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Asbestos containing products, "other". this article describes other asbestos-containing products besides those appearing in our master list (ASBESTOS LIST of PRODUCTS), such as asbestos-containing abrasives, adhesives, automobiles, bricks, flooring, insulation, lubricants, medical products, metal protective coatings, paper, paints, roads, sealers, & welding rods.
This articles series about the manufacture & use of asbestos-containing products includes detailed information on the production methods, asbestos content, and the identity and use of asbestos-containing materials. Photo at page top illustrates use of asbestos within a butterfly valve observed in Australia in 2013 - discussed further under Bearing Compounds at ASBESTOS PHOTO GUIDE to Materials
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The following text is Adapted from Rosato (1959) p. 194-200  © 2013 InspectApedia.com
Abrasives Containing Asbestos
Asbestos is used in limited applications in certain types of abrasive products. The fibers can be used as fillers with various types of rubber-resin systems. Its fine structure and its heat resistant characteristics are desirable. Rubber latex mixtures have also been used to bond abrasive grains. A typical composition includes
Material Parts Asbestos fibers 25 Sulfur 100 Rubber (as latex) 100 Water 100-200 Hemoglobin (dry) 25
This type of product is made by adding the hemoglobin to the latex in order to stabilize the latex. Asbestos and sulfur are added to form a paste and then the abrasive grain is added. This mixture can be formed or extruded into such different shapes as rods. Heat and pressure are applied in order to cure the mixture.
Adhesives Containing Asbestos
rom 5 to 60 per cent, by weight, of asbestos shorts and floats are used in adhesives as fillers and extenders. They are used to give bulk, reduce cost, provide even distribution, reduce penetration, give even penetration, blend resins, reduce dielectric heating time in the curing of adhesives, eliminate crazing, reduce shrinkage and embrittlement, reduce internal stresses, and to provide resistance to heat.
Asbestos fillers are used with such different adhesive compounds as phenolic and nylon-phenolic compounds, urea, resorcinol, furfural, epoxy, nitrile rubber, reclaimed rubber, and silicates. Asbestos is also used in sheet form as an adhesive carrier.
Automobile Undercoating Asbestos Content
Asbestos shorts and floats are used to toughen asphalt compounds for undercoating automobiles.
Bricks Containing Asbestos
Asbestos bricks have been exposed to temperatures of 2,100°F for one hour without being affected.
Flooring Containing Asbestos
There is always the desire to develop the use of large quantities of waste products from the asbestos mines. Some use has been made of waste products in flooring. Asbetic is a mixture of ground mother rock and the shortest, otherwise unusable, asbestos fibers. It can also be used for flooring construction with waterglass as a binder and without a magnesia mixture. The compound is hard but not completely water tight.
Insulation Containing Asbestos-Silicone
Asbestos-silicone combinations have proved to be efficient thermal insulation for hot aircraft duct work and boiler rooms. When compared to other insulators such as quartz blankets (for 0.15 in. thickness) at operating temperatures of 450°F, they are more efficient. The compound is made up of medium or short length asbestos with silicone cement (Dow Corning's C-271).
Asbestos in Lubricants
Asbestos fibers are used to a limited extent in lubricants in order to give solidity, and to regulate the melting temperature and rate of flow or melt. The subject of lubricants incorporating asbestos fibers is intimately connected with the mechanical and operating conditions of engines or machinery. Asbestos floats are generally used in these applications. Varied amounts of asbestos are used; these amounts range from five to fifty per cent by weight.
It is generally considered that fillers are solid materials which add bulk to lubricants. A high percentage of filler will provide for decreased penetration of a lubricating grease. Most fillers consist of inorganic compounds; usually such materials are powders, fibers or flakes rather than granules. The more common inorganic fillers used are carbon in various forms (graphite and carbon black), silicates (asbestos, mica, talc), and metal powders (aluminum, copper, zinc).
Asbestos filled lubricants in actual service have been found to prolong the life of bearings such as those used in tractor rollers. Theories explain that the asbestos acts as an extreme pressure lubricant and prevents scoring when very heavy loads are imposed on a roller; however, a standard lubricant would permit scoring to take place.
Where a filler alone is used to increase density, there is always the possibility of settling, particularly where the filler is present in low concentration. To prevent this action, lubricants have been made which are stabilized against the separation of the asbestos by including five to forty per cent of petroleum with a melting point above 110°F, 1 to 25 per cent of asbestos, and 50 to 90 per cent of an oil, ranging from 200 to 250 SSTJ viscosity of 210°F.
In some industrial services, where natural dirt and grit are always present, the asbestos floats, properly compounded with oil and soaps form a seal which prevents the entry of the more abrasive material and actually lengthens the life of the bearings.
Lubrication engineers have developed varieties of sodium soap-base greases to which are added asbestos, graphite, talc, and mica. In the following compound, fibrous asbestos has been added to improve the wearing properties of grease pack and to provide cooling at extreme pressure:
Composition %, Wt Soap 35.0 Oil 57.0 Free alkali, sodium hydroxide 0.2 Filler, asbestos 6.5 Moisture 1.0 Undermined 0.3
Heavy duty equipment such as tractors use special rollers which require special lubricants. Asbestos filled lubricants are used in these applications; they provide for longer life of bearings. The asbestos floats used in greases of these types vary greatly in composition. A tractor roller lubricant could include 1,020 gal of 650 Penn. S.R. stock and approximately 2,300 pounds of asbestos floats. If these tractor roller greases were to be used in applications where they were unnecessary, the general result would be excessive wear of bearings.
Another tractor roller grease used is made up of five to forty-six per cent asbestos (maximum alkali .15 to .30 per cent, maximum free acid .2 per cent, ash 4 to 40 per cent) dispersed in a steam refined cylinder stock of 180 to 200 SUV at 210°F. Other mixtures involving the use of asbestos for greases include 5 to 50 per cent asbestos, 2 1/2 to 10 per cent granular soapstone, 38 to 90 per cent lubricating oil or grease, and 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 per cent of ground borax.
The composition of an antirust plug valve lubricant is formed from a condensation product of naphthalene and high melting point chlorinated wax, mixed with oil, wax and' asbestos.
A lubricant suitable for washing machine gears consists of 50 to 94 per cent lubricating oil, 5 to 45 per cent of an inter-substantially nonabrasive powder such as air-filtered asbestos, and 1 to 5 per cent of an ester of, a fatty acid of high molecular weight such as glycerol monooleate.
It is reported that millions of pounds of asbestos filled lubricants have been used in the past. The asbestos filled lubricants have been of primary importance where mechanically moving parts had excessive clearance and the parts had been subjected to mud and water. In the past few decades, modern mechanical equipment has made use of parts with relatively no clearance but employing protective measures against mud and water. Equipment utilizing modern design does not warrant the earlier demand for asbestos filled lubricants; however, asbestos filled lubricating greases are still used predominately in heavy duty tractors, trucks and caterpillars.
Medical Uses of Asbestos
The pharmaceutical recipe book recommends asbestos foot powder. The compound is made with equal weights of boro-salicylated talc dusting powder (RB) and powdered asbestos. The mix is made so that it will pass through a No. 60 sieve. For temporary dental fillings and relief of toothache, a paste of zinc oxide and powdered asbestos can be used.
Metal Protection Using Asbestos Coatings
The coating of sheet iron and metalware is sometimes performed by using a solution of asbestos, o1uble silicates and phenolic resin. The metal is protected against oxidation when exposed to heat.
In petroleum cracking chambers, the steel lining is coated with a cement for different highly reactive processes. After cleaning and sand blasting, a cement conforming to Table 12.1 is sprayed on with a cement guft using 80 lb pressure. The layer formed is 1/8 to 1/4 in. thick. This is followed with a brushing solution of silicate of soda. Drying the coating involves a 24 hr slow rising cycle up to 900°F.
TABLE 12.1. ASBESTOS-SILICATE CEMENT * Commercial furnace cement (silicate binder) 60 lb Asbestos 101b Silicate of soda (N or 0) * 10 lb White silica foundry sand 30 lb Water 21b * Philadelphia Quartz Co.
Asbestos in Paints
Asbestos powder is used in the manufacture of fire-proof paints. They are available in different colors. Asbestos-oil paints produce a combination of fireproofing and acid resistance. Special types of asbestos paints have been developed to prevent corrosion of metal.
Asbestos filled asphalt paints have been used for different purposes. When used on concrete or other masonry, they provide for damp proofing. These particular paints may contain organic resins and vegetable drying oils, which are included to impart hardness and to decrease the temperature susceptibility. The paints are also used for repairing old roofs. Soft petroleum tar base is generally applied first and then an outer coating of the asphalt base material is used.
Asbestos-asphalt paints are used for protecting pipelines. These paints without thinners generally give better protection because, by applying hot, it is possible to build up thicker and mechanically stronger asphalt coatings.
Asbestos Paper - more applications
Asbestos can very readily be made into indestructible
paper which could be used for preserving valuable
public and legal documents. Unfortunately, although the
paper withstands fire tests, no fireproof ink has been
Asbestos Used with Rubber in Road Surfacing
The use of asbestos in rubber for road building, asphaltic and cement compounds is in the development stage. Rubber latex compounds containing asbestos have been used for road surfacing. A typical formulation uses 100 parts, by weight, of rubber (60 to 70 per cent concentration), 10 to 30 parts asbestos shorts, 60 parts aluminous cement, 30 parts silica, 4 parts carbon black, 4 parts sulfur, and 2 parts zinc oxide. The water in the compound is adjusted to permit thorough mixing. The surface coating hardens in two days.
Asbestos in Caulks & Sealers
Combinations of long and short asbestos fibers are used with resins, cements and other ingredients to produce sealing or caulking compounds. The amount of asbestos can be varied to produce soft or pliable sealers (low percentage) and rigid sealers (high percentage). Welding Rods.
Asbestos in welding rods
Asbestos filled silicate paints are used to coat wire electrodes for arc welding. This type of coating prevents oxidation at high temperatures. Potassium silicate is generally preferred in these compounds.
Asbestos, Its Industrial Applications - Rosato: Text & Chapter Index 
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Web search 01/20/2011, original source: http://epa.gov/asbestos/pubs/verm_questions.html
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