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Sources of asbestos found in adhesives, mastics, or sealants used in flooring or roofing:
This article lists common sources of asbestos that may be encountered when demolishing or renovating older floors, floor underlayment, or roofs and roofing underlayment.
This article series answers questions about floor tile, sheet flooring, or roofing cutback adhesives or mastics that may contain asbestos.
Does or did roofing mastic products & sealants contain asbestos? What are the hazards of demolishing or working on floors or roofs where asphalt-based asbestos-containing mastics, cutback adhesives, or sealants were used? Page top photo of black mastic floor tile adhesive provided courtesy of reader G.M.
Sources of Asbestos in Flooring Adhesives & Underlayment
List of Authoritative sources reporting the use of [or absence of] asbestos in any form of flooring underlayment, cutback adhesive, floor tile mastic, roofing mastic, roofing sealant or roof flashing cement
[Click to enlarge any image]
Asbestos in tile mastics & roofing mastics or adhesives: some tile mastics and adhesives including adhesives used for floor or wall tiles did contain asbestos as a filler or fiber strengthener.
Cement asbestos slates were described in the Journal of Hazardous Materials as [safely] recyclable in production of stoneware tile mixtures in 2008  and a procedure for producing [safe] lightweight ceramic materials by a process bonding chrysotile asbestos fibers was described by Mackenzie and Meinhold in 1994. 
Ceramic tile asbestos sources: Unlike asphalt-asbestos floor tiles or sheet flooring and later vinyl-asbestos floor tiles or sheet flooring, traditional ceramic tile installations were bedded in cement, not mastic, and not an asbestos containing material. But from the 1960's some ceramic tile installations used a thin-set mortar or a thin-set mastic that might contain asbestos as was the case with the other floor coverings we just named.
See CERAMIC TILE, ASBESTOS / LEAD?
ACM flooring underlayment [underlayment is not ceramic tile itself ] has been found under flooring in demolition projects, a practice that can extend to ceramic floor tiles 
Asbestos in roofing underlayment: some older asphalt-impregnated felts contained asbestos
Asbetic flooring: using asbestos mine waste products (largely dust and very short asbestos fibers) is described by Rosato .
The result was a "hard but not completely water tight" flooring material. Asbetic is a mixture of ground mother rock and the shortest, otherwise unusable asbestos fibers. [He does not name ceramic tile flooring in this category.]
Asbestos in tile mortar: Asbestos used as an ingredient in tile mortar is described in a patent dispute.
Possible sources of confusion about asbestos content in ceramic floor tiles:
Asbestos in clay products: Asbestos has been reported in art clay (such as Fibro-Clay) used in schools and in pottery clay where it occurred in the form of talc added as a flux to lower the firing temperature. Talc and clay from at least one U.S. mine contained anthophyllite asbestos.
It was unclear whether or not this material fell under the aegis of asbestos regulation. The asbestos content of talc depended on where it was mined, and some talcs were asbestos-free.
Depending on the quarry source there may be deliberate or accidental inclusion of asbestos in terra cotta tiles such as roofing tiles.
Other clay products that may have had asbestos added in the form of talc or vermiculite (some vermiculite contains asbestos) in addition to art clays, may include clays used as pipe joint seals or insulation, and in the production of firebricks used to line the combustion chambers of heating equipment such as boilers or furnaces, and other school art projects such as paper marches.
Pre-historic origins of use of asbestos in clay pottery: The use asbestos-strengthened ceramic wares (pottery) dates from the Stone Age and continued throughout the Bronze Age and into the Iron Age.
Specifically, asbestos fibers were used to strengthen earthenware pots and cooking utensils as long s 4,500 years ago, an application documented by various sources. Also, a Wikipedia entry on Asbestos-ceramic describes pottery made with asbestos and clay .
Asbestos textiles were used as safety protective clothing & gear for workers in the ceramics industries - a possible source of confusion associating the terms "ceramic tile" and "asbestos" in some search engine results.
Some mesothelioma information and legal resource websites name "ceramic tiles" as containing asbestos  without citing an authoritative source.
ASBESTOS List of Asbestos-Containing Products - the InspectAPedia master list of asbestos forms and asbestos-containing products, enumerates asbestos-containing-materials (ACM) using historical information derived from Rosato and other industry sources.
Rosato who provided an extensive discussion of asbestos used in flooring materials, referred exclusively to the use of asbestos in resilient flooring products (such as vinyl asbestos floor tiles) and excluded non-resilient flooring (stone, slate, ceramic tile).
Rosato confirms use of asbestos and clay as mixture ingredients in premix-molding-compounds and the use of asbestos fibers mixed with ceramic fibers to form filter paper for the paper making industry (these are not ceramic tile products) 
Asbestos ceramic bricks: Leonelli et als. refer to the disposition of asbestos by microwave treatment of asbestos waste into ceramic bricks - another possible source of association of the words "ceramic" and "asbestos" in web searches that does not extend to ceramic tiles. National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH, USA
Continue reading at ASBESTOS MASTIC INTO AIR? or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
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 EPA, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Asbestos in Your Home, web search 08/31/2011, original source: www.epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/ashome.html
 EPA Guidance for Controlling Asbestos-Containing Materials in buildings, NIAST, National Institute on Abatement Sciences & Technology, [republishing EPA public documents] 1985 ed., Exposure Evaluation Division, Office of Toxic Substances, Office of Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington,D.C. 20460
 EPA: "Asbestos Management", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 7, original author: Todd H. Dresser, Environmental Engineer,
Burlington Board of Health, 29 Center Street, Burlington, MA 01803, web search 3/4/2012 original source: epa.gov/region07/education_resources/teachers/ehsstudy/ehs2.htm, [copy on file as: /hazmat/Asbestos Management _ Region 7 _ US EPA.pdf ]
 "Deconstruction - Building Disassembly and Material Salvage - the Riverdale Case Study", U.S. EPA, web search 3/4/12, original source: epa.gov/wastes/conserve/rrr/imr/cdm/pubs/river.pdf, [copy on file as: /hazmat/Deconstruction_Riverdale_EPA.pdf]
 "Toxics Information Series - Asbestos", U.S. EPA, April 1980, [copy on file as /hazmat/Asbestos_Toxics_EPA_1980.pdf]
 EVER WEAR TILE CO is currently (2009) in the Terrazzo, Tile, Marble, and Mosaic Work industry in Fallon, NV. 775) 423-6221. [We do not know the company history nor whether there is an association with EverWear vinyl asbestos floor tiles discussed in this article.]
 History of Asbestos in the UK - the story so far ..., Silverdell PLC, 14 Buckingham St., London WC2N 6DF TelP 0207 389 6906, email: firstname.lastname@example.org website: www.silverdell.plc.uk. Web search 3/4/12, original source: issuu.com/silverdell_plc/docs/silverdell_history_of_asbestos_article, [copy on file as /hazmat/Asberstos_UK_Silverdell.pdf ]
 Armstrong ® Residential Flooring - Website 05/15/2010 http://www.armstrong.com/ lists current flooring products provided by the Armstrong Corporation, including Armstrong's current vinyl floor tile products at http://www.armstrong.com/flooring/products/vinyl-floors
 Armstrong Corporation, Corporate History - http://www.armstrong.com/corporate/corporate-history.html - Web Search 05/19/2010
 Armstrong vinyl asbestos floor tiles: photos of asbestos floor tiles as catalog pages (PDF form) are at www.asbestosresource.com/asbestos/tile.html
 Thanks to Armstrong Corporation (800-356-9301) for providing information about the dates of manufacture of peel-and-stick floor tiles, email July 2010
 "Asbestos in your home or at work," Forsyth County Environmental Affairs Department, Winston-Salem NC
 LIFE Feb 14, 1955 p. 105, advertisement for Congoleum flooring products and listing of Gold Seal products by Congoleum.
 "Resource4Mesothelioma, Mesothelioma Information and Legal Guide", web search 3/6/2012, original source: resource4mesothelioma.com/topics/whatisasbestos.html [copy on file as /hazmat/Asbestos_Resource4_3Mar12.pdf ] and also
mesothelioma.com/asbestos-exposure/products/ceramic-tiles.htm [copy on file as
 Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications, D.V. Rosato, engineering consultant, Newton, MA, Reinhold Publishing, 1959 Library of Congress Catalog Card No.: 59-12535 [out of print, original copy, text and images on file at InspectAPedia.com offices].
 Asbestos-ceramic, Wikipedia, web search 3/6/2012, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asbestos-ceramic [copy on file as /hazmat/Asbestos-ceramic_Wik.pdf]
 "History of asbestos discovery and use and asbestos-related disease in context with the occurrence of asbestos within ophiolite complexes", Malcolm Ross, Robert P. Nolan, Geological Society of America, Special Paper, 2003.
Abstract: Two ancient asbestos mines, one near Karystos, Greece and the other southeast of Mount Troodos, Cyprus, were located in what we now know to be ophiolite terrane. Evidence suggests that asbestos was discovered and utilized in Cyprus,perhaps as long as 5000 years ago, for manufacture of cremation cloths, lamp wicks, hats, and shoes. Some of the adverse health effects became known only in the early twentieth century, but it was not until the 1960's that the asbestos-related diseases - asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma - were fully understood.
Approximately 855 of the world's asbestos was produced from ophiolite complexes, most of which as the chrysotile variety; termolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite asbestos accounting for only a few percent of the total. Asbestos minerals crystallize within tectonized ophiolites -along shear, fault, and dilation zones, and at contacts with intruded dikes and sills. Important chrysotile asbestos mines are found in the ophiolites of eastern Canada, the Russian Urals, California, northwest Italy, northern Greece, and Cyprus. A high incidence of mesothelioma, a cancer of the lugn lining, is reported among residents of villages located within or near ophiolite complexes in Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Corsica, and New Caledonia. These villages were exposed to tremolite asbestos while processing stucco and whitewash for application to homes. Asbestos contamination in various geographic localities has generated concern about health risks and has prompted costly remediatl actions, especially in the United Kingdom and the United States. A scientific basis for public policy is offered to address the utilization of asbestos-bearing rocks.
 57 F.Supp. 339 (1965), TILE COUNCIL OF AMERICA, INC., Plaintiff, v. CERAMIC TILERS SUPPLY, INC., Defendant. No. 62-267. United States District Court S. D. California, Central Division. August 13, 1965. Quoting "the 392 patent ... It also discloses composition containing the ingredients above mentioned which include sand as well as one which includes asbestos but not sand together with the other ingredients heretofore mentioned. The 382 patent also discloses a method of manufacturing such compositions."
 "The transformation sequence of cement–asbestos slates up to 1200 °C and safe recycling of the reaction product in stoneware tile mixtures
A.F. Gualtieri, C. Cavenati, I. Zanatto, M. Meloni, G. Elmi, M. Lassinantti Gualtier, Journal of Hazardous Materials Volume 152, Issue 2, 1 April 2008, Pages 563–570
" Quoting: " The material was powdered and studied to see if it is suitable to be recycled in stoneware tile
mixtures similarly to the protocol used in Gualtieri and Tartaglia  "
" The product of transformation of cement–asbestos (CATP) has a phase composition similar to that of a natural or a low temperature clinker with the exception of having a larger content of aluminium, iron and magnesium. This product can be safely recycled for the production of stoneware tile mixtures. The addition of 3–5 mass% of CATP does not bear significant variations to the standard parameters of white porcelain tile mixtures. "
 "A glass-bonded ceramic material from chrysotile (white asbestos)", K. J. D. Mackenzie and R. H.Meinhold, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
Volume 29, Number 10, 2775-2783, DOI: 10.1007/BF00356832, Abstract:
A process has been developed for bonding chrysotile asbestos into a robust, dimensionally-stable lightweight ceramic material by fusing it with sodium silicate and/or ground waste glass. The chrysotile can retain its desirable properties of fibrous morphology and porosity, but the fibre bundles are stabilized by fusion into a glassy matrix, reducing the respirable fibre concentration. The glass-bonded materials have good resistance to mechanical abrasion, and any resulting dust is found by SEM to be particularly free of fibres. The thermal treatment also converts the chrysotile into crystalline forsterite, which should destroy its cell toxicity. Other methods of glass-bonding chrysotile compacts (hot pressing and impregnating with glaze) were also investigated, and the properties of the resulting materials are reported.
Reference Type: Journal Article
Author: Mackenzie, K. J. D.
Author: Meinhold, R. H.
Primary Title: A glass-bonded ceramic material from chrysotile (white asbestos)
Journal Name: Journal of Materials Science
Cover Date: 1994-01-01
Publisher: Springer Netherlands
Subject: Chemistry and Materials Science
Start Page: 2775
End Page: 2783
 "Firing transformations of cretaceous clays used in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles",
M.M Jordána, Corresponding author contact information,
C de la Fuenteb, Applied Clay Science, Volume 14, Issue 4, April 1999, Pages 225–234
 "Use of granite sawing wastes in the production of ceramic bricks and tiles",
Romualdo R. Menezesa, Corresponding author contact information, E-mail the corresponding author,
Heber S. Ferreirab, E-mail the corresponding author,
Gelmires A. Nevesb, E-mail the corresponding author,
Helio de L. Lirab, E-mail the corresponding author,
Heber C. Ferreirab, E-mail the corresponding author , Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Volume 25, Issue 7, May 2005, Pages 1149–1158
 [Chapter 4.4. Clay Masonry Units] of Olin's Construction: Principles, Materials, and Methods, 9th ed., H. Leslie Simmons, John Wiley & Sons 2011, ISBN 978-0-470-54740-3
Barsoum, Michael W. (1996). Fundamentals of Ceramics. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bender, W. and F. Handle, eds. Brick and Tile Making: Procedures and Operating Practices in the Heavy Clay Industries. Bauverlag GmbH, 1982.
Jones, J. T. and M. F. Berard. Ceramics: Industrial Processing and Testing. Iowa State University Press, 1972.
Kingery, W. D.; Bowen, H. K.; and Uhlmann, D. R. (1976). Introduction to Ceramics , 2nd edition. New York: Wiley.
Pellacani, G. and T. Manfredini. Engineered Materials Handbook. ASM International, 1991, pp. 925-929.
 Ceramic Tile Institute of America, CTIOA, Tel: 310-574-7800, website: www.ctioa.org/ Email: email@example.com Quote: The mission of CTIOA: To promote appropriate and expanded use of ceramic tile and natural stone through education.
The Ceramic Tile Institute of America Inc. provides manufacturer’s information only. The Ceramic Tile Institute of America Inc. does not test the products listed nor do we validate manufacturer’s claims. The Ceramic Tile Institute of America inc. is not responsible for the performance of the products shown on this site.
 "Potential Asbestos Hazard in Art Clay", Mark K. McQuillan, [letter] Connecticut Department of Public Health, 26 June 2007, CT DOH, Phone: (860) 509-7740 Fax: (860) 509-7785
Telephone Device for the Deaf (860) 509-7191
410 Capitol Avenue - MS # 11EOH
P.O. Box 340308 Hartford, CT 06134
web search 3/8/12 original source: ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/environmental_health/asbestos/pdf/ArtClayLetter.pdf
[copy on file as: /hazmat/ArtClayLetter.pdf ] Excerpt: Talc is added to certain clays as a “flux” to lower the temperature at which the clay needs to be heated. The DPH has become aware that the talc from at least one mine in the Northeast may be contaminated with a type of asbestos called anthophyllite. Although there has been debate if the asbestos found in talc actually falls under the regulatory definition of asbestos, there is enough uncertainty to warrant caution when using clays with added talc. A recent court case in New Jersey found talc mined by the R.T. Vanderbilt Company of New York was responsible for an asbestos-related cancer ( mesothelioma) in a pottery shop owner. The pottery shop owner had purchased talc (Nytal 100) in large bags and mixed it in clays he used and sold.
 CPSC and Milton Bradley Co. Recall "Fibro-Clay", US Consumer Product Safety Commission, Release #83-012, March 1983. web seach 3/8/12 original source cpsc.gov/cpscpub/prerel/prhtml83/83012.html [copy on file as /hazamat/FIBRO-CLAY_ Recall.pdf ]
Milton Bradley made Fibro-Clay from 1967 until 1975, when it ceased manufacture of the product. The firm stated that no asbestos has been used in the formula since 1972, and that the quantity sold by its Educational Division was relatively small.
 US CPSC FOIA Request S606074: Duggan v. Duncan Ceramics, Report 950907CWE7271 and related investigation reports and correspoindence ..., [letter, CPSC to Jennifer N. Willis], 22 July 1997, with attachments, documents, technical articles, [copy on file as /hazmat/CPSC_FOIA_S606074.pdf ]
 "Precautions for Elementary and Secondary Art Teachers", Ida Herma Williams, Center for Occupational Hazards, [available in op.cit. #37]
 "Ceramics", Michael McCann, Ph.D., C.I.H., Center for SAFETY in the Arts, 5 Beekman St., New York NY 10038, [undated, available in op.cit.#37]
 "Art and Craft Safety Guide", US CPSC, Publication #5015, original source: http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/5015.pdf, [copy on file as /hazmat/CPSC_5015.pdf
 Asbestos Testing Laboratory Survey, Daniel Friedman (editor), InsapectAPedia.com, March 2012. Using the U.S. NIST directory of accredited laboratories certified for asbestos fiber analysis, [http://ts.nist.gov/standards/scopes/plmtm.htm] we polled at least one laboratory in each U.S. state, Puerto Rico, two Canadian Provinces, and laboratories in Japan and Korea, asking each if their laboratory had ever received ceramic tiles for asbestos testing and whether or not their lab had ever detected asbestos in ceramic tiles used on walls, floors, or other building services. Results will be included in this article.
 "Where can you find asbestos? Floor tiles, textiles, composites", Health and Executive Safety, web search 3/8/12 original source: http://www.hse.gov.uk/asbestos/essentials/floortiles.htm Quoting:
HSE is the national independent watchdog for work-related health, safety and illness.
We are an independent regulator and act in the public interest to reduce work-related death and serious injury across Great Britain’s workplaces.
 International Asbestos Testing Laboratories, Frank E. Ehrenfeld III, Laboratory Director - Vice President, 9000 Commerce Parkway, Suite B, Mount Laurel, NJ 08054, Office: 856 231-9449, psersonal communication, email & telcon: 3/8/2012
 Handbook of Clay Science, R.E. Grim, Elsevier Science, 2006, ISBN-10: 0080441831 ISBN-13: 978-0080441832[WATCH OUT the price for this book is very high]
The Clay Minerals Society
3635 Concorde Pkwy Suite 500,
Chantilly, VA 20151-1110,
United States, Tel: (703) 652-9960, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org website http://www.clays.org/,
 Semiquantitative Chemical Analysis of Asbestos Fibers and Clay Minerals with an Analytical Electron Microscope", Hisato Hayashi, Saburo Aita and Mikio Suzuki, Clays and Minerals, Vol. 26. No. 3, pp. 181-188, 1978, web search 3/8/12 original source: clays.org/journal/archive/volume%2026/26-3-181.pdf [copy on file as /hazmat/Clays_Minerals_Asbestos_CMS_1978.pdf ]
 Sheet silicates (phyllosilicates): clays, micas and serpentine (including chrysotile asbestos), E&ES213: Mineralogy
Lecture March 22, Ellen Thomas, Wesleyan University, 45 Wyllys Avenue, Middletown, CT 06459, (860) 685-2000 [copy on file as /hazmat/Clays and asbestos_EThomas_Wesleyan.pdf]
[Helpful definitions & descriptions of clay & asbestos from an environmental scientist - ed.]
 Phillip A. Peterson, Vice President, Fibertec Industrial Hygiene Services, Inc., 1914 Holloway Drive
Holt, MI 48842, Phone: 517-699-0345, ext. 1, www.fibertec.us. Personal correspondence 3/14/2012 - DJF.
 Asbestos Program, Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration, Michigan Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs
Michigan Occupational Safety & Health Administration
Construction Safety & Health Division - Asbestos Program
7150 Harris Drive
P. O. Box 30671
Lansing, Michigan 48909-8171
E-mail: email@example.com, website:
[4/23/12 requested technical review]
 "Arts and Crafts, an Industrial Hygiene Challenge", Monona Rossol, The Synergist, May 2012, pp. 34-37American Industrial Hygiene Association.
 Arts, Crafts, & Theater Safety (ACTS), 181 Thompson Street, #23
New York, NY 10012-2586
Telephone: (212) 777-0062
E-Mail: ACTSNYC@cs.com, web search 5/9/12, website: http://www.artscraftstheatersafety.org/ - Quoting:
ACTS is a not-for-profit corporation that provides health, safety, industrial hygiene, technical services, and safety publications to the arts, crafts, museums, and theater communities. A part of the fees from our consulting services goes to support our free and low-cost services for artists. We gratefully accept donations, but do not solicit them from the artists who call here for help and advice. We recognize that artists and performers are among the least affluent groups in society.
ACTS also will not accept money or take advertising in our publications from manufacturers of artists materials or businesses whose interests could conflict with ours. We want artists to know that we have no financial incentive to make our product and safety recommendations.
 The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, Monona Rossol, Allworth Press, 2001, ISBN-10: 1581152043
ISBN-13: 978-1581152043 - Quoting:
Dozens of at-a-glance tables and charts present vital information about art materials, ingredients, technical hazards, proper protective equipment, and safe work practices simply and accurately. This brand-new third edition is now completely revised and expanded to detail lifesaving new safety and ventilation equipment, present urgent new discoveries on toxins and pollutants found in arts and crafts materials, and explain the controversies surrounding new government regulations. A virtual lifesaver for all art and craft workers.
Asbestos Identification, Walter C.McCrone, McCrone Research Institute, Chicago, IL.1987 ISBN 0-904962-11-3. Dr. McCrone literally "wrote the book" on asbestos identification procedures which formed
the basis for current work by asbestos identification laboratories.
Stanton, .F., et al., National Bureau of Standards Special Publication 506: 143-151
Pott, F., Staub-Reinhalf Luft 38, 486-490 (1978) cited by McCrone
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
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The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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