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Asphalt shingle installation using a stapler versus a nailer:
Use of staples for asphalt shingle installation can work if you work carefully but in my experience you're asking for trouble. Here we describe what can go wrong when using a roofing stapler on asphalt.
Roof shingles that are not adequately fastened to a sound roof deck are likely to blow off, as we illustrate in our photo above showing a semi-naked barn roof.
This article series discusses best roofing practices for the installation of asphalt roof shingles.
We describe asphalt shingle nailing type, size, spacing and locations. Asphalt roof shingle course offset requirements. Low slope and steep slope limits for asphalt shingles. Asphalt shingle roof flashing at eaves & skylights. Best practices for roofing material installation, flashing, ventilation, nailing, underlayment.
Overdriven nails or staples can cut into the shingle or crack it in cold weather.
Is it Acceptable to Use Staples to Install Asphalt Roof Shingles?
Roofing staple guns have been sold for nearly 40 years and in some models including the one I liked, are still available, such as the Stanley Bostitch 16-Gauge Wide Crown Roofing Staple Gun, shown here. This stapler might also be used for securing house-wrap and other building materials.
Using staples to install roof shingles is not generally recommended in areas where the roof will be subject to wind damage, and as we excerpt from a GAF statement below, you will see a warning about using staples that does not narrow the stapled-shingle caveat to just high-wind areas.
Watch out: some writers, including for roofing company websites state that " ... both staples and nails are approved by some roofing manufacturers...", suggesting that using a stapler gives performance and wind damage resistance equal to shingles secured with roofing nails.
"some roofing manufacturers" is a bit vague and may not be accurate since it's hard to pin down a maybe.
While staples remain an acceptable shingle fastener on manufactured housing, staples are not an approved shingle fastener in most current
residential building codes. - (Donan retrieved 2017)
Excepting comments such as by Donan, our review (September 2017) did not find a building code nor a roofing shingle manufacturer explicitly recommending the use of staples to secure asphalt roofing on residential structures. FEMA specifically recommends the use of roofing nails, not staples in high wind areas.
Let's look at the IRC model building code on roof shingle fasteners:
R905.2.5 Fasteners. Fasteners for asphalt shingles shall be
galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum or copper roofing
nails, minimum 12 gage [0.105 inch (3 mm)] shank with
a minimum 3/8-inch (10 mm) diameter head, ASTM F 1667,
of a length to penetrate through the roofing materials and a
minimum of 3/4 inch (19 mm) into the roof sheathing.
the roof sheathing is less than 3/4 inch (19 mm) thick, the fasteners
shall penetrate through the sheathing. Fasteners shall
comply with ASTM F 1667. - IRC 2006 (New Jersey coph), Section R905.2.5 in IRC CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES [PDF] (2003)
Disclosure: my first roofing "nailer" was in fact a staple gun, a yellow Stanley Bostitch staple gun. I loved it. Fast, light, easy, durable, reliable, rarely jammed. Senco also produced popular roof shingle staplers that are still in use.
But it didn't take more than the first five minutes with my new roof shingle stapler, to discover that if I didn't take care my staples would give me (and the roof and my client) trouble.
Here are some of the typical roof shingle staple snafus:
Seven Ways to Foul-up a Roof Shingle Stapling Job
If experience is the best teacher, after a strong wind storm roofers who used a stapler might want to go check on their stapled roof shingle jobs. They might find that their crew made some of the same mistaked I did. Back in the day.
Really? Let me say at the outset to all you staplers that all of these mistakes can be made with a roof nailer as well as a roof stapler.
However anybody who has worked with a roofing stapler and who's not president littlehands has a duty to be truthful: they'll agree that truth be told, it's easier to cut through an asphalt shingle with a staple than with a roofing nail.
Wrong Fastener for Roof Material: my finger is just to the right of a staple used to try to salvage this cement-asbestos roof by re-fastening loose tiles. Using an impact nailer, air, gas, or electric, on slate or fiber cement or in this case asbestos-cement roofs invites damaged slates or tiles.
OK so you'd never do something this dumb, right? Moving right along:
Cocked asphalt shingle staples: Roofers who get tired of scrambling over a hot steep roof surface develop long arms. Or wish they could.
It is just too tempting to reach waaaay over to the right or left to staple just one more shingle before taking another step
When you reach waaay over with your stapler the nose of the tool will be cocked at an angle with respect to the plane of the roof surface. Either that or after an hour of stapling your wrist will be killing you.
A roofing staple gun must be fired with the gun tip parallel to and flush on the shingle surface, otherwise one end of the shingle is left sticking up, ready to puncture the overlying tab of the next course either from being heated in the sun or from your heavy-footed laborer who steps on it right before he slams down another bundle of shingles.
I carried a hammer to smash down cocked roof shingle staple ends. That didn't work out so well. A cocked staple has probably already cut into the shingle at its low end.
Smacking down too hard on the high end of a shingle staple pushes it right into the shingle, cutting it and leaving the shingle with no fastener.
So the roofer has to slow down (lose money) to stop, notice a a cocked staple, take out the hammer, smack down the staple, then working with care, shoot another staple close by.
Above: a cocked roof shingle staple pokes its pointy little head up at its lower end and cut right through shingles at its upper end. This staple is also mis-placed, too low on the shingle. It should have been covered by the shingles of the successive course above.
Over-driven asphalt shingle staples: Even when I held the stapler properly, tip not cocked at an angle, either my enthusiasm or my visceral fat spare tire would sometimes cause me to press down too hard on my stapler, driving the staple right through the shingle.
Roofers who work fast and set their nailer to a higher pressure than specified by the staple gun's manufacturer will also over-drive staples.
A gas operated stapler or nail gun has less of this trouble but you can still push down with too much force when stapling or nailing.
Stapling shingles on a hot day, through sun-softened shingles also encouratges over-driving staples and cut shingles, as does working too fast or setting the stapler's air pressure too high.
Above: another shingle staple, over driven from above cut right through two shingle courses. Mis-placed (too low) and damaged the asphalt layers of the two shingle courses.
Don't be surprised to find the same mistake repeated on multiple areas of a roof or on multiple roofs at different buildings if the same crew are working consistently.
Under-driven asphalt shingle staples: ok so after some practice I learned the proper air pressure adjustment, stapler nose adjustment, and downwards pressure each time I fired a staple into my shingle and roof deck.
I took care that the wire of the shingle was all the way down touching, but not cutting into the asphalt shingle.
Then I'd speed up a bit, blam-1 blam-2 blam-3 blam-4, four quick staples. Stop! Why is blam-3 sticking up?
Because it hit either a nail in the plywood roof deck or because it hit a knot in the plywood. Darn.
Excessive roof shinngle staples in one spot: I never did this. Well rarely. But my helper was of the school that more is better.
If she wasn't sure a staple was driven perfectly she'd shoot five more quickly into the same spot. Blam, blam, blam, blam, BLAM! cutting the heck out of the shingle and inviting wind blow-off. Sigh.
Wrong staple location: stapling too low exposes the staple and can invite roof leaks. Stapling too high invites wind damage and blow-off.
Exposed staples: a madwoman with the staple gun, my helper shot staples like popcorn all over the place on some roofs before we had a little talk about continued employment.
Below: (not our roofing job) you can see exposed staples just below the apex of an asphalt shingle roof hip ridge cap.
Watch out: the following is an excerpt from a GAF Technical Advisory Bulletin warning about the use of staples to secure asphalt shingles:
Staples are not recommended by GAF and most industry organizations
…Staples made of at least
16-gauge galvanized steel with a minimum crown of 15/16” (24 mm) have been and continue to be
used by some applicators to install shingles.
If staples are used to install GAF shingles, our limited
shingle warranty will remain in effect.
However any problems resulting from the use of staples,
including wind blow-off, are not covered by the warranty.
... Most local building codes do not permit the use of staples…
Here is another position statement on use of roofing shingle staples from IKO
Q: Which type of fastener should be used to install asphalt shingles – nails or staples?
A: IKO agrees with and supports the ARMA position that nails are the preferred method of fastening asphalt roof shingles due to their superior holding strength.
Research on Use of Staples vs Nails in Asphalt Shingle Roofs
The roofing nail sketch of common roof shingle nailing errors shown here is a detail from FEMA's , Asphalt Shingle Roofing for High Wind Regions .
This sketch points out that mis-driven nails can also lead to shingle WIND DAMAGE - live link given below.
Roofing product manufacturers are careful to specify where shingle nails should be placed in each shingle and the number of nails required. (Typically four, six in high wind zones, plus other measures to avoid wind damage.
In addition to the number of nails, how nails are driven is critial to a shingle's ability to stay on the roof.
The following example comments on roofing nails are from the GAF Materials Corporation Grand Timberline™ Premium Architectural Shingle Application Instructions [at Reviewers]
FASTENERS: Use of nails is recommended.
Use only zinc coated steel or aluminum, 10-12
gauge, barbed, deformed or smooth shank roofing nails with heads 3/8" (10mm) to 7/16" (12mm)
in diameter. Fasteners should be long enough to penetrate at least 3/4" (19mm) into wood decks or just through the plywood decks.
Fasteners must be driven flush with the surface of the shingle. Over driving will damage the shingle. Raised fasteners will interfere with the sealing of the shingles.
Even a nailed-on roof can blow off in high wind. These shingles were lifted along the drip edge and ripped right off of this garage roof less than two years after I had installed it. More about this particular wind damaged roof is at WIND DAMAGE to ROOFS.
Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association (ARMA), Public Information Department 750 National Press Building 529 14th Street, NW Washington, DC 20045 Tel: (202) 591-2450
Florida Building Code (2010), Building Commission 2010) requires that fasteners should consist of:
Galvanized steel, aluminum or copper roofing nails, minimum 12 gage
[0.105 in (3 mm)] shank with minimum 3/8 in (10 mm) diameter head,
ASTM F 1667, of a length to penetrate through the roofing materials and a
minimum of ¾ in (19 mm) into the roof sheathing.
Where the roof sheathing
is less than ¾ in (19 mm) thick, the fasteners shall penetrate through the
Florida Building Code also requires a minimum of four fasteners per strip, and, where
the structure is within the High-Velocity Hurricane Zone (Broward and Miami-Dade, FL
counties), a minimum of six nails are required (Florida Building Commission 2010).
Fasteners are either placed by hand or pneumatic air pressure guns.
GAF STAPLES VS. NAILS FOR SHINGLE APPLICATION [PDF], GAF Technical Advisory Bulletin No. TAB-R-2011-132 (2011) retrieved 2017/09/27, original source: https://www.gaf.com/Warranties_ Technical_Documents/Steep_Slope_ Technical_Advisory_ Bulletins/English_Bulletins/ Staples_vs_Nails_for_Shingle _Applications_Steep_Slope_ Technical_Point_TAB_R_2011_132.pdf
IKO, "Which type of fastener should be used to install asphalt shingles – nails or staples?", FAQ, retrieved 2017/09/27, original source: https://www.iko.com/na/residential /homeowner/faq /#Which-type-of-fastener-should
WIND DAMAGE to ROOFS - describes asphalt shingle damage and shingle loss where improperly-stapled shingles were installed on roofs
WOOD ROOF INSTALLATION SPECS - describes use of staples for wood shingle or shake installation.
In dry climates, good quality electrogalvanized staples, conforming to ASTM A641, are satisfactory according to the Cedar Shake and Shingle Bureau, but from our field experience we prefer nails.
Continue reading at ASPHALT SHINGLE INSTALLATION - best practices, or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
Try the search box below or CONTACT US by email if you cannot find the answer you need at InspectApedia.
shingles are blowing off the roof
(Nov 28, 2012) Stan Hackett said:
When is it acceptable, if ever, to install new shingles on top of old shigles without removing them?
(Apr 27, 2014) dale carpenter said:
a part time contractor installed 100 square of GAF, best 40 year shingle over new 1/2 cdx ext plywood on our barn 5 months ago, he removed only the bottom plastic strip on the shingle, not the middle one or the top one, six times now, since installation the shingles are blowing off from high winds 50-60 mph, he says they need the summer heat to seat, he never applied additional tar, cement and or any other adhesive to secure them for our location,my install warranty is up by time summer comes around, please help,what do I do ? Dale
5 Months ago means you were installing roof shingles in December. You don't say where you are, but indeed in cold winter weather the self adhesive tabs may wait until warm weather to heat up enough in sunlight to seal.
It is not necessary, nor recommnded by the manufacturer to remove the "plastic strip" if you refer to the strip that keeps shingles from sticking together while in the bundle. When on the roof the plastic strip is not in the way of the bonding process.
See inspectapedia.com/roof/Shingle_Cellophane.php for details.
Nevertheless, if shingles have blown off, unless your roofer's workmanship warranty excludes all wind damage, it's reasonable to ask that the roof be repaired.
I don't like roofing in very cold weather because of problems like this one. I think if I were the roofer (and also if I were an English major who was good communicator) I'd warn my client that if s/he wanted me to do so I'd install the shingles in cold weather but have to warn that they won't seal readily and unless we do something extra - beyond the standard installation process and thus maybe at more labor cost - there is risk of wind damage.
It'd be a hell of a lot of additional work to add roof mastic under every single shingle tab on a roof as an extra step. And in cold weather I'm not sure even how well it'd work.
Question: removed vent, cut holes for new vent - structural damage?
(July 22, 2014) Anonymous said:
We had our roof re shingled and had an electric vent removed and 2 new holes were cut to install 2 of the larger max vents. What is the correct procedure for repairing the hole in the roof where the old electric vent was removed. Also is there any chance of structural damage to the roof if approximately one inch x the length of the vent was cut off of the roof truss where the new vents were installed?
Anon I can't say I've got a clear idea of the situation, but generally if we are removing something that leaves a hole in roof sheathing, before re-roofing we patch the hole, typically by a filler inside the sheathing opening (plywood?), supported by additional plywood screwed to the sheathing underside from below.
Roof Trusses: manufacturer's instructions, many texts, and in this InspectApedia article
you're warned not to chop, hack, shorten or modify trusses as the truss strength is compromised. From what I *think* you are describing, if repair is needed it's probably minor.
Question: rows of shingles too far apart?
7 Sept 2014 Pam said:
Is anyone familiar with this type of roofing installation? We could be wrong, but it seems as if the rows are too far apart? We would be very grateful for any information or insights. Thanks in advance!
Pam I took a look at your photo and will also post it here for others to comment. It looks as if there was a deliberate effort to expose a black shadow-line between courses. I can't know if this is a shingle appearance feature or if the roofer separated the courses by more space than the usual 4-5" of asphalt shingle exposure. Make some measurements and tell us the shingle exposure amount: that is, the distance from the lower edge of a course of shingle tabs down to the lower edge of the successive course below.
If you know the shingle brand and model number that would also be useful.
Thank you so much for your prompt reply! We are considering purchasing the home, and the seller was gracious enough to allow our contractor friend take a look around this weekend before the home inspection this coming week. He's in excavation and said he knows nothing about roofing, but he seemed to think the courses were spaced a little bit further apart than they should be. I could see if the seller could provide more information on them.
The only thing stated in the disclosure is that it was approximately 3 years old. Here are the only other pictures our friend took on the roof. Again, thanks so much for your time assistance! We are very grateful. Any information you would be willing to provide would be very much appreciated. That way we can compare notes with the inspector we hire, too! Here are links to the other pictures:
We are considering purchasing the home, and the seller was gracious enough to allow our contractor friend take a look around this weekend before the home inspection this coming week. He's in excavation and said he knows nothing about roofing, but he seemed to think the courses were spaced a little bit further apart than they should be. I could see if the seller could provide more information on them.
The only thing stated in the disclosure is that it was approximately 3 years old. Here are the only other pictures our friend took on the roof. Again, thanks so much for your time assistance! We are very grateful. Any information you would be willing to provide would be very much appreciated. That way we can compare notes with the inspector we hire, too! Here are links to the other pictures: [...]
Your photos show that the shingles are NOT properly installed in my opinion because at least where you show the plumbing vent, I can see a shingle cutout that extends over and above the top edge of the plumbing vent flashing - so this will certainly be a roof leak.
Measure the distances of shingle tab exposure and compare them with the data we give in our article
Question: roof shingles installed upside down on low slope roof
(Oct 21, 2014) MaryS said:
My neighbor is having a new roof installed and not by an established company, more like friends of a friend. Because the pitch is a low slope roof, the installer is installing the 3-tab shingles in reverse of the normal way, leaving the black solid part of the shingle exposed, instead of the 3 tabs (which are being covered by the above shingle. This does not seem right at all. He said he is a roofer and because of the low slope roof, this is the way he installs shingles. Opinions wanted, thank you.
The roof installation you describe3 is fundamentally incorrect and will give a short life and a leaky roof.
1. The upper portion of roof shingles are not intended to be exposed to the weather.
2. When installing shingles on a low slope roof, other methods are required to avoid a leaky short-lived roof.
Asphalt shingles can be installed on roof slopes of 2:12 to 4:12 if special procedures are followed for underlayment (see “ ROOFING UNDERLAYMENT BEST PRACTICES” or see page 54 in the printed text Best Practices Guide).
Eaves flashing to a point at least 24 inches inside the interior wall is recommended if there is any possibility of ice dams or water backup from leaves or pine needles.
A conservative approach is to run self-adhering bituminous membrane over the entire lowslope area. Once the underlayment is complete, shingles are installed in the standard fashion.
In cold weather, manual sealing may be required as wind uplift will be greater on shallow roofs (see “WIND DAMAGE to ROOFS).
Question: leaks at plumbing vent flashing
29 October 2014 Beverly Gaydos said:
We had High Definition Roofing Timberline installed over 3 tab asphalt roofing.The flashing &vent piping were not redone & still leak. WE purchased new flashing for vent pipes & chimney & swamp cooler. What would be the best way to install this new flashing over these 2 layers of roofing ?
I was thinking of removing the few appropriate courses of HIGH Definition Roofing install the new flashing then cutting out the new Timberline asphalt shingles appropriately & replacing it with the lower portion of flashing exposed & sandwiching it between old 3 tab & new high definition roofing using adhesive nails etc.
As recommended on a new one layer roof. Can't seem to find info. about this on roof overlayment. What is your recommendation ? Everyone asked seems to have different opinions. The so called roofers aren't worth calling back. So please give your PRO ADVICE. THANK YOU firstname.lastname@example.org Roof is 3to 12 pitch in windy snowy
As the old vent piping flashing installation leaks and there are now three layers of roofing, the best approach is probably to remove enough of the new roofing to give access to cut and remove the old flashing down flush with the original 2 layers of roofing that remain, the install a new vent flashing boot and shingle over it with proper flashing positioning so that any water entering around the new flashing and boot is delivered atop the shingles down roof. For added protection you can include sealant both beneath and atop the top and sides of the new flashing boot.
Ask a Question or Search InspectApedia
Questions & answers or comments about the best practices to follow when installing asphalt shingle roofing..
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
"GAF-Elk Timberline ® Prestique ® Grande ® 40 High Definition Roofing Shingles Product Information" (2008) GAF-Elk Corporation 5/08 13 61 Alps Road, Wayne, NJ 07470 www.gaf.com, retrieved 9/8/2014, original source: http://www.gaf.com/Other_Documents/ Legacy_Products_Discontinued/Timberline_Prestique_Grand%C3%A9 /Timberline_Prestique_Grande_40_Info_Spec_Sheet.pdf [Note that this is a discontinued product]
GAF Materials Corporation, Grand Timberline Premium Architectural Shingle Application Instructions.
http://www.gaf.com/Content/Documents/20573.pdf discusses the requirements for successful asphalt shingle installation including the condition of the roof deck, the use of roofing felt underlayment, the selection of roofing nails by type and length and penetration of the roof decking, and the role of glue strips on the back side of asphalt roof shingles.
Roofing The Right Way, Steven Bolt, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd edition (November 1, 1996), ISBN-13: 978-0070066502, p. 350 for one of many citations on this point.
"Hurricane Damage to Residential Structures: Risk and Mitigation", Jon K. Ayscue,
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, published by the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, November 1996. Abstract: "Property damage and loss from hurricanes have increased with population growth in coastal areas, and climatic factors point to more frequent and intense hurricanes in the future. This paper describes potential hurricane hazards from wind and water. Damage to residential structures from three recent intense hurricanes - Hugo, Andrew, and Iniki - shows that wind is responsible for greater property loss than water. The current state-of-the-art building technology is sufficient to reduce damage from hurricanes when properly applied, and this paper discusses those building techniques that can mitigate hurricane damage and recommends measures for mitigating future hurricane damage to homes." - online at www.colorado.edu/hazards/publications/wp/wp94/wp94.html
"Evaluating OSB for Coastal Roofs," Paul Fisette, Coastal Contractor, Winter 2005, online at coastalcontractor.net/pdf/2005/0501/0501eval.pdf . Fisette cites: "Jose Mitrani, a civil engineer and professor at Florida. International University in Miami, was ... Florida’s official damage assessment team. ... After Hurricane Andrew, Florida code advisers ruled OSB sheathing inferior to plywood."
ARMA - Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association - http://www.asphaltroofing.org/
750 National Press Building, 529 14th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20045, Tel: 202 / 207-0917
ASTM - ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA, 19428-2959 USA The ASTM standards listed below can be purchased in fulltext directly from http://www.astm.org/
NRCA - National Roofing Contractors Association - http://www.nrca.net/, 10255 W. Higgins Road, Suite 600,
Rosemont, IL 60018-5607, Tel: (847) 299-9070 Fax: (847) 299-1183
"Applying Shingles on Extreme Slopes", Dave Flickinger, RRO, Professional Roofing, July 1999. [PDF copy] - National Roofing Contractors Association - http://www.nrca.net/,
10255 W. Higgins Road,
Rosemont, IL 60018-5607,
Tel: (847) 299-9070
Fax: (847) 299-1183,
Office hours: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. CST
UL - Underwriters Laboratories - http://www.ul.com/
2600 N.W. Lake Rd.
Camas, WA 98607-8542
Tel: 1.877.854.3577 / Fax: 1.360.817.6278
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide, Edmund C. Snodgrass, Lucie L. Snodgrass, Timber Press, Incorporated, 2006, ISBN-10: 0881927872, ISBN-13: 978-0881927870. The text covers moisture needs, heat tolerance, hardiness, bloom color, foliage characteristics, and height of 350 species and cultivars.
Green Roof Construction and Maintenance, Kelley Luckett, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2009, ISBN-10: 007160880X, ISBN-13: 978-0071608800, quoting: Key questions to ask at each stage of the green building process Tested tips and techniques for successful structural design
Construction methods for new and existing buildings
Information on insulation, drainage, detailing, irrigation, and plant selection
Details on optimal soil formulation
Illustrations featuring various stages of construction
Best practices for green roof maintenance
A survey of environmental benefits, including evapo-transpiration, storm-water management, habitat restoration, and improvement of air quality
Tips on the LEED design and certification process
Considerations for assessing return on investment
Color photographs of successfully installed green roofs
Useful checklists, tables, and charts
Roofing The Right Way, Steven Bolt, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd Ed (1996), ISBN-10: 0070066507, ISBN-13: 978-0070066502
Slate Roofs, National Slate Association, 1926, reprinted 1977
by Vermont Structural Slate Co., Inc., Fair Haven, VT 05743, 802-265-4933/34. (We recommend this book if you can find it. It
has gone in and out of print on occasion.)
Roof Tiling & Slating, a Practical Guide, Kevin Taylor, Crowood Press (2008), ISBN 978-1847970237, If you have never fixed a roof tile or slate before but have wondered how to go about repairing or replacing them, then this is the book for you. Many of the technical books about roof tiling and slating are rather vague and conveniently ignore some of the trickier problems and how they can be resolved. In Roof Tiling and Slating, the author rejects this cautious approach. Kevin Taylor uses both his extensive knowledge of the trade and his ability to explain the subject in easily understandable terms, to demonstrate how to carry out the work safely to a high standard, using tried and tested methods.
This clay roof tile guide considers the various types of tiles, slates, and roofing materials on the market as well as their uses, how to estimate the required quantities, and where to buy them. It also discusses how to check and assess a roof and how to identify and rectify problems; describes how to efficiently "set out" roofs from small, simple jobs to larger and more complicated projects, thus making the work quicker, simpler, and neater; examines the correct and the incorrect ways of installing background materials such as underlay, battens, and valley liners; explains how to install interlocking tiles, plain tiles, and artificial and natural slates; covers both modern and traditional methods and skills, including cutting materials by hand without the assistance of power tools; and provides invaluable guidance on repairs and maintenance issues, and highlights common mistakes and how they can be avoided.
The author, Kevin Taylor, works for the National Federation of Roofing Contractors as a technical manager presenting technical advice and providing education and training for young roofers.
The Slate Roof Bible, Joseph Jenkins, www.jenkinsslate.com,
143 Forest Lane, PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127 - 866-641-7141 (We recommend this book).
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: email@example.com. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones