Diagnose well pipe leaks:
This article describes diagnosing and repairing leaks that can occur in building water piping between a private well and the building water equipment. We also discuss the diagnosis and repair of leaky water well casings themselves. Knowing just what kind of leak is occurring in a building helps pinpoint the problem and also helps specify the necessary plumbing repair.
The articles at this website will answer most questions about diagnosing and repairing pumps, wells, water supply systems, and building piping. Our page top photo shows water around a plastic water line that had a buried but leaky fitting. The repair was simple, but the excavation to find the leak was a bit more trouble.
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Well piping leaks vs well casing leaks: Here we discuss diagnosing and repairing leaks in the well piping that extends from the well bottom foot valve or pump in to the building where it is typically connected to a pressure tank, pump controls, and the building water supply piping.
For well casing leaks (leaks in the large diameter steel pipe or casing that lines the well bore)
see WELL CASING LEAK REPAIRS
Water will leak out of a well pipe at a bad connection, perforation, or cracked pipe when the well pump is running, particularly if the water system uses a submersible pump that is located in the well itself.
If you have this problem you may find a wet spot in the ground near the well piping, provided that the pipe is close enough to the surface.
You will also notice that the well pump is running more often than normal, and that your "apparent" water usage may have increased.
Some people even report finding a "water fountain" or geyser in the lawn at a burst water supply pipe from both private wells and from a municipal water main.
Air may leak into a well water pipe at a bad connection, perforation, or other damage when the well pump stops running, particularly if the leak problem is combined with a defective check valve or foot valve in the piping system.
The result may be air discharged from plumbing fixtures, improper air charge in the water pressure tank, or loss of pump prime. Short cycling of the water pump or loss of pump prime may result as well.
See AIR DISCHARGE at FAUCETS, FIXTURES
The corroded galvanized iron well pipe shown at above left is discussed in more detail
at INTERMITTENT CYCLING WATER PUMPS.
Photo by DJF & Rasmussen Well Drilling, Inc.
This water pressure diagnosis problem discussion below gives some added details, thanks to reader Dan Babb.
My house was built in 1979, but the well was re drilled to 142 feet in 1986 by the previous owner. The copper pipes were replaced with pvc and a peroxide treatment system was installed due to the sulphur content. I purchased the property in 1997 and the last two years have been a journey.
I've replaced the well pump, pressure tank, pressure switch, chemical feeder pump, repacked the sand and charcoal filters. Currently, I'm using twice the amount of chemicals to treat the water then a year ago. If i'm using twice the amount of water that would be acceptable. I have now flow meter for proof, but that can't be.
Culligan has been out three times to confirm the feeder and filters are functioning correctly. I have not found any leaks, but have noticed an incredible increase of air within the system if it has been idle. There is no check valve on the system near the pressure tank. Would a failing check valve in the well cause this issue? Should I install a check valve prior to the pressure tank? If i installed a flow meter, where should it be located?
Air in the system could be a piping leak - including between the well and the building - or the well running dry. Or a bad foot valve if the pump is in the building not in the well and a foot valve is all you've got in the well. That'd also show up as lost prime.
If you see the water pressure dropping after the pump has shut off and if you are sure no water is running in the building, then there is either a leak in the well piping or a bad foot valve. If the pressure does not drop, a check valve won't fix anything.
If the pressure is dropping, try a check valve as you suggest - if nothing else, it'd be diagnostic.
Watch out: As the feedback discussion below exemplifies, the second you start touching old plumbing in a building you may find out that there are multiple problems. We call this the spaghetti problem: you can't pull just one strand of spaghetti out of the colander once it has all stuck together. That's characteristic of performing repair work on an older home.
My system is now fixed. It was a combination of issues, but your diagnostics was correct. The air was a result of a leaking line at the well casing. After receiving your email, I looked over all the lines in the house.
No leaks could be found, but I could hear the well pump kicking on and off. I began to monitor the pressure gauge at the pressure tank. The well would pump up to 50 psi and shut-off, then the pressure would slowly drop. I could hear water moving in the lines, but no faucets were on. I shut the gate valve upstream from the pressure tank and pressure continued to drop. I noticed sweating on the pressure tank.
I turned off the pressure switch, closed a gate valve and opened the drain valve. The pressure tank drained very little water, but released the pressure. Seeing sweat half way up, I shook the tank and to confirm water was inside. The bladder had ruptured. I replaced the pressure tank, tee, and fittings and included a check valve downstream of the pressure tank.
I put the system back on-line. Air was still in the lines, so I decided to water the lawn , flowers and garden hoping to remove any trapped air from the system. It seemed to work.
Then I noticed the flowers around the well casing weren't suffering from the heat. Taking a closer look there were puddles. I began touching the ground and it was saturated. I called my well driller and he came out and confirmed the water was leaking outside the casing. He dug around the casing to reveal two pin holes in the 1" HDPE pipe. We spliced a two foot section and tested the system.
The well line is all fixed. I asked the plumber to look at my connections at the pressure tank. We added an air release valve and increased the pressure switch settings. I am very happy with the results.
My day wasn't over though. I noticed water on the garage floor by one of my two 82 gallon holding tanks. There was a rusty look to the water. I tilted the tank and sure enough there were three streams coming from the bottom of the tank. It may have been slightly leaking before, but the increased pressure possibly made it worse. I called Culligan and they no longer install galvanized steel tanks on sulphur systems.
Fiberglass tanks are now available for $460. I'm currently testing my system on one tank and shopping around for best prices on fiberglass tanks.
(July 2, 2015) Anonymous said:
how can i check and see if i have a hole in my line before i pull the pump
26 July 2015 Anon-2 said:
How can I find where the leak is located between the house and the well?
If you shut off water into the building and water pressure falls at the pressure tank and well piping system then there may be a hole in well piping or a leaky foot valve or bad check valve at the pump.
Turn off water on the house side of your well pump and pressure tank. Watch the water pressure gauge - presuming the gauge is on the well-side of the water valve you closed. If over a few minutes to a few hours you see the water pressure fall then it's a good guess that the leak is between the valve you closed and the bottom of water piping in the well.
Unfortunately the leak can be anywhere in that entire route.
Before launching a massive digging campaign, well service company or plumber may at this point look for
If none of these first steps find the well leak then there are a couple of options:
A variety of installation errors can cause a later leak in plastic well piping. We list some of these below, starting with an updat/plumbing/Well_Pipe_Leaks.phpPipe_Leaks.htm">WELL PIPING LEAK DIAGNOSIS from reader Dan Babb.
While the comments below describe the cause of a leak in plastic well piping, the same conditions can cause a leak in buried municipal water supply piping between the building and the street. As Carson Dunlop's Home Reference Book points out,
Poor water pressure in the house may be the result of a partially closed or obstructed valve in the street. It may also be because of blockage, such as a stone or other foreign body in the pipe. New piping may be crimped during installation or become pinched under a rock during back-filling operations. This can also cause low water pressure.
If your building is served by municipal water, not a private well,
see PLASTIC PIPE LEAK CAUSES
Leaks in "hidden" air volume controls located on well piping on certain submersible pump systems using a bladderless water pressure tank are discussed
at AIR VOLUME CONTROLS, WATER TANK.
Inspect your connections carefully with the well piping under full pressure before burying the water piping.
If the water supply piping inside your building is also plastic, see PLASTIC PIPING ABS CPVC PB PEX PVC.
If your building is served by municipal water, not a private well, see
At WATER PRESSURE PROBLEM DIAGNOSIS TABLE we note that a possible explanation for loss of building water pressure, or loss of well pump prime can be air leaking into a well piping line, as well as water leaking out of the well pipe.
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