Photograph of building damage near Los Angeles 2000 © Daniel FriedmanBuilding Floor Structure Defects List & Home Inspection Education

  • DEFECTS LIST - STRUCTURE, FLOOR - CONTENTS: Building floor structrure inspection requirements & defects list. Lists of important floor structure defects for residential buildings. What does a home inspector need to know about the construction of floors in buildings & how defects may appear? Home inspection training and education curriculum recommendations for floor structures
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This article lists significant Floor Structure defects, definitions, and home inspection education topics.

This article series, beginning at BUILDING DEFECTS LISTS, provides lists of common building defects and basic defect knowledge that also outline recommended curriculum content for home inspector education. The building defects and inspection points listed in these articles also guide homeowners and home buyers to building areas that merit careful attention and often point areas of safety concern or important maintenance and repair tasks.

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Home Inspection Education Curriculum - Structure, Floors

Readers should see STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS for our complete list of articles on this topic.

Building Floor Structures: List of Typical Defects

SILLS, Typical Defects                    BEAMS, Typical Defects

• Anchor nuts missing                     • Concentrated loads

• Anchor washers missing                  • Inadequate lateral support

• Anchor bolts too short                  •Missing beams or sections of beams

• Anchor bolts not secure in foundation   • Notches or holes

• Anchor bolts missing                    • Poor bearing, crushed or loose shims

• Anchor nuts not tightened               • Poor connections of built-up components

• Anchors not centered in sill            • Prior repairs

• At or below grade level                 • Rot, insect or fire damage

• Crushed                                 • Rotated or twisted beams

• Gaps under sills                        • Rust

• Missing                                 • Sag

• Rot, insect or fire damage              • Weak connections to joists

• Sill split at anchor bolts              • Weak connections to columns

COLUMNS OR PIERS, Typical Defects               JOISTS, Typical Defects

• Buckling                                      • Concentrated loads

• Crushed                                       • Inappropriate notching or holes

• Heaved                                        • Ineffective blocking, bracing or bridging

• Leaning                                       • Missing

• Mechanical damage                             • No blocking, bracing or bridging

• Missing                                       • Poor end bearing, joist hanger


• Missing footing?                              • Prior repairs

• Mortar deterioration                          • Rot, insect or fire damage

• Poorly secured at top or bottom               • Sag or springy

• Prior repairs                                 • Split or damaged

• Rot, insect or fire damage                    • Weak cantilevers

• Settled                                       • Weak mortise and tenon joints

• Spalling concrete or brick                    • Weak openings (stairs, chimneys, etc.)

JDG (overspanning)

SUBFLOORING, Typical Defects                 CONCRETE SLABS, Typical Defects

• Concentrated loads                                  • Cracked

• Cracking ceramic tiles                              • Heaved

• Damaged or cut                                      • Hollow below slab

• Plywood in wrong orientation                        • Rusted re-bar

• Poor fastening (nailing, screwing, gluing)          • Settled

• Poor end support or cantilevered                    • Shaling

• Prior repairs                                       • Spalling

• Rot, insect or fire damage

• Sag or springy

• Squeaks

• Swollen waferboard

• Inappropriate material utilization JDG


. Also see HOME & BUILDING INSPECTORS & INSPECTION METHODS. Use the Search Box at the top or bottom of these pages to find in-depth information about building, energy savings, and indoor environment inspection, diagnosis and repair at this website.

Watch out: these inspection lists do not list all possible defects for the systems discussed, and not all home or building inspectors will examine all of the items listed here. CONTACT us to suggest corrections or additions to articles at this website.


Continue reading at ARTICLE INDEX to BUILDING DAMAGE, DISASTER, REPAIR or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.



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STRUCTURE, FLOOR DEFECTS LIST at - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice.


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