Sinkhole Immediate Safety Actions
Sinkhole response advice: immediate safety action, contact authorities, & how to find appropriate repair experts
SINKHOLE DAMAGE REPAIRS - CONTENTS: immediate safety advice to consider when a sinkhole appears on your property: who to contact, what to do, how to find an engineering firm or sinkhole damage repair contractor
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Sinkhole repair advice: contact authorities, & find appropriate sinkhole damage or foundation damage repair experts.
This article describes the type of engineering or excavator or foundation repair contrctor repair servicves you will need. We include directories of sinkhole repair contractor services by geographic area.
Call your local building department for advice on prompt sinkhole assessment as well as for their advice about which excavation contractors or foundation repair contractors in your immediate area have experience with sinkhole diagnosis and repair.
In some circumstances you may need to contact an engineering firm who have sinkhole expertise, typically listed under civil engineers or geotechnical engineer.
Michael D. Mosher, www.Sinkhole.org
Florida Sinkhole assistance association principally seeks sinkhole information. No company address was found at the website.
Quoting fron th organization's website:
If you have questions or need to locate a Foundation Repair Company, Attorney, Engineer, or sinkhole house buyer, please call Michael or Sam at: 866-999-SINK (7465)
Sinkhole.Org began over 5 years ago with a small group of people concerned with the extreme rise of sinkhole and sinkhole related activity in Florida. The activity was predominantly, at that time, on the West Coast & and Central Florida. The group's founders not only consisted of Central Florida natives but professionals, varying in the fields of real estate, construction, engineering, and law.
Sinkhole.org provides information about sinkholes and help for homeowners with sinkhole damaged property in these areas of Florida:
Hillsborough including Apollo Beach, Balm, Bloomingdale, Brandon, Carrollwood Village, Dover, Gibsonton, Lithia, Lutz, Mango, Orient Park, Plant City, Riverview, Ruskin, Seffner, Sun City Center, Tampa, Temple Terrace, Thonotosassa, Valrico, Wimauma, and Ybor City; Hernando including Brooksville, Herrnando Beach, Masaryktown, Ridge Manor, Spring Hill, and Weeki Wachee; Pasco including Bayonet Point, Beacon Point, Dade City, Elfers, Gulf Harbors, Holiday, Hudson, Lacoochee, Land O' Lakes, New Port Richey, Odessa, Port Richey, San Antonio, Shady Hills, St. Leo, Trinity, Wesley Chapel, and Zephyrhills; Pinellas including Belleair, Belleair Beach, Belleair Bluffs, Belleair Shore, Clearwater, Dunedin, Gulfport, Indian Rocks Beach, Indian Shores, Kenneth City, Largo, Madeira Beach, North Redington Beach, Oldsmar, Pinellas Park, Redington Beach, Safety Harbor, Seminole, South Pasadena, St. Pete Beach, St. Petersburg, Tarpon Springs, Treasure Island, Ozona; Polk including Auburndale, Bartow, Davenport, Dundee, Eagle Lake, Fedhaven, Fort Meade, Frostproof, Haines City, Highland Park, Hillcrest Heights, Indian Lake Estates, Lake Alfred, Lake Hamilton, Lake Wales, Lakeland, Mulberry, Nalcrest, Polk City, Providence, and Winter Haven; Orange including Alafaya, Apopka, Bay Lake, Belle Isle, Christmas, Doctor Phillips, Eatonville, Edgewood, Hunter's Creek, Lake Buena Vista, Maitland, Oakland, Ocoee, Orlando, Tangerine, Windermere, Winter Garden, Winter Park, and Zellwood. - retrieved 5/7/2014 www.sinkhole.org
Brookesville FL sinkhole repair contractors:
Advanced Pier Technology, LLC
8445 Morningside Dr
Black Rock Construction
15316 Bailey Hill Rd
Foundation Repair Specialist
18766 Cortez Blvd
LRE Ground Services, Inc.
PO Box 10263
Secure Foundation Systems, Inc.
16182 Aviation Loop Dr
Dunedin FL sinkhole repair contractors:
Dunedin Restoration Services, Inc. 1271 San Christopher Dr Dunedin, FL
Hudson FL sinkhole repair contractors:
All Coast Foundation Systems, LLC
18857 Sakera Rd
All Florida Ram Jack, LLC
16646 Scheer Blvd
Foundation Repair Contractors
8635 New York Ave
Hudson, FL 34667-3463
Phone: (352) 588-2396
Fax: (352) 588-0573 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
6551 Industrial Ave
Port Richey, FL
Global Ground Solutions, LLC
13943 Caden Glen Dr
Call your local building department for advice on prompt sinkhole assessment as well as for their advice about which excavation contractors or foundation repair contractors in your immediate area have experience with sinkhole diagnosis and repair. In some circumstances you may need to contact an engineering firm who have sinkhole expertise, typically listed under civil engineers or geotechnical engineer.
The following companies identify themselves as sinkhole damage repair experts in New York:
Adirondack area, NY
Adirondack Basement Systems, 4 Jones Road, Halfmoon, NY 12065, Tel 1-866-749-7407, advertises performing sinkhole-damage-related repair work. Website: http://www.adirondackbasement.com,
Serving these areas:
Schenectady, Albany, Troy, Cohoes, Johnstown, Rensselaer, Hudson, Mechanicville, Hudson Falls, Ballston Lake, Delmar, Glens Falls, Gansevoort, Waterford, Watervliet, Catskill, Amsterdam, Saratoga Springs, Clifton Park, Queensbury, Gloversville, Latham, Ballston Spa, NY
Lido Beach NY: Tutwiler & Associates Public Adjusters
441 Lido Blvd
Lido Beach, NY 11561
Hayward Baker Inc
260 Green St
South Hackensack, NJ 07606
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Sink Hole & Related Engineering References
Newton, J. G., 1987, Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the eastern United States: US Geological Survey Circular 968, 54 p.
Sinclair, W. C., 1982, Sinkhole development resulting from ground-water withdrawal in the Tampa Area, Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations 81-50, 19 p.
White, W. B., 1988, Geomorphology and Hydrology of Karst Terrains: Oxford University Press, New York
Williams, J. H. and Vineyard, J. D., 1976, Geologic indicators of subsidence and collapse in karst terrain in Missouri: Presentation at the 55th Annual Meeting, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C.
Barry F. Beck, A. J. (1999). Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes and Karst. Rotterdam, Netherlands: A. A. Balkema.
Beck, B. F. (2003). Sinkholes and the Engineering and Environmental Impacts of Karst. Huntsville, Alabama: The American Society of Civil Engineers.
Beck, B. F. (2005). Sinkholes and the Engineering and Envrionmental Impacts of Karst. San Antonio, Texas: The American Society of Civil Engineers.
Tony Waltham, F. B. (2005). Sinkholes and Subsidence, Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction. Chichester, United Kingdom: Praxis Publishing.
Whitman D., G. T. (1999). Spatial Interrelationships Between Lake Elevations, Water Tables, and Sinkhole Occurence in Central Florida: A GIS Approach. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing , 1169-1178.
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 At a previous ASHI Florida conference slides of a masonry
block building repaired by AB Chance Helical Pier Co. showed step cracks at the
top of the house front wall which were diagnosed as settlement at the opposite
end of the house - structural rigidity caused cracking to telegraph to the
front; detectable by noting out-of-plumb mortar joints!
Sinkholes and Sudden Land Subsidence References, Products, Consultants
"A Hole in the Ground Erupts, to Estonia's Delight", New York Times, 9 December 2008 p. 10.
History of water usage in Estonia: (5.7 MB PDF) jaagupi.parnu.ee/freshwater/doc/the_history_of_water_usage_systems_in_estonia.pdf
"Quebec Family Dies as Home Vanishes Into Crater, in Reminder of Hidden Menace", Ian Austen, New York Times, 13 May 2010 p. A8. See http://www.nytimes.com/
"Quick Clay", Wikipedia search 5/13/2010 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quick_clay
Florida DEP - Department of Environmental Protection, & Florida Geological survey (http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/default.htm) on Florida sinkholes: Effects of Sinkholes on Water Conditions Hernando County, Florida, Brett Buff, GIS in Water Resources, 2008, Dr. David R. Maidment, Photos - Tom Scott, Florida Geographic Survey - Web Search 06/09/2010 - http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/jacksonsink.htm
and - http://www.dep.state.fl.us/geology/geologictopics/sinkhole.htm
Lane, Ed, 1986, Karst in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 29, 100 p.
Foundation Engineering Problems and Hazards in Karst Terranes, James P. Reger, Maryland Geological Survey, web search 06/05/2010, original source: http://www.mgs.md.gov/esic/fs/fs11.html Maryland Geological Survey, 2300 St. Paul Street, Baltimore, MD 21218
"Frost Heaving Forces in Leda Clay", Penner, E., Division of Building Research, National Research Council of Canada, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, NRC Research Press, 1970-2, Vol 7, No 1, PP 8-16, National Research Council of Canada, Accession number 1970-023601, Quoting from original source
The frost heaving forces developed under a 1 ft. (30.5 cm) diameter steel plate were measured in the field throughout one winter. The steel plate was fixed at the ground surface with a rock-anchored reaction frame. heave gauges and thermocouples were installed at various depths to determine the position and temperature of the active heaving zone. The general trend was for the surface force to increase as the winter progressed. when the frost line approached the maximum depth the force was in excess of 30,000 lb (13,608 KG). Estimates of the heaving pressure at the frost line ranged from 7 to 12 psi (0.49 to 0.84 KG/cm) square during this period. The variation of surface heaving force was closely associated with weather conditions. Warming trends resulting in a temperature increase of the frozen layer caused the forces to decline.
Leda clay slopes in the Ottawa valley are vulnerable to catastrophic landslides. More than 250 landslides, historical and ancient, large and small, have been identified within 60 km of Ottawa. Some of these landslides caused deaths, injuries, and property damage, and their impact extended far beyond the site of the original failure. In spectacular flowslides, the sediment underlying large areas of flat land adjacent to unstable slopes liquefies. The debris may flow up to several kilometres, damming rivers and causing flooding, siltation, and water-quality problems or damaging infrastructure. Geologists and geotechnical engineers can identify potential landslide areas, and appropriate land-use zoning and protective engineering works can reduce the risk to property and people.
Deposits of Leda clay, a potentially unstable material, underlie extensive areas of the Ottawa-Gatineau region. Leda clay is composed of clay- and silt-sized particles of bedrock that were finely ground by glaciers and washed into the Champlain Sea. As the particles settled through the salty water, they were attracted to one another and formed loose clusters that fell to the seafloor. The resulting sediment had a loose but strong framework that was capable of retaining a large amount of water. Following the retreat of the sea, the salts that originally contributed to the bonding of the particles were slowly removed (leached) by fresh water filtering through the ground. If sufficiently disturbed, the leached Leda clay, a weak but water-rich sediment, may liquefy and become a 'quick clay'. Trigger disturbances include river erosion, increases in pore-water pressure (especially during periods of high rainfall or rapid snowmelt), earthquakes, and human activities such as excavation
After an initial failure removes the stiffer, weathered crust, the sensitive clay liquefies and collapses, flowing away from the scar. Failures continue in a domino-like fashion, rapidly eating back into the flat land lying behind the failed slope. The flowing mud may raft intact pieces of the stiffer surface material for great distances.
Kochanov, W. E., 1999, Sinkholes in Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania
Geological Survey, 4th ser., Educational Series 11,
33 p., 3rd printing April 2005, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources / Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, DCNR Educational Series 11, Pennsylvania Geological Survey, Fourth Series, Harrisburg,
1999 - web search 06/05/2010, original source: http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/hazards/es11.pdf - Quoting from the document introduction: The first 18 pages of this booklet contain an explanation of how sinkholes
develop. In order to tell the sinkhole story, it is important to discuss
a number of related geologic disciplines. The words used to describe sinkholes
and these disciplines may be a bit unfamiliar. However, general explanations
are given throughout the booklet to help clarify their meanings.
Key words are printed in bold type for emphasis. The more important
ones are defined in a Glossary that begins on page 29.
The remaining sections, starting with “Sinkholes in the Urban Environment”
(page 18), deal with sinkholes and their impact on our environment.
This includes recognition of subsidence features and sinkhole repair.
Thanks to reader Y.Z., Whitestone, NY for discussing a back yard collapse 4/1/2010
 Sarah Cervone, [web page] data from the APIRS database, Graphics by Ann Murray, Sara Reinhart and Vic Ramey, Vic Ramey is
the editor. DEP review by Jeff Schardt and Judy Ludlow. The web page is a
collaboration of the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants, University of Florida, and the Bureau of Invasive
Plant Management, Florida Department of Environmental Protection contact: email@example.com [A primary resource for this article
 Center for Cave and Karst Studies or the
Center, both at
Vanity Fair - web search 06/04/2010 http://www.vanityfair.com/online/daily/2010/06/what-caused-the-guatemala-sinkhole-and-why-is-it-so-round.html
Sinkholes, [on file as /vision/Sinkholes_Virginia_DME.pdf ] - , Virginia Division of Mineral Resources,
Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, www.dmme.virginia.gov Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy
Division of Mineral Resources
900 Natural Resources Drive, Suite 500
Charlottesville, VA 22903
Sales Office: (434) 951-6341 FAX : (434) 951-6365
Geologic Information: (434) 951-6342
divisionmineralresources.shtml - Web search 06/09/2010
Wikipedia - web search 06/04/2010 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guatemala_City
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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