of the roof surface for days after rainfall. Especially in a freeze-thaw climate, even the smallest imperfection in a flat or low-slope roofing seam will become a leak on roofs that flood.>
Carson Dunlop's sketch of blisters in built up roofing membranes, left, illustrates a problem than can occur in other membrane roof types as well, including MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOFING and EPDM or rubber membrane roofs MEMBRANE & SINGLE PLY ROOFS.
Life Expectancy of Built-Up Roofs
A "rule of thumb" used by some roofers is to estimate that the typical life expectancy of a built-up roof will be 5 x the number of plies installed. It is not uncommon for a well-installed built-up roof covered with tar and gravel (for protection from sunlight) and properly drained to last for 40 years.
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