Bioheat: Biodiesel Heating Fuels
Uses, Properties & Warnings about biodiesel fuels used in oil-fired heating equipment
BIODIESEL HEATING FUELS - CONTENTS: using biodiesel in oil burners designed for heating appliances: boilers, furnaces, water heaters. Oil fired heating equipment may need modifications for successful use of bioheat or bio-fuels. Successful use of biofuel mix in this equipment depends on proper fuel selection and equipment design & maintenance.
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Biodiesel heating fuel use in oil burners:
This article describes the use of various biodiesel fuel mixes in oil fired heating equipment: heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters. The energy content of biofuels is about 90% that of fuel oil. Using the wrong biodiesel fuel mix or burning pure biodiesel B-100 in oil burners risks equipment damage, malfunction, loss of heat, and safety hazards.
Research cited here describes arguments about the overall cost effectiveness of the production of biodiesel fuel, on the impact of biodiesel fuels on motors, engines, oil burners, and on comprable environmental impacts of burning fuel oil, diesel fuel, and biodiesel mixed fuels.
Using Biodiesel B6-B20 vs. B-100 in Home Heating System Oil Burners
Oil Burners & Biodiesel Use
The potential damage caused by use of biodiesel fuels in some engines or pumps that use rubber components has been documented and researched for more than a decade.
Watch out: Current fuel unit UL listings and standards such as ASTM D396 limit the use of biodiesel in these devices to 5% giodiesel content. Equipment designed to operate at 5% biodiesel mix (along with 95% conventional diesel or heating oil) are not compatible with higher concentrations of biodiesel.
In this article we provide updates on the design of heating equipment such as oil burner fuel units designed to accomodate up to 20% biodiesel use without damage. We also include a field report of repeated failures of components in an oil burner fuel unit (oil pump) in which a homeowner was burngin B100 (100% biodiesel).
In December 2014, Suntec, a leading manufacturer of heating oil and fuel oil pumps announced the development of new models intended for use with biodiesel. Excerpting from SUNTEC'Ss B-20 (20% BIODIESEL) USE12/22/2014 Announcement:
We are developing new specific pump models compatible with biodiesel (as defined in ASTM D6751) heating oil blends up to 20% to complete our standard range of pumps. These models will be clearly identified as B20 models.
Models A2VA 7116 B20 and A2VA 3006 B20 will be available from 1st January 2015.
Important note: today’s standard pumps and valves are UL rated with #1 and #2 fuel according to ASTM D396. This fuel definition sets a limit to 5% biodiesel content. These products are not compatible with 20% biodiesel blends.
Reader Question: Using 100% Biodiesel - B100 and Heating Oil Pumps - rubber component damage & leaks: loss of pressure at Suntec fuel unit (oil burner pump)
12/5/2014 Steve said:
I am running B 100 in my oil furnance with using a Beckett / Suntec oil pump and have had premature failure of the pumps. The pump gradually looses oil pressure and I readjust till there isn't anymore to work with. I've inspected several of the pumps and find them very clean and no signs of wear anywhere.
B100 is destructive to rubber components but I can't find any rubber components other than a material in the tip of pressure regulating component with a small hole through it. do you have any insight as to why I am loosing pressure?
Thank you, Steve
Is this a 1-line or 2-line piping system for oil delivery?
Is the oil tank buried?
What is the total pump lift height required?
Have you vacuum tested the piping system for leaks?
Have you inspected the oil filter and pump internal screen for contaminants, water, sludge?
Watch out: beyond loss of heat, leaks in a fuel unit can spray oil about and thus be dangerous. I would be sure to give the manufacturer a call to ask their advice. Bottom line: if the fuel you are using is damaging the fuel unit and is a fuel for which your fuel unit was not designed, we can't call these problems "premature failure" of the oil pump.
12/8/2014 Steve said:
My system has the tank (275 gal) mounted inside the same building as the furnace. It is eight feet away from the furnace and the pump is 12 inches above the outlet of the tank. It is a single line setup. I have not performed a vacuum test on it.
As mentioned earlier, I have disassembled several of the past pumps and found them to be very clean, including the pump screen. I have a separate filter/sediment bowl system on the fuel tank that recently had it's preseason maintenance. The old filter was not contaminated with above normal foreign material.
Each of these pumps only last about 1 to 1 1/2 months before having to be changed out. Furnace output and operation appear to be very normal until pressure starts dropping and then I have to readjust the pressure to bring it back to normal. I've also been looking for a repair station that could overhaul these pumps and maybe give me some insite as to why they are failing prematurely but so far no success.
Our local service companies have never repaired or inspected any pumps, they just replace them. Do you have any suggestions? I live in Eastern Washington State.
Thank You, Steve
Reply: Using Biodiesel in home heating system oil burners
So there is not much lift capacity required - a one line piping system ought to work. Most likely the fuel unit failiures you are experiencing are caused by damage to internal rubber parts or gaskets, but nonetheless, I'd get a vacuum gauge on the suction side of the fuel unit piping - typically between the oil filter and the fuel unit.
Really? You said you are using B100 biodiesel for heating fuel in a conventional oil burner. B-100 is biodiesel in pure form, more likely to be harmful to certain rubber parts or gaskets in equipment where it is used.
There are solvents in biodiesel that can damage rubber parts including gaskets or seals in some oil pumps. Solvents in biodiesel might also release an older thickened coating or "varnish" found in oil tanks and oil piping, maybe in the fuel unit itself - that in turn could clog a fuel unit's openings, valves, passages.
This fuel was expected to be used in diesel motors or for home heating, but depending on the percentage of biofuel to diesel mix for use as a heating fuel, the mixture will have properties that might affect an oil burner fuel unit or pump besides what I already stated (and I suspect you know).
From my reading on the subject equipment manufacturers expect users to employ a mix of biodiesel and conventional No. 2 home heating oil (aka "bioheat"), not pure or straight biodiesel. The range of mix of biodiesel with No. 2 heating oil, from what I read, is from about 2% to 20% according to the research. None of the sources I reviewed described using B-100 as a home heating fuel. If you have such references please share them with me.
OPNION: the costs, benefits, and environmental impacts of using biofuels have not been clearly determined nor stated. Beyond the somewhat hidden and more subtle costs of damaged engines or oil burning equipment when biofuels are burned and the requirement to design new equipment to burn biodiesel fuels, Runge and Senauer (2007) pointed out that
... filling the 25-gallon tank of an SUV with pure ethanol [which is not in fact what is done - Ed] requires 450 pounds of corn - which contains enough calories to feed one peson for a year. - Runge and Senauer (2007)
Does the manufacturer have an opinion about biodiesel? If you have not asked, we'll send a query.
Suntec Industries can be contacted at
Suntec USA: 60 Aberdeen Drive
Glasgow KY 42141
USA, Tel: 270-651-7116, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or customer service at email@example.com
Suntec worldwide: Suntec, 1 Rue Lavoisier BP 102
21 603 Longvic Cedex
France, Tel: 33 3 80 70 60 70, www.suntecpumps.com
Suntec, Sales & Technical Support: Ken Skoda, Tel: 1-800-367-7116
Cell 1-270-404-0254, Email: KSkoda@suntecpumps.com
Comments from Suntec about using Biodiesel fuel in oil burners
At left: parts that may change in new fuel units (oil burner pumps) designed to handle bioheat or B-20 biodiesel heating fuel, image provided courtesy Suntec Industries.
The following information was provided by Sunted in a generous and prompt reply to our question about using biofuels in oil fired heating boilers where a Suntec fuel unit is installed. It seems likely that other manufacturers have made or will make similar adjustments to products to permit safe use of biofuels as those described below.
[Click to enlarge any image]
After the first of the year [JANUARY 2015], Suntec will introduce two of our best-selling pumps approved for B20. [Biodiesel-20].
Regarding the consumer's comment:
“I can find any rubber components other than a material in the tip of the pressure regulating component with a small hole through it”
That is the reason for this failure. [The fuel unit loss of pressure failure described by reader Steve above. - Ed]
That hole is not supposed to be there. Each time the pump turns on, pressure builds against this solid rubber surface (what we refer to as the piston seat). When it reaches a force equal to spring resistance, the piston seat moves back and pressurized fuel is passed out the nozzle. Each time the pump turns off, the piston seat will hit against the end of the nozzle very quickly to cut fuel flow.
With a high bioblend, this piston seat will soften and when it strikes against the nozzle end, will slowly deteriorate until a hole forms. With this hole, pressure will no longer build and the pump will stop functioning. I have attached a picture showing the different parts that will be in the B20 pumps. The piston seat in these is white Teflon compared to the black hytrel in the current model.
We also have an A2VA7116T model available for use with B100 fuels. Since this model is for non-approved fuels percentages, there is no warranty for fuel related issues. This model will come with a Teflon piston seat and Viton shaft seal and Viton “o” rings. - Ken Skoda, Suntec, Private email K.S. to DJF 12/8/2014. Mr. Skoda can be contacted at Suntec at Ken Skoda
Toll Free 1-800-367-7116
Cell 1-270-404-0254, Email: KSkoda@suntecpumps.com
[PDF's & images TBA in this location]
12/8/2014 Steve said
My system has the tank (275 gal) mounted inside the same building as the furnace. It is eight feet away from the furnace and the pump is 12 inches above the outlet of the tank. It is a single line setup. I have not performed a vacuum test on it. As mentioned earlier, I have disassembled several of the past pumps and found them to be very clean, including the pump screen. I have a separate filter/sediment bowl system on the fuel tank that recently had it's preseason maintenance.
The old filter was not contaminated with above normal foreign material. Each of these pumps only last about 1 to 1 1/2 months before having to be changed out. Furnace output and operation appear to be very normal until pressure starts dropping and then I have to readjust the pressure to bring it back to normal. I've also been looking for a repair station that could overhaul these pumps and maybe give me some insite as to why they are failing prematurely but so far no success. Our local service companies have never repaired or inspected any pumps, they just replace them. Do you have any suggestions? I live in Eastern Washington State.
Thank You, Steve
I have added this conversation to the bottom of the article above and have asked Suntec if they can help us out. I'll keep you posted here.
Also if you can send along some photos of your installation including of the fuel unit and oil piping and furnace, that'd be helpful. Use the email at the CONTACT US link found at page top or bottom.
12/10/2014 Steve said:
Thank you for your informed and helpful comments as well as making contact with Suntec and their answers. To broaden the window of information about my circumstances I am a farmer and have been successfully growing and processing my own oil seeds into biodiesel for the past 7 years and using it to operate our entire fleet of equipment and vehicles. It is used in a 450 hp tractor down to 28 hp lawn mower and road vehicles. It is used in Cummins, Kubota, Catapillar, Duramax and Volkswagon engines. Other than rubber fuel components, single digit cold gelling issues, and 1 computerized emissions that required some alterations, I have found B100 to be a direct replacement for diesel. I even use it in two space heaters.
I respect Suntec's opinion of B100 but for all the years and "tests" I have performed with it I do not have the safety concerns they shared. I continue to look for ways to replace conventional fuels in hopes of putting to bed some of the "myths" out there that don't seem to make any sense to me. More and more credible sources are coming on the scene with positive results using biodiesel in modern functions. I applaud Suntec for their vision to meet that need with their two new B20 fuel pumps and the B100 pump.
Again, thank you for your assistance, it was greatly appreciated and I am now the "wiser"
Best Regards, Steve
Watch out: The UL and ASTM standards currently applying to many motors and home heating oil equipment are cited at the top of this article and limit biodiesel use in current products to 5% Biodiesel. Suntec has announced new pump models available in January 2014 that can handle 20% biodiesel mix. At higher concentrations or at the 100% biodiesel B-100 that you like, the company cannot warrant its products.
Indeed the full picture of costs and benefits of biofuels are difficult to tease out and probably need filtration for economic biases too. Certainly there is no doubt - we cited ample research going on for years - that biodiesel is harmful to rubber and similar materials that may be used in not just oil burner pumps but lots of other mechanisms.
OPINION: Taking a more broad view of biofuels and noting effects of subsidies, the role of G-mod seeds, the impacts on biodiversity, food prices, and the full impact on the environment when all of the equipment and handling motors of biofuel production are factored in leave one less than sure that the measurable, not to mention the non-measurable costs of what seems like a good idea - less environmental pollution - are given clearly, nor are they likely to be.
Research & Reporting on Biodiesel as a Home Heating Fuel
Agarwal, Avinash Kumar, Jayashree Bijwe, and L. M. Das. "Wear assessment in a biodiesel fueled compression ignition engine." Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power 125, no. 3 (2003): 820-826.
Akhlaghi, S., M. S. Hedenqvist, MT Conde Braña, M. Bellander, and U. W. Gedde. "Deterioration of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber in rapeseed biodiesel." Polymer Degradation and Stability (2014).
Arai, Masataka, Takayuki Saito, and Tomohiko Furuhata. "Effect of biodiesel fuel on direct injection diesel engine performance." Journal of Propulsion and Power 24, no. 3 (2008): 603-608.
ASTM D396, "Standard Specification for Fuel Oils", - retrieved 12/22/2014, original source: http://www.astm.org
This specification covers grades of fuel oil intended for use in various types of fuel-oil-burning equipment under various climatic and operating conditions. These grades include the following: Grades No. 1 S5000, No. 1 S500, No. 2 S5000, and No. 2 S500 for use in domestic and small industrial burners; Grades No. 1 S5000 and No. 1 S500 adapted to vaporizing type burners or where storage conditions require low pour point fuel; Grades No. 4 (Light) and No. 4 (Heavy) for use in commercial/industrial burners; and Grades No. 5 (Light), No. 5 (Heavy), and No. 6 for use in industrial burners. Preheating is usually required for handling and proper atomization.
The grades of fuel oil shall be homogeneous hydrocarbon oils, free from inorganic acid, and free from excessive amounts of solid or fibrous foreign matter. Grades containing residual components shall remain uniform in normal storage and not separate by gravity into light and heavy oil components outside the viscosity limits for the grade.
The grades of fuel oil shall conform to the limiting requirements prescribed for: (1) flash point, (2) water and sediment, (3) physical distillation or simulated distillation, (4) kinematic viscosity, (5) Ramsbottom carbon residue, (6) ash, (7) sulfur, (8) copper strip corrosion, (9) density, and (10) pour point. The test methods for determining conformance to the specified properties are given.
ASTM D7467, "Standard Specification for Diesel Fuel Oil, Biodiesel Blend (B6 to B20)", includes specifications for the properties of biodiesel fuels B6-B20 blends. B-100 is biodiesel in pure form. Available from http://www.astm.org/Standards/D7467.htm. Excerpts from the standard's abstract:
1.1 This specification covers fuel blend grades of 6 to 20 volume percent (%) biodiesel with the remainder being a light middle or middle distillate diesel fuel, collectively designated as B6 to B20. These grades are suitable for various types of diesel engines.
1.1.1 The biodiesel component of the blend shall conform to the requirements of Specification D6751. The remainder of the fuel shall be a light middle or middle distillate grade diesel fuel conforming to Specification D975 grades No. 1-D and No. 2-D of any sulfur level specified with the following exceptions. The light middle or middle distillate grade diesel fuel whose sulfur level, aromatic level, cetane, or lubricity falls outside of Specification D975 may be blended with biodiesel meeting Specification D6751, provided the finished mixtures meets this specification.
1.1.2 The fuel sulfur grades are described as follows:
126.96.36.199 Grade B6 to B20 S15—A fuel with a maximum of 15 ppm sulfur.
188.8.131.52 Grade B6 to B20 S500—A fuel with a maximum of 500 ppm sulfur.
184.108.40.206 Grade B6 to B20 S5000—A fuel with a maximum of 5000 ppm sulfur.
1.2 This specification prescribes the required properties of B6 to B20 biodiesel blends at the time and place of delivery. The specification requirements may be applied at other points in the production and distribution system when provided by agreement between the purchaser and the supplier.
Batey, John E. "Combustion testing of a bio-diesel fuel oil blend in residential oil burning equipment." In NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, p. 103. 2003.
Bokhari, Awais, Suzana Yusup, Junaid Ahmad, and Ruzaimah NM Kamil. "Blending Study of Palm Oil Methyl Esters with Rubber Seed Oil Methyl Esters to Improve Biodiesel Properties." Chemical Engineering Transaction (2014).
Carraretto, C., A. Macor, A. Mirandola, A. Stoppato, and S. Tonon. "Biodiesel as alternative fuel: Experimental analysis and energetic evaluations." Energy 29, no. 12 (2004): 2195-2211.
Chai, A. B., A. Andriyana, S. Y. Ch’ng, and M. R. Johan. "Modeling the Mullins effect in swollen rubber." Constitutive Models for Rubber VIII (2013): 443.
Charles, Chris, and Peter Wooders. "Biofuels–At What Cost?." Mandating ethanol and biodiesel consumption in (2012).
Courtney, Richard S. "Biofuels: a solution worse than the problem they try to address?." (2008). - retrieved 12/89/2014 original source http://ruby.fgcu.edu/courses/twimberley/EnviroPol/EnviroPhilo/biofuel_issues.pdf
Courtney RS. ‘The future of biofuels: a blend of hope and concerns’
. CCSP. August
2006. - original source:
Coronado, Marcos, Gisela Montero, Benjamín Valdez, Margarita Stoytcheva, Amir Eliezer, Conrado García, Héctor Campbell, and Armando Pérez. "Degradation of nitrile rubber fuel hose by biodiesel use." Energy 68 (2014): 364-369.
Corporan, Edwin, Richard Reich, Orvin Monroig, Matthew J. DeWitt, Venus Larson, Ted Aulich, Michael Mann, and Wayne Seames. "Impacts of Biodiesel on Pollutant Emissions of a JP-8–Fueled Turbine Engine." Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association 55, no. 7 (2005): 940-949.
Doornbosch R & Steenblik R. ‘Biofuels: Is the cure worse than the disease?’, Roundtable
on Sustainable Development, Paris, OECD,
12 September 2007. - source:
Haseeb, A. S. M. A., H. H. Masjuki, C. T. Siang, and M. A. Fazal. "Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel." Renewable energy 35, no. 10 (2010): 2356-2361.
Joshi, Rushang M., and Michael J. Pegg. "Flow properties of biodiesel fuel blends at low temperatures." Fuel 86, no. 1 (2007): 143-151.
Linhares, Felipe Nunes, Harrison Lourenço Corrêa, Carlos Nagib Khalil, Márcia Christina Amorim Moreira Leite, and Cristina Russi Guimarães Furtado. "Study of the compatibility of nitrile rubber with Brazilian biodiesel." Energy 49 (2013): 102-106.
Olšovský, Milan, and Marián Hocko. "The effect of biofuel addition to flight kerosene on a rubber gasket." Transport 26, no. 1 (2011): 106-110.
Patzek, Lucas J., and Tad W. Patzek. "The disastrous local and global impacts of tropical biofuel production." Patzek, Energy Tribune 19 (2007).
Pinto, Angelo C., Lilian LN Guarieiro, Michelle JC Rezende, Núbia M. Ribeiro, Ednildo A. Torres, Wilson A. Lopes, Pedro A. de P. Pereira, and Jailson B. de Andrade. "Biodiesel: an overview." Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society 16, no. 6B (2005): 1313-1330.
Porter, Eduardo, "A Biofuel Debate: Will Cutting Trees Cut Carbon", The New York Times, 11 February 2015, p. B1.
... officials at the Environmental Protection Agency issued a policy memo widely seen as encouraging the harvest of forests to produce power by treating it as a carbon-free source.
There is a big problem with this strategy, though. An economist would say that it ignores the “opportunity costs” of deploying vegetation as a source of energy. Others call it double counting.
“Dedicating land to bioenergy always comes at a cost because that land cannot produce plants for other purposes,” said Timothy Searchinger, a researcher at Princeton and the World Resources Institute and a co-writer of a recent report that calls for a rollback of crops dedicated to biofuels.
In a nutshell, says Mr. Searchinger, the energy from forests and fields is not, in fact, carbon-free.
The argument for aggressive deployment of bioenergy assumes that it is carbon-neutral because plants pull CO2 back from the air when they grow, offsetting the carbon emitted from burning them as fuel. But diverting a cornfield or a forest to produce energy requires not using it to make food or, just as important, to store carbon.
“Burning biomass instead of fossil fuels does not reduce the carbon emitted by power plants,” a group of 78 scientists wrote on Monday to Gina McCarthy, the E.P.A.’s director, warning against the new power plant policy. “Burning biomass, such as trees, that would otherwise continue to absorb and store carbon comes at the expense of reduced carbon storage.”
Runge, C. Ford, and Benjamin Senauer. "How biofuels could starve the poor." Foreign affairs (2007): 41-53.
Sastry, S. V. A. R., and Ch V. Ramachandra Murthy. "Prospects of biodiesel for future energy security." (2012). [PDF]
Senauer, Benjamin. "Food market effects of a global resource shift toward bioenergy." American Journal of Agricultural Economics 90, no. 5 (2008): 1226-1232.
Tyson, Karin Shaine, and Robert L. McCormick. "Biodiesel handling and use guidelines." (2006).
Wagner, Barbara, Benjamin Senauer, and C. Ford Runge. "An empirical analysis of and policy recommendations to improve the nutritional quality of school meals." Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 29, no. 4 (2007): 672-688.
Wassell Jr, Charles S., and Timothy P. Dittmer. "Are subsidies for biodiesel economically efficient?." Energy Policy 34, no. 18 (2006): 3993-4001.
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 Thanks to Bottini Fuel service technician Bob for discussing the buzzing aquastat relay problem, 4/18/2012. Bottini Fuel is a residential and commercial heating oil distributor and oil heat service company in Wappingers Falls, NY and with offices in other New York locations. Bottini Fuel, 2785 W Main St, Wappingers Falls NY, 12590-1576 (845) 297-5580 more contact information for Bottini Fuel
Domestic and Commercial Oil Burners, Charles H. Burkhardt, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York 3rd Ed 1969.
National Fuel Gas Code (Z223.1) $16.00 and National Fuel Gas Code Handbook (Z223.2) $47.00 American Gas Association (A.G.A.), 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209 also available from National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, MA 02269. Fundamentals of Gas Appliance Venting and Ventilation, 1985, American Gas Association Laboratories, Engineering Services Department. American Gas Association, 1515 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22209. Catalog #XHO585. Reprinted 1989.
The Steam Book, 1984, Training and Education Department, Fluid Handling Division, ITT [probably out of print, possibly available from several home inspection supply companies] Fuel Oil and Oil Heat Magazine, October 1990, offers an update,
Principles of Steam Heating, $13.25 includes postage. Fuel oil & Oil Heat Magazine, 389 Passaic Ave., Fairfield, NJ 07004.
The Lost Art of Steam Heating, Dan Holohan, 516-579-3046 FAX
Principles of Steam Heating, Dan Holohan, technical editor of Fuel Oil and Oil Heat magazine, 389 Passaic Ave., Fairfield, NJ 07004 ($12.+1.25 postage/handling).
"Residential Hydronic (circulating hot water) Heating Systems", Instructional Technologies Institute, Inc., 145 "D" Grassy Plain St., Bethel, CT 06801 800/227-1663 [home inspection training material] 1987
"Warm Air Heating Systems". Instructional Technologies Institute, Inc., 145 "D" Grassy Plain St., Bethel, CT 06801 800/227-1663 [home inspection training material] 1987
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning Volume I, Heating Fundamentals,
Boilers, Boiler Conversions, James E. Brumbaugh, ISBN 0-672-23389-4 (v. 1) Volume II, Oil, Gas, and Coal Burners, Controls, Ducts, Piping, Valves, James E. Brumbaugh, ISBN 0-672-23390-7 (v. 2) Volume III, Radiant Heating, Water Heaters, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps, Air Cleaners, James E. Brumbaugh, ISBN 0-672-23383-5 (v. 3) or ISBN 0-672-23380-0 (set) Special Sales Director, Macmillan Publishing Co., 866 Third Ave., New York, NY 10022. Macmillan Publishing Co., NY
Installation Guide for Residential Hydronic Heating Systems
Installation Guide #200, The Hydronics Institute, 35 Russo Place, Berkeley Heights, NJ 07922
The ABC's of Retention Head Oil Burners, National Association of Oil Heat Service Managers, TM 115, National Old Timers' Association of the Energy Industry, PO Box 168, Mineola, NY 11501. (Excellent tips on spotting problems on oil-fired heating equipment. Booklet.)
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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