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Economical toilets, old & new: This article describes economical toilet brands, manufacturers,and sources.
We also include photographs of New Zealand's own McSkimming toilet that used a ceramic bowl and plastic cistern, and we include a description of the toilet components and how the toilet fill and flush and overflow controls work.
McSkimming Ceramic + Plastic Toilets, still in use in New Zealand
Below we illustrate and explain the operation and connections for a 1981 McSkimming plastic toilet that remains perfectly functional in a home in Christchurch, New Zealand. This toilet is contructed of a ceramic bowl (the toilet lower portion or body) and a colour-matched cistern (tank) that is made of plastic.
At above center is the water supply hook-up for this toilet while at above right you can see that the toilet's drain connection is vented above the floo r(orange arrow) and through the partition wall (to and through the roof above).
New Zealand plumbing practice commonly includes a provision for directing toilet tank overflow, caused perhaps by a sticking fill valve, outside through a separate drain (blue arrow above right). This feature prevents sending volumes of water into the sewer system unnecessarily.
At above left we illustrate the simple push-button flush control for this McSkimming toilet. This toilet was installed in a home constructed in the early 1980's in Christchurch, New Zealand and is still in use. At above right we detail the flush control componects for this top flush toilet:
Red arrow: the toilet tank (cistern) fill control valve
Green arrow: fill tube to add water to the toilet bowl during a flush cycle
Blue arrow: overflow tube to outdoor discharge
Yellow arrow: the fill control valve's float
White arrow: the flush actuator lever that is pushed down by the tan top pushbutton shown at above left.
Peter McSkimming, initially employed at Benhar pottery in 1882, begain operating the company in 1894. The factory and kilns were located Benhar, South Otago, the site of the McSkimming brick & ceramics works where the company produced among other things, clay toilets.
The Benhar works closed in the early 1980's (by some accounts) and in any event the factory was destroyed by fire in February 1990. - Above image excerpted / adapted from TEARA, Video retrieved 9/18/14, original source: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/video/5254/clay-toilets
Low-Cost Toilet Designs & Sources
Low cost toilets: Africa
Morgan, Peter, "Toilets That Make Compost
Low-cost, sanitary toilets that produce
valuable compost for crops in an
African context", Aquamor: Harare, Zimbabwe
Stockholm Environment Institute
2007, Eco San Res, EcoSanRes Programme
Stockholm Environment Institute
Tel: +46 8 674 7070
Fax: +46 8 674 7020
Layout and Editing: Ian Caldwell
Research and Communications Manager: Arno Rosemarin
www.ecosanres.org, www.sei.se ISBN: ISBN 978-9-197-60222-8, Websites: http://www.ewb-usa.org/ and http://www.ecosanres.or
Morgan, Peter, Steven Sugden, Robert Kampala, Boyce Nyirenda, Amos Chigwenembe, Loice Mkuzi and Shadrack
Chimanaginsasa, Mindi Stanford (Ed.), " Lessons from a low-cost ecological
approach to sanitation in Malawi", Water & Sanitation Program, Contact :
Peter Morgan [firstname.lastname@example.org]
Andreas Knapp [email@example.com or
Low cost toilets: Australia
"Dry sanitation solutions", Elizabeth Scott
Fiordland Medical Practice, Te Anau, New Zealand
Low cost toilet: EAWG Aquatic Research
The "Blue Diversion Toilet" (shown above) is a solar-powered unit providing for hand-washing as well as toilet facilities developed by EAWG. The Blue Diversion toilet design is intended to provide low-cost toilet facilities for areas where water and sewer piping are not available. The toilet design has been tested in Nairobi where customers pay a fee (per use, weekly, monthly passes) and are operated as a franchise whose staff empty the waste containers, transporting waste to recycling facilities. Quoting from Eawg:
The Blue Diversion toilet, developed by Eawag - the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, together with the Vienna-based design firm EOOS, has been awarded the innovation prize for the best applied research by the International Water Association (IWA). The team is looking for an industrial partner and investors, so that Blue Diversion can be mass produced.
Gramalaya – Tiruchirapalli Low Cost Toilets in India (shown above, one of Gramalaya's designs, a pour flush latrine pit toilet), Gramalaya
C-62 B, 10th cross, Further West extension,
Near water tank,Thillainagar,
Tiruchirapalli - 620 018,
Phone : +91-431-4021563, 2740263
Mobile : 094431 61263
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
This organization provides design specifications for a variety of low-cost toilets to meet a variety of environments including child friendly toilets.
Gramalaya has established a Toilet Technology cum Training Centre at its rural headquarters
in the village of Kolakudipatti in Thottiam block,
Tiruchi district. ... Gramalaya has been implementing for more than two a
nd half decades various toilet
technology depending on the terrain with the support of WaterAid and Water.org for the last
20 years. There are several designs and technologies available for installing a household type
Sulabh Shauchalaya: low-cost sanitation, Sulabh International Social Service Organization, Dr, Bindeshwar, Sulabh Bahwan, Mahavir Enclave, Palam Dabri Road, New Delhi 110 045, India, Tel: 91 11 555 4844
Low Cost toilets: Mexico
Clark G. (1997) Case study of dry sanitation in Morelos, Mexico,
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Del Porto D. (2000) The Composting System Handbook, The EcoS
an Center, The Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention,
cc/ecosan.htmDel Porto D. (2000) The Composting System Handbook, The EcoS
an Center, The Center for Ecological Pollution Prevention,
Lachapelle P. (1995) A Report on human waste
management in Mt Everest National Park,
Mara D. and Feachem R. (1980) Technical and public health aspects of low cost sanitation progra
mme planning. Jour
nal of Tropical Medicine
and Hygiene 83:229-240.
Pacey A. (1978) Sanitation in Developing Countries.
Oxfam and Ross Institute of Tropical Hygiene.
Papaport D. (1995) Sewage pollution in Pacific island countries and how to prevent it. A report produced for Greenpeace Pacific, Center for
Peasey A. (2000) Health aspects of
dry sanitation with waste reuse. Well Studies in Water and Environment no 324,
"Story: Rock, limestone and clay Part of page 8 – Ceramics and pottery ", TEARA, The Enyclopedia of New Zealand, Video retrieved 9/18/14, original source: http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/video/5254/clay-toilets, Te Ara, Manatū Taonga Ministry for Culture and Heritage, PO Box 5364, Wellington, New Zealand, Tel: +64 4 499 4229, Email: TeAra@mch.govt.nz
 1991 ADA Standards for Accessible Design, U.S. Department of Justice, 28 CFR Part 36, Revised as of July 1, 1994, excerpts; web search 5/10/12, original source: http://www.ada.gov/stdspdf.htm [copy on file as ADA_Standards_1994.pdf]
 Alliance for Water Efficiency, 300 W Adams Street, Suite 601
Chicago, Illinois 60606, Tel: 866-730-A4WE, Website: http://www.allianceforwaterefficiency.org/ Quoting:
The Alliance for Water Efficiency is a stakeholder-based 501(c)(3) non-profit organization dedicated to the efficient and sustainable use of water. Located in Chicago, the Alliance serves as a North American advocate for water efficient products and programs, and provides information and assistance on water conservation efforts.
OSHA toilet standards: OSHA's sanitation standard for general industry, 29 CFR 1910.141(c)(l)(i), specifies that employers shall provide toilet facilities for their employees. Web-search 5/10/12, original source:
 Toilet Manufacturers' Product literature or websites were consulted for the following:
American Standard brand toilets (illustrated in this article), includes these additional plumbing fixture & component brands: Jade, Porcher (see below), Crane Plumbing, Eljer, Fiat, American StandardsProSite, Safety Tubs, http://www.americanstandard-us.com/
Atlas International brand toilets, Atlas USA, http://atlasusa.net/
Glacier Bay brand toilets, [Home Depot brand] porcelain, made in china, top flush control low-water ADA-height unit shown in this article. Cf. Globe Union Industrial Company of Canada, China, elsewhere. Also see Pegasus, Danze, Gerber. Glacier Bay Faucets and sanitaryware,
2455 Paces Ferry Road NW,
.Atlanta, Ga. 30339-4024,
Hastings Tile & Bath toilets, includes "hatbox" and wall mount sinks, bidets, & toilets, 30 Commercial Street Freeport, N. Y. 11520, Tel: (516) 379-3500. http://www.hastingstilebath.com,
Herbeau Creations brand toilets, Herbeau Creations of America
3600 Westview Drive
Naples, FL 34104, Tel: (800) 547-1608, (since 1857), http://www.herbeau.com/Products.aspx?Item=5501
Inax brand toilets, 15 West 20th Street, New York, NY 10011, Tel: 855-823-4434, http://www.inax-usa.com/gallery-ny/
Neo-Metro Collection brand toilets, Neo-Metro
15125 Proctor Ave
City of Industry CA 91746
U.S.A, Tel: 800.591.9050, Website: http://www.neo-metro.com
Panasonic brand toilets, (e.g. Panasonic toilet bowl with warm water flush system for washing user beauty cabinet de toilette W moment-type pearl ivory DL-WD60-CP; also the Zaraku portable toilet - http://ex-blog.panasonic.co.jp/exhibition/en/2008/09/hcr08_400.html)
Porcher brand toilets, originally a French brand, acquired by American Standard Companies in 1992, Website: http://www.porcher-us.com/
ProFlo brand toilets (e.g. Proflo PFCT 103WH)
Rapsel brand toilets,RAPSEL Spa
Via Volta 13 - 20019 Settimo Milanese (MI), Italy
Tel. 0039 02 3355981 Fax. 0039 02 33501306, Email:
firstname.lastname@example.org Italian company, offices in Milan & New York, Website: http://www.rapsel.it/ or in the U.S. http://rapsel.wordpress.com/
Samuel Heath brand toilets, US & UK, USA Customer Service
111 E. 39th St. 2R
Tel: 212 599 5177,
UK Head Office
Samuel Heath & Sons plc
Tel: +44 121 766 4200,
Email: email@example.comWebsite: http://www.samuel-heath.com/
St. Thomas Creations brand toilets, St. Thomas Creations
3A South Middlesex Avenue
Monroe Township, New Jersey 08831 USA,
Tel. (800) 536-BATH (800-536-2284)
Fax (609) 655- 2421, Email: E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: http://www.stthomascreations.com/
Toto brand toilets (e.g. Toto Drake CST744S, Neorest Hybrid, ) Brazil & USA, TOTO USA, INC.
1155 Southern Road
Morrow, Georgia 30260,
Tel: 888-295-8134, Tel: 1-888-295-8134, Email:
email@example.com, Website: http://www.totousa.com
Villeroy & Boch Bath & Kitchen brand toilets, International, offices in Canada, Mexico, United States, Villeroy & Boch AG
P.O. Box 1120
D 66688 Mettlach, Phone +49 (0) 68 64 - 81 - 0, Website: http://www.villeroy-boch.com/, Company founded 1748.
VitrA USA brand toilets, International, Brazil?, USA contact: Shawnee North Business Center
305 Shawnee North Drive Suite 600
Phone : +1 770 904 68 30
Fax : +1 770 904 68 91
www.vitra-usa.com, Website: http://usa.vitra.com.tr/
Whitehaus Collection brand toilets, Whitehaus Collection - 589 Boston Post Rd. West Haven, CT 06516 USA, Tel: 800.527.6690, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: http://whitehauscollection.com
 Wikipedia provided background information about some topics discussed at this website provided this citation is also found in the same article along with a " retrieved on" date. NOTE: because Wikipedia entries are fluid and can be amended in real time, we cite the retrieval date of Wikipedia citations and we do not assert that the information found there is necessarily authoritative.
"Flush Toilet", web search 5/10/12, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flush_toilet#Tank_style_with_flapper-flush-valve
"Japanese bidet toilet", web search 5/13/12, original source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_toilets
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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