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STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
AGE of a BUILDING - how to determine
BRICK FOUNDATIONS & WALLS
BRICK STRUCTURAL WALL Loose Bulged
BRICK WALL THERMAL EXPANSION CRACKS
BRICK WALL DRAINAGE WEEP HOLES
BUCKLED FOUNDATIONS due to INSULATION?
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
COLD POUR JOINTS, CONCRETE
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS
CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS, PRE-CAST
DISASTER BUILDING INSPECTION & REPAIR
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOOD DAMAGE TO FOUNDATIONS
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOOTINGS EXPOSED, Repair Methods
FOUNDATION BULGE or LEAN MEASUREMENTS
FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION TYPES
FOUNDATION CONTRACTORS, ENGINEERS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FOUNDATION DEFECTS OF OMISSION - MISSING
FOUNDATION FAILURES by TYPE & MATERIAL
FOUNDATION FAILURES by MOVEMENT TYPE
FOUNDATION INSPECTION METHODS
FOUNDATION INSULATION OPTIONS
FOUNDATION MATERIALS, Age, Types
FOUNDATION REPAIR METHODS
FRAMING DAMAGE, INSPECTION, REPAIR
FROST HEAVES, FOUNDATION, SLAB
GRADING, DRAINAGE & SITE WORK
GUTTERS & DOWNSPOUTS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
MOBILE HOMES, DOUBLEWIDES, TRAILERS
MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
RETAINING WALL DESIGNS, TYPES, DAMAGE
RETAINING WALL GUARD RAILINGS
SINKHOLES, WARNING SIGNS
CONCRETE SLAB CRACK EVALUATION
CONCRETE SLAB CRACK REPAIR
STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE PROBING
STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT
THERMAL EXPANSION of MATERIALS
TIMBER FRAMING, ROT
WATER BARRIERS, EXTERIOR BUILDING
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
WOOD STRUCTURE ASSESSMENT
This article presents a case study by Bob Maltempo, P.E. with comments by Daniel Friedman. The case demonstrates the inspection, detection, diagnosis, and repair repair recommendations regarding structural damage (or none) to a building foundation wall and floor slab following flooding.
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Visual inspection combined with familiarity with the patterns of cracks and movement in building foundations and their common causes permits a distinction between pre-flood foundation damage, post flood foundation damage, old and new foundation cracks, structural and non-structural cracks.
Our photograph at page top shows a collapsing masonry block foundation.This type of foundation damage could be caused by floodwaters and earth pressure outside of the foundation wall, especially if the absence of flood vents kept water out of the basement area during the initial period of flooding.
However this same damage can occur due to earth pressure, surface and ground water outside the foundation, and vehicle damage, even in a building which has not been flooded.
Here we provide photos and discuss evidence that can help determine the age and cause of foundation damage. This case can help a foundation engineer or foundation inspector rule in, out, or leave as possible, a claim for flood damage at a building. This diagnosis is important not only for purpose of de terming the extent of insurance coverage at a property but also because without an accurate diagnosis of cause, a foundation repair may be unsuccessful, or the damage may simply recur.
This photo by by Bob Maltempo,P.E. shows a hairline vertical crack in the exterior of a stuccoed (or parged) concrete block garage wall. The question was asked: was this crack caused by area flooding, and was repair to the building needed to remedy this condition?
Below we give a detailed list of questions to ask and inspections to make in assessing whether or not a building foundation damage or crack was caused by flooding
A catalog of types of damage that occur in masonry block foundation walls is at BLOCK FOUNDATION & WALL DEFECTS.
In sum, the building inspector seeing this structure after flooding has occurred needs to:
Fine Vertical Cracks in a Masonry Block Foundation Wall - Caused by Flooding?
Complaint/observation: hairline vertical crack in a masonry block garage wall. This photo shows the interior surface of the garage wall in the picture we provided above.
The building owner did not know if these cracks were present before the building had been subjected to flooding, but he posed that the damage was due to flooding and had pressed an insurance claim.
The foundation inspector has multiple obligations: she or he has a general obligation to protect the safety of a building's occupants by being able to recognize if the structure is unsafe and needs repair (if that is within the scope of the inspector's expertise). The inspector needs to accurately diagnose the cause of the damage, not only for insurance claim purposes, but also because without an understanding of the cause, the need for repair, and the proper repair may not be specified.
Key diagnostic observations: In this foundation wall there was no bulging, bowing, or leaning observed in the wall. Other walls in the same building were not damaged.
This masonry block foundation crack photo was provided by Bob Maltempo, an engineer who inspects foundations for damage. Maltempo observed vertical hairline cracks in the masonry block foundation, at regular intervals of this building which was constructed in the 1950's on Long Island in New York
Fine vertical or near-vertical cracks in a masonry block foundation may be caused by shrinkage in the concrete blocks - a condition that occurs shortly after construction. Shrinkage cracks in masonry tend to be uniform in width, top to bottom, but might be more narrow at the crack bottom where the masonry blocks are pinned to a (presumably not shrinking) footing.
Fine vertical or near-vertical cracks in a concrete block wall may also be caused by footing settlement. If that cause is present, careful measurement should find that the wall is not at exactly the same height on both sides of the vertical crack.
Floodwaters around a building, if they press principally on only the wall exterior, can cause a wall to buckle, bend, or lean inwards. These pressures often cause horizontal cracking in a masonry block wall; vertical cracks would be unusual. That pattern of movement was absent from this home.
How would a flood cause a vertical crack in a masonry block foundation wall? Floodwaters or even wet soils around a building might cause footing settlement, particularly in a newer building whose footings may have been placed on poorly-compacted soil. That pattern of movement was also absent from the home.
Since floodwaters would be expected to surround a home built on a relatively flat lot, one would also seek to determine why only one wall of the building was affected. There could be explanations for that asymmetry.
Our opinion was that the cracks in this masonry block wall were chiropractors of masonry block shrinkage, that they were most likely caused by that effect and not caused by flooding.
Cracks in a Garage Floor Slab - Caused by Flooding?
Complaint/Observation: cracks in a garage floor slab near the entry.
Diagnostic comments: In this photograph of a cracked garage floor provided by Bob Maltempo, we both concluded that we were not faced with a structural concern. A concrete floor slab poured inside of a perimeter foundation is not normally a structural component in the building.
Significant in evaluation of these floor cracks was their pattern and location. A close examination of the crack pattern might show a combination of concrete shrinkage cracks combined with subsequent settlement or frost heave damage. It was significant that the cracks were concentrated at the entry to the home's garage. In New York, a climate that experiences freezing soil conditions in winter, it is common to see cracked garage floors near the garage entry. That's because of the combination of wet soils, frost heave, and the fact that the coldest part of the slab will be at the garage entry doors. See Frost Heave/Expansive Soil Cracks in Slabs and also Settlement Cracks vs. Frost Heaves.
Our opinion was that because of their location, the absence of settlement that might occur following flooding, the pattern which included shrinkage crack patterns, these cracks were due to shrinkage and frost heaves, not to area flooding.
The floor slab could be involved with the building structure if it were poured as a monolithic slab with an integral footing, and cracks in a such a slab would need to be followed to determine if they involved the building footings as well.
Effect of wire brushing cracks on crack diagnosis: These cracks were interesting because they had been wire brushed by the building owner's son. We're not sure why this step was taken, perhaps it was in anticipation of applying a masonry patch compound. (Wire brushing would be an ineffective preparation step.)
Wire brushing the floor slab cracks over-rode any pre-existing age-wear on the crack edges, it removed upper level dirt, debris, and it removed floor surface discoloration that might have assisted in evaluating the age of these floor cracks.
But the discovery of portions of these cracks that had not been wire brushed, and a close inspection under magnification could still provide diagnostic evidence. It's unlikely that the wire brush process reached to the very bottom of the floor cracks.
Wire brushing of an existing crack would also make it difficult to observe the wear and smoothing of the upper edges of the crack that are caused by years of foot traffic, vehicle traffic, dragging objects over the floor, and similar forces.
Damage and Risk Assessment of Wall & Floor Cracks:
The first priority question is whether or not there is evidence that the cracks observed represent damage to the building that needs repair - that is, are the cracks cosmetic or are they more important. In the case above there was no evidence of structural movement in the foundation wall and the cracks about 1/16" wide, vertical - a low-threat to foundation walls. The garage floor was not a structural element (it is not carrying the structural loads); a cracked concrete floor slab might however be considered a trip hazard if cracks are higher on one side than the other by 1/8" or more, and in some areas floor slab cracks can increase the risk of radon gas entry or water entry.
How is the foundation wall constructed?
In the case we describe, as in most older homes, the concrete wall is constructed without internal reinforcement, placed on a poured concrete footing (not visible, but assumed).
Questions about Possible Flooding as a Foundation Damage Cause or Contributor
Comments About Building Foundation Cracking & Building Flooding
Vertical cracks in a masonry block wall are usually from initial shrinkage, and they usually occur near the center of the wall, are fairly uniform in width, and may taper to a more narrow width or no crack at all close to the foundation footing where the footing, particularly if pinned to the wall bottom, holds the bottom of the wall in place.
Vertical cracks in a concrete block wall are usually a low-threat to the structure (if at all) unless the cracks can be tracked to ongoing and/or significant footing settlement, foundation leaning or tipping.
Vertical cracks in the center of a concrete block wall due to earth pressure or flood water pressure would be unusual. Usually this pressure finds it easier to break the concrete block courses at the mortar joints, producing horizontal cracking; If there is significant wall buckling (see page top photo) step cracks may also appear in the block wall. In a severely bowed concrete block wall the classic pattern is wide horizontal cracks in mortar joints the middle or lower wall leading to step cracks in the mortar joints closer to the wall corners.
Questions About Concrete Slab Floor Cracks and Flood Damage
What is the crack pattern in the slab (breaking vs. shrinkage, for example) and where in the slab do cracks occur (at corners, near a garage entry door, around Lally columns?)
Comments about New & Old Cracks in Floor Slabs & Wire Brushed Cracks
New Versus Old Foundation or Slab Cracks
Often we find that a long-standing condition at a building is perceived as new by an owner or occupant only after it has been called to their attention for the first time. A person's anxiety about the newly-observed feature (mold, stains, cracks) can increase their certainty that the phenomenon is a new one even if forensic evidence of the age of the condition is compelling.
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