Open water well or cistern in a home basement - unsanitary (C) InspectApediaWater Contamination Health Risks
Should We Worry about Well Water Pollution?

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Reasons to check on the sanitation of your drinking water well:

This article describes & expands on US EPA advice on why homeowners need to worry about well water contamination.

Our page top photo shows a cistern-type open well in a home basement. It is just about impossible for this example-source of drinking water to be consistently sanitary, and the little sediment filter installed will, by itself, not assure that the water is safe to drink.

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Should we Be Concerned About Water Contamination in a Private Well ?

Unidentified chemical drums discovered during a home inspection might indicate an environmental site contamination hazard.This well water contamination article describes types of activities in your area that can create threats to your water supply. It also describes problems to look for and offers maintenance suggestions. Sources for more information and help are also listed.

Our photo (left) illustrates chemical drums we found at a property served by a private well. A bit of research was needed to narrow the range of chemical contaminants for which the property water well should be tested.

Note: InspectApedia editors & contributors have edited an original US EPA article for clarity, content, & depth. Throughout this updated version we also include links to additional detail.

For example where the original article cited the role of distance of a well from sources of pollutants, we include a link to our table of WELL CLEARANCE DISTANCES to provide the actual distances involved.

You should be aware because the Safe Drinking Water Act does not protect private wells. EPA's rules only apply to "public drinking water systems" - government or privately run companies supplying water to 25 people or 15 service connections. While most states regulate private household wells, most have limited rules. Individual well owners have primary responsibility for the safety of the water drawn from their wells.

They do not benefit from the government's health protections for water systems serving many families. These must comply with federal and state regulations for frequent analysis, testing, and reporting of results.

Instead, household well owners should rely on help from local health departments. They may help you with yearly testing for bacteria and nitrates.

They may also oversee the placement and construction of new wells to meet state and local regulations. Most have rules about locating drinking water wells near septic tanks, drain fields, and livestock. But remember, the final responsibility for constructing your well correctly, protecting it from pollution, and maintaining it falls on you, the well owner.

Buying a home with a private water well: take a look at

CHEATING ON WATER TESTS : Testing Water for Real Estate Transactions - make sure your water test is valid

How Much Risk of Water Contamination Can we Expect?

Photograph of  a loose, unsanitary well plumbing system exposed to surface water runoffr  © DJ FriedmanThe risk of having problems depends on how good your well is - how well it was built and located, and how well you maintain it. It also depends on your local environment. That includes the quality of the aquifer from which you draw your water and the human activities going on in your area that can affect your well water.

Our photo at left shows a failed septic tank. Depending on the distance from septic tank or drainfield to the water well, onsite wastewater disposal systems such as this home-made version can be a troublesome source of local well water contamiantion.

Some questions to consider in protecting your drinking water and maintaining your well are:


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