CELLULOSE LOOSE FILL INSULATION - CONTENTS: Cellulose building insulation identification guide - photo guide to identifying & inspecting cellulose building insulation. How to Inspect Cellulose Insulation for Defects. Pro's and Cons of Cellulose Building Insulation. What are the R Values and Effectiveness of Cellulose Building Insulation? What is the Mold Resistance of Cellulose Building Insulation? Odor Properties of Cellulose Building Insulation. Settlement or Void Problems with Cellulose or Other Building Insulation Products. List of Manufacturers of Cellulose Insulation
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Cellulose building insulation:
This article illustrates and describes the properties of cellulose building insulation materials.
added these examples because of frequent questions about these materials. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify building insulation materials and also people who need to recognize both asbestos materials (or probable-asbestos) in buildings as well as materials unlikely to contain asbestos - all by simple
Visual Details Help Identify Loose-Fill Cellulose Insulation
Modern cellulose building insulation is basically chopped newsprint, usually treated with a fire retardant chemical. As you can see in the photos above, it looks like fluffy gray papery material. The lighter colored chips may be wood fragments that have been added to this mix.
Cellulose insulation is usually blown-in to building cavities as
an insulation retrofit or into attics where it is being added or where access is physically difficult. Cellulose building insulation has been used in buildings since or before 1937 and continues to be installed in buildings (2008) in the U.S.
Cellulose insulation produced by some manufacturers is a mixture of chopped paper and wood fibers (sawdust).
Above, a close-up look at cellulose insulation will often show small fragments paper on which you may make out printed characters or partial characters (photo above, red arrow). Or you may see small fragments of paper of different colors (photo below). These details can help identify cellulose insulation and will distinguish it from just about any other building insulation product. [Click to enlarge any image]
How to Inspect Cellulose Insulation for Defects
Don't cut a big hole to look for blown-in cellulose insulation - as you can see in this photo, it may simply fall out.
If you inspect an older building's basement or crawl space it may be easy to see if cellulose insulation has been blown into the building's walls.
Check at the building's sills atop the foundation walls.
Often openings in building walls permit blown-in cellulose to fall onto the top of the sill as you can see in our photo at left.
Pro's and Cons of Cellulose Building Insulation
The link to the original Q&A article in PDF form immediately below is followed by an expanded/updated online version of this article.
Q&A on - PDF version, use your browser's back button to return to this page. Original article, Solar Age Magazine, December 1985/January 1986, adapted and updated for InspectAPedia.com December 2010.
The question-and-answer article below paraphrases, quotes-from, updates, and comments an original article from Solar Age Magazine and written by Steven Bliss.
Question: How does Cellulose Insulation Stack Up Against Fiberglass or Rockwool Insulation?
I plan to retrofit 7 inches of blown insulation over the top of 6 inches of existing fiberglass insulation, and I would like to use blown-in cellulose.
How does cellulose insulation stack up against fiberglass or rockwool with respect to
R-value of cellulose insulation compared with fiberglass or mineral wool (rock wool) insulation
Moisture absorption of cellulose insulation compared with fiberglass or mineral wool (rock wool) insulation
Attraction to (resistance to) nesting rodents: cellulose insulation compared with fiberglass or mineral wool (rock wool) insulation
Fire protection (fire resistance) - of cellulose insulation compared with fiberglass or mineral wool (rock wool) insulation.
Thanks - David Stingle, Black Creek WI
Below we add additional insulation property questions:
And at BLOWN-IN INSULATION we also discuss insulation settlement in retrofit jobs and we calculate the potential impact on wall R-value.
The R-vale per inch of loosefill insulation varies depending on its installed density and product characteristics. For that reason, the most reliable way to buy loose-fill insulation is to specify the R-value - not the thickness - and install the correct number of bags per square foot, following the loose-fill or blown-in insulation coverage chart printed on all insulation bags.
The insulation chart also shows a minimum insulation thickness necessary to guarantee the desired R-value3.
The U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) requires insulation manufacturers to make available to consumers an information sheet explaining this system.
Cellulose insulation yields R-3.1 to R-3.7 per inch, compared to R-2.2 to R-2.9 per inch for blown in or loose-fill fiberglass and rockwool insulation. In general, you should compare products on the basis of cost per R-value per square foot.
Moisture absorption of cellulose insulation: Of the three insulations you named: blown-in or loose-fill cellulose, fiberglass, or rockwool, only cellulose will absorb moisture, but this is only a problem if it gets drenched, such as by roof leaks into an attic or building wall. The other two insulations will hold moisture only on their glass or mineral fiber surfaces.
Fire resistance of cellulose insulation: Of the three insulation products we are discussing, only cellulose is potentially flammable, if its fire retardant loses effectiveness over time (as some suspect of the dry-applied fire-retardants). Studies in the mid 1980's of the reliability of fire retardance of cellulose insulation over time were inconclusive. See Cellulose Insulation Fire Resistance for details.
As for rodent resistance of cellulose insulation, we (DJF) have observed that rodents are happy tunneling in just about any soft insulating material, but we have also observed that a different sort of pest, mold, is not generally found in cellulose insulation. We (DF) believe based on our own field and lab investigations that the fire retardant chemicals used to treat cellulose insulation appear to also resist mold growth.
Mold resistance of cellulose insulation: cellulose insulation appears to be resistant to mold growth.
What are the R Values and Effectiveness of Cellulose Building Insulation?
The thermal resistance or heat-loss resistance of cellulose insulation sold by Pal-O-Pak Insulation company, for a 10-inch depth, was reported as 0.635 per square meter. The product heat resistance ranged (by thickness) from 0.004 to 1.602 m2· K· W-1. Modern blown-in cellulose building insulation has an R-value of about 3.70 per inch.
Our photo (left) of cellulose insulation sprayed over a suspended ceiling shows an area we were investigating for mold on the upper or hidden side of the suspended ceiling tiles (none was visible). We brushed back the cellulose insulation to check the ceiling surface. But you can also see that this insulation plan was not the best. About R7.
Less than three inches of insulation had been added, and working on wiring or piping in the ceiling area means removing one of these ceiling tiles and dropping cellulose insulation into the occupied space - a bit of a mess.
What these data and most reports of insulation products' resistance to heat loss do not include is the large impact on building heat loss of the degree of care with which any insulating product has been installed.
Gaps between insulating materials and building surfaces can permit drafts which can overcome otherwise high "R" values that may be associated with the insulating material. (Just imagine a well-insulated home in the dead of winter but with a few windows open.)
Insulating materials that by their physical nature tend to fill in cracks and gaps without much human effort, such as blown-in products or foamed products, are likely to produce fewer air leaks and thus may be expected to improve the economy of heating or cooling a building when compared with construction where diligence was not a watchword.
Question: changing estimates of R-values for cellulose insulation
2016/08/15 Z Wilfre said:
I have had about 75 bags of cellulose insulation, 30 pounds each, stored since 1989 in my summer residence. Now I am retiring and want to blow them into the attic. The information on the old bags show that a R32 is 8.8 inches settled, with a density of 1.88 per square foot, installed. 1000 sq. ft. would require 62.6 bags (30 lbs. each) net.
Since the place is large, I went to Menards website which shows that R30 to be 8.6 inches settled and require 46 bags (18.1 lbs each) with a density of 8.78 lbs per sq. ft. installed. This is about half the density of the 1989 cellulose that I already have.
My questions: What has changed? Is the cellulose produced today approximately twice as efficient? Has the measurement of "R" values changed? Is the product in the old 30 lbs bags somehow not as "fluffy" or does a newer blower chop it up better and make it a better insulator.
I suspect that different people are making the same calculation with perhaps very slight changes in product rating, test results, or other factors. I'd ignore it. After all, real on-site variations such as how densely or loosely you blow the insulation will overwhelm the slight R difference in the two theoretical claims.
Z Wilfre said:
Perhaps all my information was confusing, I think I got the Menards density wrong by a factor of 10. (should be 0.878 lbs/ sq ft. for R30)
But a simpler calculation shows that the old cellulose gives 0.059 lbs/sq ft per R. Menards gives 0.029 lbs/sq ft per R. This is not "slight". This is double. I take it that in your experience the "lbs/sq ft per R" has not changed with time. I guess I will experiment a bit and see if I can get the old cellulose to be as effective as the Menards cellulose. Which would save me about $300. I'll let you know. Thanks for your response.
To be clear and candid, my search didn't find a list of historical R-values for loose-fill cellulose. I don't think we can reliably compare R-vales from different eras without first knowing exactly how the R-value was determined. Historically those were "measured" in the field by obtaining U values and converting them to R. (See DEFINITION of HEATING & COOLING TERMS at inspectapedia.com/heat/HVAC_Definitions.php ) Briefly R is heat transfer resistance while U is the more easily-measured heat-conductance.
A problem with that approach is that it doesn't account for variation in how the insulation was installed: how loose, how tightly packed, or perhaps other factors affecting the measured wall-area heat transmission. A simple change in test conditions, such as starting with different indoor and outdoor temperatures will change the measurement (heat transfer rate is greater when there is greater difference between the two areas). 15K is the ideal difference when making measurements, and other factors such as solar radiation, wind, moisture and humidity, infiltration all need to be held constant.
There might also differences in the cellulose application method: loose-fill dry-spray vs wet-spray methods. And in walls, settlement vs when measurements are made would be a factor.
R-value measurement, claims, and advertising remain controversial in the insulation industry. Typical R-values claimed for cellulose insulation by either method are R 3 to 3.8 per inch.
For other readers,
Menard's Insulmax cellulose insulation (dry applied - no water) specifications are at hw.menardc.com/main/items/media/GREEN083/Prod_Tech_Spec/InsulmaxCoverageChart11-22-2014.pdf
There, a 3.5" thickness (presumably in a wall and without accounting for settlement or voids) of loose fill celluose = R13. That's an R of 3.71 / inch and right in line with industry claims.
All of the R-value or even density per "square foot" claims are to me confusing since when a homeowner is installing cellulose insulation she is not going to have any idea the density at which it is being applied, nor the thickness of "a square foot" since by definition squares omit a thickness dimension.
2016/08/19 Z Wilfre said:
I did find a history of cellulose insulation. So it appears that my old cellulose won't perform as well as the new cellulose for the same density. The web link is: www.ecia.eu.com/support/content/history-of-cellulose-insulation
"Material density of loose-fill cellulose is one example of the progress that has occurred. As recently as 1980 the settled density of a typical cellulose product was over 42kg/m3. By the mid-80s average density had decreased to about 40kg/m3. A couple years later 38kg/m3 was common. This was done by improving and refining production technology that had been used for 40 years or more.
At the end of the 1980s new manufacturing technologies became available, and the density of cellulose insulation dropped suddenly by about a 2-5kg/m3. Today the average settled density of cellulose is about 30-35kg/m3"
" Cellulose insulation is now produced on very good technology based on fiberization systems, which maximize fiber separation. These attenuated, long and slender fibers are consistent, uniform and offer much better comfort during application."
ZW thanks; we'll research and add that information.
The source you cite is a recently-formed insulation industry association, the European Cellulose Insulation Association, Website: www.ecia.eu.com/, Administrator Lucia Gross firstname.lastname@example.org.
In North America, for the U.S. see CIMA, the Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association, 136 South Keowee St., Dayton OH 45402, Tel: 937-222-2462. CIMA provides a helpful document listing cellulose insulation buildnig codes, regulations, specifications and voluntary standards, CIMA Technical Bulletin #1, [PDF] at inspectapedia.com/insulation/Cellulose_Insulation_CIMA.pdf
Certainly casual observation of cellulose in older vs newer homes shows that newer cellulose *looks* more finely fluffed as individual particles.
Still I'd consider these average density numbers and variations in rated R-value and weight as underlying theory rather than as accurate predictors of the insulation performance in a given installation.
Not included in the ECIA's otherwise helpful description of the properties of cellulose insulation, and pertaining to all insulation products, I emphasize that having inspected many cellulose-insulated homes, including opening or disassembling older homes containing various qualities and types of insulating materials, I almost always find installation variations whose effect on the building's overall heat loss or heat gain will swamp the underlying theory. A few missed cavities or over-pumped overly-dense insulating material along a wall can add up to a heat loss effect similar to leaving a window open. What this means to us who care about a home's thermal performance is that attention to detail during an insulation job is important.
What is the Mold Resistance of Cellulose Building Insulation?
We suspect that building cavities insulated with fire-retardant treated cellulose insulation are a bit more resistant to mold-growth than cavities insulated with fiberglass, cotton, or some other materials.
Our hypothesis is that the fire-retardant chemicals happen to also discourage fungal growth.
Details about mold resistance of cellulose building insulation: field inspection & lab testing
Mold resistance of cellulose insulation: we (DJF) add to this list of properties of cellulose insulation our field and laboratory observation that cellulose insulation appears to be highly resistant to mold growth and somewhat resistant to insect activity compared with fiberglass and mineral fiber insulation.
We have inspected buildings at which cellulose insulation in walls or attics has been actually wet (from building leaks and from fighting building fires).
Testing cellulose insulation for mold contamination included both analysis of bulk samples from buildings where the insulation appeared undisturbed and others where it had been soaked. We examined the cellulose insulation microscopically in our forensic laboratory, at low magnification for evidence of visible mold contamination on the surface of the cellulose fragments, and at high power magnification up to 1200x for individual mold spores. We also collected vacuum-samples of cellulose wall insulation in the same buildings in order to more readily separate the larger cellulose insulation fragments from the generally smaller, lighter mold spores that might be present.
Testing in our laboratory did not in any case detect meaningful mold contamination nor mold growth in the cellulose.
We believe that the fire retardant chemicals used to treat cellulose insulation probably also imparts mold growth resistance.
According to Deborah Falkow, owner of MetroNY Insulation, both National Fiber's Cel-P)ak and Nu-Wool cellulose insulations are "all-borate formulations (for fire, pest and mold resistance).
Borate is an odorless mineral that doesn't outgas, which is a fancy way to say that National Fiber's cellulose products don't produce funny smells."
But some cellulose building insulations may produce a funny odor, especially right after insulation. Ms. Falkow continues: "Some cellulose manufacturers use an ammonium sulfat/borate mix. That can produce objectionable odors, under the right conditions."
I built a new home in New England and moved in last August. We noticed over the winter, a slight odor in our attic which is a walk in attic, located off of the master bedroom closet. That odor has drastically increased as the weather becomes warmer, its overwhelming.
What could the odor be? We are worried it could be toxic and want to understand what to do to resolve. We have contacted our building and insulation provider but I'd like to have my facts ready for that discussion and would appreciate any insight folks can offer.
(Jan 20, 2016) joseph fish said:
I have this house that has blown insulation in the floors and drywall holding it up. It's 10" thick and notice smell and mold issues in the house.I been living here 3 yrs. now and think I need to get it out.
Prior to living here the basement was cealed up with foam sheets on center block foundation and 10" out with paneling, had no air flow at all and electric heating. I took out all the paneling and insulation sheets but the insulation in the flooring is still there. Issue is smell and mold.
Thanks for the question: but from just this text no sensible building consultant would volunteer what the odor is or even is likely to be - we have little cellulose insulation odor data except for Falkow's comments above and the research on odors in cellulose insulation that I cite below.
I don't know if it's a coating, a dead animal, something spilled, a water leak that got something wet, or what. Your comment is on a cellulose insulation page. If your insulation is cellulose, that material is rather mold resistant. If a leak got drywall from a ceiling below wet or wet something else there could be a mold problem.
That's already more arm-waving than fits the facts. All I can say from the facts of your note is that often an existing problem smells worse when things warm up.
I'd look for candidates: spills, leaks, animals, materials that maybe got wet.
Cellulose insulation is not particularly conducive to mold growth, but there could be mold on the cavity side of drywall if it was wet. I'd make some test cuts to inspect the most-suspect areas first.
ASTM C-739 provides tests for R-value, odor, moisture vapor
accordance with ASTM Standard C-1015, Standard Practice for Installation of Cellulosic and Mineral Insulation.
Research on odors in cellulose building insulation
Anderson, Robert W., and William Freischel. "Evaluation of the Proposed Smoldering Testing Methodology for Cellulosic Insulation." Journal of Building Physics 2, no. 1 (1978): 7-23.
Ezeonu, I. M., J. A. Noble, R. B. Simmons, D. L. Price, S. A. Crow, and D. G. Ahearn. "Effect of relative humidity on fungal colonization of fiberglass insulation." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 60, no. 6 (1994): 2149-2151.
Lstiburek, Joseph, "Basement Insulation Systems", [PDF] U.S. Department of Energy & Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Retrieved 2016/08/16
Sprague, Robert W., and Kelvin K. Shen. "The use of boron products in cellulose insulation." Journal of Building Physics 2, no. 4 (1979): 161-174.
Yost, Nathan, and Joseph Lstiburek. "Basement insulation systems." Building Science Corporation online, www. buildingscience. com/resources/foundations/basement_insulati on_systems. pdf, dated July (2002).
Settlement or Void Problems with Various Building Insulation Products
Insulation settlement and compaction: the effectiveness and R-value of any loose fill insulation product (cellulose, chopped fiberglass, mineral wool, rock wool, vermiculite) that is poured or blown into building wall cavities, attic floors, or cathedral ceilings is at the mercy of the workmanship of the installer.
Deborah Falkow, owner of MetroNY Insulation, writes that the worry about cellulose insulation settlement in buildings is a
myth. "Dense-packed cellulose doesn't settle, because it can't." she writes. "It's installed at twice its settled density, which means that it's under slight pressure in the wall or ceiling cavity."
At BLOWN-IN INSULATION we also discuss insulation settlement in retrofit jobs and we calculate the potential impact on wall R-value.
Insulation Voids: Causes & Types
If an insulation retrofit job omits certain building areas such as the stud bay below windows, cavities above or below older framed buildings that use diagonal corner bracing, or cathedral ceilings built with fire blocking, there may be voids in the insulation blanket. In field inspection we have not observed insulation voids that appeared to be due to the material rather than workmanship of the installer, with the exceptions of:
UFFI, Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation: foam shrinkage can leave significant gaps at the top and sides of UFFI that was injected into building wall cavities.
See UREA FORMALDEHYDE FOAM INSULATION, UFFI.
Fiberglass insulation: custom-cut fiberglass batts that are retrofitted to older frame buildings whose framing members were not placed on uniformly-spaced centers may be poorly fit if workmanship is not careful. Also see : INSULATION AIR & HEAT LEAKS
Foam board insulation: custom-cut foam insulating board sections that are retrofitted to older frame buildings whose framing members were not placed on uniformly-spaced centers may be poorly fit if workmanship is not careful.
Poured insulation or blown-in attic floor insulation: is sometimes distributed unevenly in insulation retrofit jobs leaving areas of thin or even no insulation, especially in hard-to-reach areas, if workmanship is not careful.
Watch out: in some blown-in building insulation retrofit projects we have occasionally found significant insulation voids where the installer was careless, or where the installer did not anticipate blockages in the wall cavity formed by diagonal bracing or fire blocking. An infra-red or thermal scan of a heated building during cold weather will make such insulation voids obvious - DF.
[We did indeed observe significant shrinkage, not settlement, in UFFI blown-in insulation in some homes insulated with that product in the 1970's, particularly if the product was not properly mixed in the first place. See UREA FORMALDEHYDE FOAM INSULATION, UFFI. - DF]
Watch out: other insulation properties such as air flow resistance and moisture resistance may be very important in some cases, such as choosing an insulation to use in or over a crawl space that may be damp, or against basement foundation walls - Ed. See INSULATION INSPECTION & IMPROVEMENT and FIBERGLASS INSULATION MOLD for examples- Ed.
Applegate Insulation, "Standard Practice for Installing Cellulose Building Insulation", [PDF] Applegate Insulation HQ
1000 Highview Drive
Webberville, MI 48892
800-627-7536 - retrieved 2016/08/19, original source: Standard Practice for Installing Cellulose Building Insulation
Excerpt: This recommended practice covers the application of cellulosic thermal insulation in attics, sidewall cavities and between floors of single & multi family dwellings and other buildings by means of pneumatic equipment.
ASTM: American Society for Testing and Materials, Annual
Book of ASTM Standards Volume 4.06 Thermal Insulation;
Environmental Acoustics, ASTM, Philadelphia
ASTM C1338-14 Standard Test Method for Determining Fungi Resistance of Insulation Materials and Facings
C-168 Standard Terminology Relating to Thermal Insulating Materials
ASTM Standards C-739 Standard Specification for Cellulosic Fiber (Wood Base) Loose Fill Thermal Insulation
ASTM Standards C-755 Standard Practice for Selection of Vapor retarders for Thermal Insulation C-1149 Standard Specification for Self-Supported Spray Applied Cellulosic Thermal / Acoustical Insulation
ASTM Standards C-1015 Standard Practice for Installation of Cellulosic and Mineral Fiber Loose-Fill Thermal Insulation
ASTM Standards E-241 Standard Guide for Limiting Water-Induced Damage to Buildings
ASTM, Blown Cellulose Fiber Thermal Insulations: Part 1—Density of Cellulose Fiber Thermal Insulation in Horizontal Applications, 1978 -- STP660STP35738S
Abstract: This paper presents results of a study with the following objectives:
1. Determine the effects of transport and placement conditions on the initial density of the insulation.
2. Establish a standardized method for producing specimens of blown cellulose fiber insulations.
3. Investigate the factors that cause the material to settle after placement.
4. Establish a standardized method to produce settlement in the specimens comparable with those found in field studies.
A method recommended for producing settlement in the specimens consists of two procedures, one simulating settlement by impact produced on the standardized containers, and the other causing settlement under climatic cycling of the material. The purpose of this recommended practice is to inform installers, system designers and consumers of acceptable procedures to ensure proper installation. It also identifies some of the precautions which need to be taken.
Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association of Canada, Association Canadienne des Fabricants d'Isolant de Cellulose,
38-10, Place du Commerce, #255,
Îles des Soeurs
Montreal, QC H3E 1T8
email@example.com Website: http://www.cellulose.ca/
Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association (CIMA), 136 South Keowee St., Dayton OH 45402, Tel: 888-881-2462 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.cellulose.org/
CIMA provides several helpful documents including
Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association,
Technical Bulletin #2, "Standard Practice for Installing Cellulose Building Insulation, Op. Cit.
Cellulose Insulation Manufacturers Association,
Technical Bulletin #3, "Standard Practice for the
Installation of Sprayed Cellulosic Wall Cavity Insulation."
European Cellulose Insulation Association, Website: www.ecia.eu.com/, Administrator Lucia Gross email@example.com.
Excerpt: CIA unites the European cellulose manufacturing industry as a one voice. We are open for all genuinely respectable manufactures in European Union area. ECIA is willingly cooperating with associations, institutions, authorizes and stakeholders internationally. Our mission is to provide better energy and eco-efficiency by insulating the European buildings well with cellulose fiber insulation.
The inaugural meeting was held in Brussels on 9/10/13.
Menard's Insulmax cellulose insulation (dry applied - no water) specifications are at hw.menardc.com/main/items/media/GREEN083/Prod_Tech_Spec/InsulmaxCoverageChart11-22-2014.pdf
15 U.S. Code § 2082 - Interim cellulose insulation safety standard, retrieved 2016/08/19, original source: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/2082
U.S. Federal Regulation 16 CFR Part 1209 Consumer Products Safety Commission Interim Safety Standard for Cellulose Insulation
Consumer Products Safety Commission, Interim Safety
Standard for Cellulose Insulation, 16 CFR Part 1209.
U.S. Federal Regulation 16 CFR Part 460 FTC Trade Regulation Rule, Labeling and Advertising of Home Insulation
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Question: using cellulose insulation below grade
(June 8, 2015) Greg said:
Is it ok to install blown in cellulose insulation below grade?
Reply: watch out for insulation that should not get wet
If you've got air and moisture barriers properly placed AND if you are confident that you do not have water leaks into the wall system you should be OK.
I would not install any open-celled water-absorbing insulation material below grade if it is in a location where it can get wet. You'd lose R-value, invite mold contamination, rot, or other problems, and generally you'll be unhappy when those problems occur.
A closed-cell foam, properly fire-protected, is a safer bet.
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Questions & answers or comments about the identification, contents, & properties of cellulose insulation..
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Federal Trade Commission, Trade Regulation Rule;
Labeling and Advertising of Home Insulation, 16 CFR
Graves, Ronald S., and Wysocki, Donald C.; Insulation
Materials: Testing and Applications, 2nd Volume,
ASTM, Philadelphia 1991.
Graves, Ronald S., and Zarr, Robert R..; Insulation
Materials: Testing and Applications, 3rd Volume,
ASTM, Philadelphia 1997.
McElroy, D.L., and Kimpflen, J.F., editors, Insulation
Materials, Testing and Application, ASTM, Philadelphia
Solar Age Magazine was the official publication of the American Solar Energy Society. The contemporary solar energy magazine associated with the Society is Solar Today. "Established in 1954, the nonprofit American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is the nation's leading association of solar professionals & advocates. Our mission is to inspire an era of energy innovation and speed the transition to a sustainable energy economy. We advance education, research and policy. Leading for more than 50 years.
ASES leads national efforts to increase the use of solar energy, energy efficiency and other sustainable technologies in the U.S. We publish the award-winning SOLAR TODAY magazine, organize and present the ASES National Solar Conference and lead the ASES National Solar Tour – the largest grassroots solar event in the world."
Asbestos products and their history and use in various building materials such as asphalt and vinyl flooring includes discussion which draws on Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 (out of print).
Asbestos Identification and Testing References
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
ASHRAE resources on building insulation, dew point and wall condensation - see the ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, available in many libraries. The following three ASHRAE Handbooks are also available at the InspectAPedia bookstore in the third page of our Insulate-Ventilate section:
2005 ASHRAE Handbook : Fundamentals: Inch-Pound Edition (2005 ASHRAE HANDBOOK : Fundamentals : I-P Edition) (Hardcover), Thomas H. Kuehn (Contributor), R. J. Couvillion (Contributor), John W. Coleman (Contributor), Narasipur Suryanarayana (Contributor), Zahid Ayub (Contributor), Robert Parsons (Author), ISBN-10: 1931862702 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862707
2004 ASHRAE Handbook : Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning: Systems and Equipment : Inch-Pound Edition (2004 ASHRAE Handbook : HVAC Systems and Equipment : I-P Edition) (Hardcover)
by American Society of Heating, ISBN-10: 1931862478 or ISBN-13: 978-1931862479
"2004 ASHRAE Handbook - HVAC Systems and Equipment The 2004 ASHRAE HandbookHVAC Systems and Equipment discusses various common systems and the equipment (components or assemblies) that comprise them, and describes features and differences. This information helps system designers and operators in selecting and using equipment. Major sections include Air-Conditioning and Heating Systems (chapters on system analysis and selection, air distribution, in-room terminal systems, centralized and decentralized systems, heat pumps, panel heating and cooling, cogeneration and engine-driven systems, heat recovery, steam and hydronic systems, district systems, small forced-air systems, infrared radiant heating, and water heating); Air-Handling Equipment (chapters on duct construction, air distribution, fans, coils, evaporative air-coolers, humidifiers, mechanical and desiccant dehumidification, air cleaners, industrial gas cleaning and air pollution control); Heating Equipment (chapters on automatic fuel-burning equipment, boilers, furnaces, in-space heaters, chimneys and flue vent systems, unit heaters, makeup air units, radiators, and solar equipment); General Components (chapters on compressors, condensers, cooling towers, liquid coolers, liquid-chilling systems, centrifugal pumps, motors and drives, pipes and fittings, valves, heat exchangers, and energy recovery equipment); and Unitary Equipment (chapters on air conditioners and heat pumps, room air conditioners and packaged terminal equipment, and a new chapter on mechanical dehumidifiers and heat pipes)."
1996 Ashrae Handbook Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment: Inch-Pound Edition (Hardcover), ISBN-10: 1883413346 or ISBN-13: 978-1883413347 ,
"The 1996 HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook is the result of ASHRAE's continuing effort to update, expand and reorganize the Handbook Series. Over a third of the book has been revised and augmented with new chapters on hydronic heating and cooling systems design; fans; unit ventilator; unit heaters; and makeup air units. Extensive changes have been added to chapters on panel heating and cooling; cogeneration systems and engine and turbine drives; applied heat pump and heat recovery systems; humidifiers; desiccant dehumidification and pressure drying equipment, air-heating coils; chimney, gas vent, fireplace systems; cooling towers; centrifugal pumps; and air-to-air energy recovery. Separate I-P and SI editions."
Construction Waterproofing Handbook, Michael T. Kubal. Quoting:
... an all-inclusive, project-simplifying guide for waterproofing and construction professionals. This comprehensive answer-packed resource is loaded with the up-to-date, clearly-defined information you need on every project, including work on the building envelope, below-grade, above-grade, and remedial waterproofing.
Brick Nogging, Historical Investigation and Contemporary Repair, Construction Specifier, April 2006. Historical use of brick in timber-framed buildings, drawing on the investigations of the Kent Tavern in Calais, VT.
"Brick nogging is a European method of construction which was brought to the new world in the early-nineteenth century. It was a common construction method that employed masonry as infill between the vertical uprights of wood framing." -- quoting the web article review.
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Supply Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Supply_Vent.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11880?print
"Energy Savers: Whole-House Exhaust Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Whole-House_Exhaust.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11870
"Energy Savers: Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Natural Ventilation [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Natural_Ventilation.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Energy Recovery Ventilation Systems [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Energy_Recovery_Venting.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy energysavers.gov/your_home/insulation_airsealing/index.cfm/mytopic=11900
"Energy Savers: Detecting Air Leaks [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Detect_Air_Leaks.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
"Energy Savers: Air Sealing [copy on file as /interiors/Energy_Savers_Air_Sealing_1.pdf ] - ", U.S. Department of Energy
Fiberglass: Indoor Air Quality Investigations: Health Concerns About Airborne Fiberglass: Fiberglass in Indoor Air from HVAC ducts, and Building Insulation
Insulate & Weatherize (Taunton's Build Like a Pro), Bruce Harley. Review quoted:
An engineer who trains builders in energy-efficient construction, Harley offers a wealth of information that will allow readers to improve their home's efficiency, saving both money and natural resources. After an introductory section that explains the underlying principles of heat transfer, insulation, and air quality, Harley demonstrates basics such as weather-stripping and moves forward through advanced projects including insulation and major upgrades. Short "Pro Tips" as well as sections labeled "Trade Secrets," "What Can Go Wrong," and "In Detail" provide a great deal of helpful information. Increasing energy efficiency is one of the easiest ways for homeowners to save money
Insulation Types, table of common building insulation properties from U.S. DOE. Readers should see INSULATION R-VALUES & PROPERTIES our own table of insulation properties that includes links to articles describing each insulation material in more detail.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST (nee National Bureau of Standards NBS) is a US government agency - see www.nist.gov
"A Parametric Study of Wall Moisture Contents Using a Revised Variable Indoor Relative Humidity Version of the "Moist" Transient Heat and Moisture Transfer Model [copy on file as/interiors/MOIST_Model_NIST_b95074.pdf ] - ", George Tsongas, Doug Burch, Carolyn Roos, Malcom Cunningham; this paper describes software and the prediction of wall moisture contents. - PDF Document from NIS
Piquet Wall Construction: See this photo of
piquet wall construction - involving timber-framed wall construction with long top girts, diagonal timber bracing, and small diameter logs
placed vertically along with concrete chinking to fill in the wall plane.
Plank House Construction: weblog from plankhouse.wordpress.com/2009/01/25/plank-house-construction/ and where plank houses were built by native Americans, see
Large 1:6 Scale Plank House Construction / P8094228,
Photographer: Mike Meuser
06/12/2007 documented at yurokplankhouse.com where scale model Museum quality Yurok Plank Houses are being sold to raise money for the Blue Creek - Ah Pah Traditional Yurok Village project.
Principles of Heating, Ventilating, And Air Conditioning: A textbook with Design Data Based on 2005 ASHRAE Handbook - Fundamentals, Harry J., Jr. Sauer, Ronald H. Howell, William J. Coad. Quoting
... textbook for college level HVAC courses or independent study and review, especially when combined with the 1997 ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook. Contains the most current ASHRAE procedures and definitive, yet easy to understand, treatment of building HVAC systems -- from basic principles through design and operation. Dual units of measurement.
Re-Bath, tub lining products is a bath tub relining manufacturer and distributor located in Tempe, Arizona - see rebath.com
Rubblestone Wall Filler: See this Lartigue House using exterior-exposed rubblestone filler between vertical timbers of a post and beam-framed Canadian building.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones