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STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS
CONNECTORS, FASTENERS, TIES
DECK & PORCH CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITIONS of MOBILE HOME, DOUBLEWIDE, MODULAR, PANELIZED CONSTRUCTION
DEFINITIONS of ENGINEERED WOOD OSB LVL etc
DISASTER BUILDING INSPECTION & REPAIR
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FIRE DAMAGE vs MOLD DAMAGE
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FRAMING DAMAGE, INSPECTION, REPAIR
GRADING, DRAINAGE & SITE WORK
HOUSE PARTS, DEFINITIONS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
KIT HOMES, Aladdin, Sears, Wards, Others
LOG HOME GUIDE
MOBILE HOMES, DOUBLEWIDES, TRAILERS
MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
PORCH CONSTRUCTION & SCREENING
PRE-CUT & KIT HOMES
RETAINING WALL DESIGNS, TYPES, DAMAGE
ROT, FUNGUS, INSECT DAMAGE
SINKHOLES, WARNING SIGNS
STAIRS, RAILINGS, LANDINGS, RAMPS
STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT
TIMBER FRAMING, ROT
TRUSSES, FLOOR & ROOF
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
WOOD STRUCTURE ASSESSMENT
Structural connectors, fasteners, bolts, nails, joist hangers, rafter ties etc.: this article explains the proper selection and installation of structural connectors, brackets & tie plates used to connect deck or porch framing and support members.
USP connectors such as joist hangers, joist angles, joist supports, stud shoes, skew hangers, and face mount hangers used for connecting these hangers and connectors are described, their uses explained, and their applications and specifications linked.
Both galvanized steel and stainless steel joist hangers, connectors, & brackets may be applied.
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How to Choose the Correct Bolts or Fasteners for Structural Framing Connections in Wood Frame Construction, Decks & PorchesBOOK REVIEW of that book. Our page top photo shows a hybrid deck structure that encompasses a boat. No fasteners were found securing the boat to the deck however.
At minimum, all structural hardware for decks should be hot-dipped galvanized steel. For the best protection, use stainless steel (see “Joist Hangers and Connectors,” below). At connections carrying structural loads, such as deck ledgers or railing posts, use through-bolts or lag screws.
Through-bolts are stronger and should be used where possible. For the heaviest connections on a deck, such as where ledgers attach to the house or to posts, use 1/2-inch bolts or lags.
Place large washers under the heads of lags and at both ends of through-bolts. Re tighten bolts and lags after the first year and check periodically for tightness.
Machine-Threaded Bolts Used for Deck Construction
After drilling, saturate the hole with preservative. Use large washers under both the head and nut. Re tighten after the first year, since the wood may have shrunk.
The damaged, over-nailed wood framing shown in our photo is discussed at TOE NAILED FRAMING CONNECTIONS.
Lag Bolts Used for Deck Construction
For lag bolted deck connections, drill a full-diameter pilot hole for the unthreaded portion and a smaller hole (65 to 75% of the lag’s diameter) for the threaded portion. So, for example, a 1/2-inch lag would get a 5/16-inch pilot hole for the threaded portion; a 3/8-inch diameter lag would get a 1/4-inch diameter pilot hole.
After drilling, saturate the pilot hole with wood preservative. It is also important that at least half the length of the lag is threaded into solid wood.
For example, driving a 5-inch lag through a 4x4 post into a 2x joist will produce a weak connection with only 1 1/2 inches of anchoring. Instead, the lag screw should go through the 2x and be threaded into the thicker 4x4. Use a large washer under the head, and re tighten after the first year in case materials have shrunk.
Joist Hangers and Steel Connectors Used for Deck Construction
At a minimum, use hot-dipped galvanized hardware. With pressuretreated wood, hot-dipped galvanized steel should conform to ASTM A153 (for fasteners) or ASTM A653, G185 (for connectors).
Stainless steel offers the best protection. Type 304 or higher stainless steel is recommended for very wet environments such as poolside decks; or Type 326 for exposure to salt or saltwater.
Watch out: Also, do not mix metals: Use stainless-steel fasteners with stainless-steel connectors and galvanized fasteners with galvanized connectors. And at Fasteners, Nails, Screws, Hidden, for Decks we include examples of fasteners that should not be used in joist hangers, such as drywall screws and other non-structural screws. or roofing nails.
Suppliers of Joist, Post & Beam Hangers & Connectors & the Nails or Fasteners used With Them
Stainless steel or galvanized steel joist hangers, connectors and similar products are produced by Simpson Strong Tie, Incom, Schuler Manufacturing, State Metals, Daytona Bolt & Nut, Hutchinson, Cleveland Steel, U.S. Lumber, Hohmann & Barnard, and Direct Tools & Fasteners as well as Paslode, Grip Rite joist hanger nails and other specialty nails.
-- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
Also see DECK COLLAPSE Case Study (collapse of a new code-approved deck) and DECK FLASHING LEAKS, ROT Case Study for an example of an older deck with rot and collapse due to improper construction and missing building flashing.
Details about choosing the right structural connectors for decks and how they should be installed are at Fasteners/Connectors, Ties, Structural
. At Fasteners, Nails, Screws, Hidden, for Decks we discuss choosing the proper nail, screw, or hidden fastener for fastening deck boards, railings, or joist hangers.
Continue reading at FRAMING CONNECTORS & JOIST HANGERS or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
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