Rust in electrical panels, sources of water leaks into electrical panels:
A Study and Report on Frequency and Causes of Rust & Corrosion inside of residential electrical panels. Field observations of residential service panel connections and components discovered significant occurrences of rust, corrosion, and damage to electrical equipment, risking failure to trip on overcurrent and thus risking building fires.
These observations led to a study of the frequency and cause of water damage, rust, corrosion, or other moisture-related unsafe conditions in residential electrical panels. This report by Daniel Friedman was presented to the electrical engineering community at the IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts.
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IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Daniel Friedman, Poughkeepsie, NY, October 19, 1992, updated 12 March 2015
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ABSTRACT: Visual examination of the electrical service panel is an important element of the procedure followed by professional home inspectors, whose observations are most often made at the time of sale of a used residence. The inspectors' observations can provide a data base on field performance of residential electrical system components that may be valuable toward the development of improvements in both the components and their associated qualification standards.
The observations noted in this paper are derived from a set of more than 1,500 detailed inspection reports by the paper's author and from a survey of members of the American Society of Home Inspectors (ASHI). Professional home inspectors offer a unique perspective of field failures: in performing a comprehensive survey of a building's systems and components, an inspector may discover common external or interactive causes of damage or deterioration. Home inspectors regularly observe field deterioration in progress before hazards or malfunctions are so obvious as to come to the attention of the occupants.
The reported observations in electric panels include corroded, burned, and damaged connections and corroded and malfunctioning circuit breakers. Causative factors noted in the service environment include presence of moisture, damage from overcurrent, and poor installation practices. Suggested improvements, including the need for greater resistance to corrosion and other field and environmental conditions, are discussed. -- This material was first presented at the October 1991 IEEE-Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts. Original text expanded by the author for this online publication 20 February-March 2006.
In a heavy rain, water was gushing through my main service panel and subpanel, flowing through the circuit breakers like a waterfall. Very disturbing. The electrician and Burlington Electric both thought water was coming through cracks in the exterior main service entry cable that has very old cloth sheathing. However, I caulked the hell out of the top of the electrical meter where the wire goes enters the meterbox and also at the wall where the SEC passes into the house, and the problem appears to be solved. One circuit breaker had frozen solid from corrosion and had to be replaced. I don’t know how long this has been going on. I only discovered it when I tripped a breaker with a power tool.
Watch out: for electrical services, panels, breakers, fuses that have been flooded or wet, to avoid dangerous or fatal electrical shock
see HOW TO TURN OFF ELECTRICITY in a building that has been wet or flooded
Visual examination of the electrical service equipment is an important element of the procedure followed by professional home inspectors, whose observations are most often made at the time of sale of a used residence. These observations can provide a data base of field performance of residential electrical system components that may be valuable for the development of improvements in both the components and their associated qualification standards.
Professional home inspectors offer a unique perspective on field failures: in performing a comprehensive survey of a building's systems and components, an inspector may discover common external or interactive causes of damage or deterioration.
Inspectors see in-service field conditions, often before failures occur, and before failing conditions are so obvious as to come to the attention of the occupants. Other studies of connector/component failures in service panels have focused on defects discovered after rather than before actual failures and have not considered corrosion/damage diagnosis based on a comprehensive examination of the entire structure and site for causal factors. (1)(2)(3)(4)
1052 Electric Service Panels were examined in the field, in conditions of actual use. Examination revealed frequent occurrences of corroded, burned, and damaged connections and corroded and malfunctioning circuit breakers. Significant, reportable corrosion/related defects in the panels were observed in 12% of cases - a frequency significantly greater than that anticipated by the electrical industry.
Causative factors noted in the service environment included presence of moisture, damage from overcurrent, and poor installation practices. Suggested improvements, including the need for greater resistance to corrosion and other field and environmental conditions, are discussed.
This information was first presented to industry experts at the 1992 Philadelphia IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts to suggest that the moisture and corrosion resistance characteristics of electrical panels and their contents should be increased. Information about the common causes and sources of water entry was also of importance to home inspectors who need to be alert for these conditions and for the damage and risks they may cause.
Comprehensive visual inspections for building defects were performed on 1052 private homes between 1987 and 1991. The overhead service drop, service entrance conductors, electric meter, and raceway or cable from the electric meter to the service panel were examined, as were the service panel and all components therein. Inspection was visual, did not normally involve use of test equipment, and followed well established guidelines for professional home inspectors.(5)(6)(7).
Field notes were recorded indicating any defects in each panel. Site conditions which might be a related cause were also noted. Every "defect" was severe enough to merit a report to the building owner or buyer as a safety concern.
Visible damage or other conditions which might indicate malfunction or unsafe conditions included: significant rust or corrosion on any component; signs of overheating [Such as [Fig-3 above left] overheated electrical ground and neutral wires at a corroded panel bus, and [Fig-15, above right] overheated electrical branch circuit wires which may or may not be due to a corroded circuit breaker which failed to trip], or other damage at connections of the service entrance wires, at wiring connections on circuit breaker terminals or individual fuse terminals, at neutral or ground bus bars or connectors; or rust at the base of the panel enclosure itself.
Light surface rust on the exterior of the panel or minor corrosion in the panel interior were not reported if there were no other indications of malfunction such as evidence of overheating or of past repair work.
The field data were tabulated: estimated year of equipment installation, system ampacity, panel type (breaker, fuse, antiquated), presence of knob-and-tube wiring, presence of rust or corrosion on four common locations in the panel, apparent source of moisture related to corrosion, and other defects (mis-wired device, burned connectors, etc.).
|Table 1. Year of Electrical Equipment Installation and Number of Electrical Panels Studied|
An examination of field notes from more than a thousand private home inspections performed between 1987 and 1991 reveals rust and corrosion of various electrical components in 126 of 1052 service panels. More than one in ten service panels showed sufficient corrosion to merit, in the opinion of the inspector, report to the client of a possible safety or functional concern with the equipment.
The age of equipment varied from brand new to more than 50 years old. [Table 1 above]. Most of these were circuit-breaker type panels (835), with the remainder fused equipment (217). More than one in ten service panels showed sufficient corrosion to merit a report to the client of a concern.[Table 2 below].
|Table 2 - Frequency of Corrosion In Service Panels|
|Number of Defects||Percent of Cases||Percent of Total Panels|
|Panel Surfaces & Other Steel Components||110||87%||10%|
|Circuit Breaker Terminals||97||76%||9%|
|Bus Bar Connectors||42||33%||3%|
|Notes to Table 2:
1. 126 service panels examined had one or more reportable corrosion or corrosion related defects. Since some panels have more than one reported defect,, the number of defects will total more than the number of cases.
2. 1052 service panels were examined.
The criteria for reporting such damage in a given panel is subjective, not quantitative, and does not normally involve equipment tests. Two definitions of severity of damage are:
Light corrosion: surface rust spots on panel enclosure parts or on other steel components in the panel. No visible evidence of failure, wet components, arcing, burning, history of repairs, or other clues suggesting, from external visual inspection, that safety components such as fuses or circuit breakers appear at likely risk of malfunction. Light corrosion instances were not tabulated in this study.
Serious corrosion: heavy rusting or other corrosion at connections of the service entrance wires (usually at terminals on a main fuse block or circuit breaker), at wiring connections on circuit breaker terminals or individual fuse terminals, at neutral or ground bus bars or connectors, or at the base of the panel enclosure itself. Exfoliation on steel panel components, or other highly-suspect conditions are present in such cases.
Even if the inspector does not observe serious corrosion on wiring connections in a panel equipped with circuit breakers, the presence of heavy rust, exfoliation, or actual water in the panel enclosure is considered grounds for reporting a serious finding.
This conclusion is based on an untested opinion of many professional inspectors that the presence of sufficient moisture to cause such corrosion raises questions about the condition of hidden safety components such as circuit breaker internal parts or bus-bar components covered by breakers or fuses.
The natural collection point for moisture, the panel bottom, might be reached after droplets have passed over and in some cases through other electrical components and connectors.
Rust on steel service panel components was by far the most common observation, occurring in 110 (10%) of the installations examined. [Fig-1 at left]
Rust on screw connectors on circuit breakers, and less often on fuse terminals, was also common, occurring in 97 cases, slightly less than 10% of the systems examined.
In some cases corrosion was so severe that not only was the connection questionable, but the connector screws themselves were so corroded that the electrician had to cut the wire when preparing to install new breakers. [Fig-2 at left]
Corrosion at the connection of service entrance cable to main breakers or fuse connectors was found in 46 cases. It was common to see severe corrosion at this location when water was present.
Evidence of overheating (burned insulation and discolored wire and in some instances partially melted aluminum wire) was observed at those connectors in several instances. Corrosion on neutral and grounding bus bars and connector screws was found in 42 cases.
Rust on steel service panel components is by far the most common observation, occurring in 110 (10%) of the installations examined. [Table 2 above]
Rust on screw connectors on circuit breakers, and less often on fuse terminals, was also common, occurring in 97 cases, slightly less than 10% of the systems examined. In some cases corrosion was so severe that not only was the connection questionable, but the connector screws themselves were so corroded that the electrician had to cut the wire when preparing to install new breakers. When severe rust is present we report that the operation of the circuit breakers might be suspect.
Corrosion on neutral and grounding bus bars and connector screws was found in 42 cases. However field data indicates that bus-bar connector corrosion so severe as to offer visual suggestion that the connection is highly questionable is rare. Evidence of overheating (possibly related to corrosion) was seen in only two of these cases, detected as discolored copper wires at the connector.
Corrosion at the connection of service entrance cable to main breakers or fuse connectors was found in 46 cases. However this connection gives cause for greater concern, as it is not uncommon to see severe corrosion at this location when water is present. we have observed evidence of overheating such as burned insulation and discolored wire and in some instances partially melted aluminum wire at such connectors.
A significant advantage accrues from having a service panel inspected as part of a more comprehensive property inspection: home inspectors are concerned with the building envelope, with water entry, and with damage to building components from moisture.
In normally damp climates moisture is a major factor in building damage; identifying moisture sources and controlling moisture is important both in diagnosing failures and in protecting buildings from future failures. For each panel reported as a "problem" the inspector logged the apparent source of water entry. (For each of the 126 services for which defects were reported, the apparent sources of water entry was recorded.) [Table 3 below]
|Table 3. Apparent Entry Source(s) of Moisture - #Cases - Percent of Total|
|Service Entrance Cable Defects||310||66%|
|Surface/Roof Runoff Leakage||79||17%|
|Notes to Table 3:
1. For a given panel in some instance more than one possible source was recorded
2. High interior moisture levels from any condition could cause condensation. Naturally a major source of high interior moisture levels is the third item listed, surface and roof runoff leakage into the building.
3. Percent of total possible sources observed (472)
The most common sources of water and moisture entry were: through service entrance conductor cables which were old and damaged, or which were improperly sealed at meter boxes or building sidewalls; from condensation from high interior moisture levels; and from other building leaks or surface water which passed down building walls where panel enclosures were mounted.
By far the most common source of water entry in service panels, 310 out of 472 possible sources observed, is associated with the passage of an above-ground service entry cable from outside, through the building wall, into panels which are located in basements or at a location lower than the point of penetration of the cable through the building wall.
There was often strong visual evidence that water had entered service enclosure, including: water stains and drip marks on components directly below the center of the entry cable when it enters the service equipment; water stains, sometimes rust marks, down the exposed face of circuit breakers; water droplets present on connectors and other components at the time of inspection.
Water, often in large volumes from wind-driven rain, followed the entrance cable into the building on three paths:
Figure 7, water follows electrical service entry cable exterior into the building and into the electrical panel through an un-caulked opening in the building exterior wall.
Water, often in large volumes from wind-driven rain, follows the entrance cable into the building on three failure paths:
A surprising number of occurrences of water entry appear to be due to other building leaks, 79 of 472. These sources include roof leaks (water passing from leaks into soffits through building walls and down basement wall - rare), and basement water entry associated with improper handling of roof runoff (leaky gutters) or surface drainage. Water concentrated around a building from roof runoff or surface drainage often results in moisture seeping through the foundation wall.
It's an interesting coincidence that service panels are often mounted in the corner of a basement, just where water may be concentrated outside from a faulty downspout. On a typical modern home with a single downspout at front and rear roof edges, chances are one in four that a service panel and a downspout will find themselves sharing a damp corner.
In such cases we've occasionally observed water entering the rear of the service panel at points of contact with the basement wall, even when the panel is actually affixed to plywood or nailer boards which themselves are fastened directly to the foundation. However the principal path from roof/surface runoff to panel is probably interior condensation due to high moisture levels caused by general basement water entry, discussed next.
The most common mechanism by which moisture entered these panels was from roof/surface runoff, causing basement water entry and high indoor moisture levels which in turn lead to condensation. This finding is discussed below. In a few other cases there were indications of water entering the rear of the service enclosure at points of contact with the basement wall, even when the enclosure was actually affixed to plywood or nailer boards which themselves were fastened directly to the foundation.
When water, corrosion, or signs of a history of wetness in service equipment were found and when there were no obvious contact-paths for droplets to travel in to the panel from outside, condensation inside the panel was recorded as the apparent source. In 83 of 472 cases there were wet-basement conditions but the service panel was mounted well away from points of outside water entry through walls or cables.
When moisture is observed primarily at specific panel locations, such as below the entrance cable or on the panel base, and when most other panel components are not corroded, we suspect specific points of outside entry such as described earlier.
But in many inspections we observe water, corrosion, or signs of a history of wetness in panels where there are no obvious contact-paths for droplets to travel in to the panel from outside.
In these cases, when corrosion is fairly uniform over panel enclosure sides and top, and over other panel components, we suspect that moisture is occurring as condensation inside the panel. Often the inspector will find such indications. This was so in 83 of 472 cases, when there were generally wet-basement conditions but when the service panel was fortunate to find itself mounted well away from points of outside water entry through walls or entry cables. While not a part of this study, we have observed this pattern of rust and corrosion on panel components even in very dry climates (Tucson and Phoenix) where electrical equipment was installed against masonry walls in service closets accessed from outside the building.
From these observations we suspect that the combination of high interior moisture levels in many basements, combined with temperature changes, results in movement of moisture to the interior of service panels on a regular basis during humid weather.
Also see BACKDRAFTING & SEWER/SEPTIC ODORS for an explanation of how negative air pressure in buildings can cause unexpected air and moisture movement, condensation, and moisture-related problems such as rust, corrosion, or odors, or mold.
The age of equipment varied from brand new to more than 50 years old. Most of these were circuit-breaker type panels (835), with the remainder fused equipment (217).
Service panel age did not necessarily match the age of the building. For many older homes historical and other evidence indicated that the service had been upgraded. For homes constructed before 1937, electric panels had often been upgraded two or more times.[Table 1]
|Table 1. Year of Electrical Equipment Installation and Number of Electrical Panels Studied|
No relationship was observed between type of equipment (fuse systems versus circuit breaker equipment) and the ability of water or moisture to enter the enclosures.
In this study, older equipment, subject to the same history of water entry, almost always looked less damaged from moisture. On such connectors and devices less extensive corrosion was found than on newer aluminum and steel screws, connectors, bus bars, and other components exposed to the same conditions.
Better data regarding actual failures might be surveyed among electricians performing replacements. Meese and Beausoleil have looked at failures in branch circuits.(3)
A common opinion among some experts was that fused equipment might be more reliable in damp/corrosive conditions than circuit breaker equipment. That view is based on the premise that electromechanical parts are more vulnerable than a fused link. However it's possible that the easier abuse of fuses (overfusing and bypassing) may offset the reliability advantage. (2)(3)(4) However other work by Keyes (1) and Popper (2) indicates that fusible panels may be more dangerous.This study did not test these opinions.
We did not tabulate the occurrence of corrosion, presence of defects, or evidence of failures, as a function of equipment age. However a subjective opinion is that older equipment, subject to the same history of water entry, almost always looks less damaged from moisture. We suspect that a factor is the use in older equipment of heavy copper and plated components. On such connectors and devices we see less extensive corrosion than on newer aluminum and steel screws, connectors, bus bars, and other components exposed to the same conditions.
Home inspectors rarely observe electrical equipment immediately after a catastrophe. It is common, however, for these specialists to find equipment in various states of deterioration of which the most severe might be just before a hard failure which would lead the homeowner to take corrective measures.
Occasionally the inspector will encounter new equipment in a property for sale and will observe the old devices abandoned (as trash) in the building. In these uncommon instances there may be opportunity to observe first hand the evidence of failure which led to equipment replacement. Better data regarding actual failures might be surveyed among electricians performing replacements. Meese and Beausoleil have looked at such failures in branch circuits.(5)
These views are confounded by the observation that in the geographic area studied service panel equipment is often 1960's vintage or newer. Older equipment has been replaced for several reasons: desire of owners to improve service ampacity, necessity to replace damaged or failed equipment, and requirements of lending institutions and recommendations from local power utility companies which cause services of less than 100 Amps to be replaced when houses are sold.
Normal home inspection practice does not include performance of many tests on electrical equipment. It is common for inspectors to operate switches and controls which are provided for the homeowner (circuit breakers) or for use by service personnel (disconnects at HVAC equipment).
The Standards of Practice of the American Society of Home Inspectors require that every GFCI device be tested, that light switches and receptacles be sampled for proper operation and correct polarity and grounding. Inspectors may also verify that 240 volts is provided by the service. By contrast, testing for proper operation of a circuit breaker under load conditions requires special equipment, training, and procedures which are beyond the scope of a normal home inspection.(6)
Many inspectors are reluctant to operate circuit breakers, particularly main fuses or breakers, in occupied buildings. Often they will not do so without owner permission, because of risks of losses associated with unexpected power outage (e.g. computer was turned on upstairs, kidney dialysis machine was in operation). we have field reports of loss of building heat, with concomitant risks of freeze damage, when power was turned off as part of an inspection, only to discover that a faulty circuit breaker or main fuse could not be restored to power. Inspectors approach this topic with caution.(7)
As an incidental study, we tabulated frequency of certain very common "defects" observed in service panels, of which one, burned connectors, could possibly relate to the presence of corrosion. There were 23 such cases out of the 1052 panels observed, a 2% occurrence. In at least two of these 23 cases, the inspector noted evidence of an actual fire in the panel. (The number of panel defects will exceed the number of panels examined, since multiple defects may have been reported for individual installations.)
We did not tabulate severity of corrosion. Every case reported however was severe enough to merit having been reported to the building owner or buyer as a potential safety concern. As anecdotal evidence, we report having found:
Moisture from exterior leaks and interior condensation must be accepted as a very common hostile environment for service equipment in homes throughout a good part of the United States. Based on a large sample of electric service panels found in homes ranging from new to more than 100 years old in Southern New York, at least one of every ten units examined showed evidence of corrosion and moisture. One might expect worse conditions in more humid regions.
The most common sources of water and moisture entry appear to be: through service entrance conductor cables which are old and damaged, or which are improperly sealed at meter boxes or building sidewalls; from condensation from high interior moisture levels; and from other building leaks or surface water which pass down building walls where panel enclosures are mounted
Electric service components are not adequately protected from corrosion. In this study, corrosion was found at main entry cable connections, wire connectors on circuit breakers, wire connectors on neutral and grounding bus bars, and on the panel enclosure itself. Steel and aluminum components more often showed significant corrosion than do heavy solid copper components.
As a result of moisture and corrosion in service equipment, hazardous conditions may be expected. At some service cable connectors there was visual evidence to strongly suggest that corrosion had led to overheating and damage to the conductors. The observation of corroded circuit breaker and other panel connectors, and the presence of highly visible water marks and even water itself on circuit breakers raises serious questions: what is the corrosion resistance of internal parts? What conditions might be found on critical parts inside those devices?
Improvements in the design of electric service panel enclosures might include drainage and ventilation for service equipment enclosures and moisture-entry-resistant panel enclosure or panel backs and fastening methods. Similar improvements, possibly by minor design changes in the stamping of steel back and base plates of electric meter enclosures might be considered.
Leaks at and through contemporary service entry cables might be reduced by: reliable weather tight connectors at the top of exposed electric meters; use sealant to encapsulate the stripped cable end (inside the meter enclosure) whenever a service cable passes out the bottom of a meter enclosure to service equipment located below the meter; use improved sealant at the building wall opening made for passage of the cable to the building interior, or use of a weather tight bib designed for a variety of uneven and often flexible wall surfaces.
Steps to increase the corrosion resistance of entrance and breaker wire connections, bus bar connectors, screw terminals, might compensate for very common field conditions which continue to place this equipment at high risk of damage from moisture. St-Onge, addressing copper services, has made other suggestions for corrective measures, (11) and other studies have made more broad suggestions for design and installation improvements.(9) Improved materials are available and have been discussed in the literature by Breedis and Hauser.(10)
Effective corrosion resistance should be added to the present standards for qualification of electrical service equipment.
Perhaps it's not startling to note that we omit from these suggestions a greater emphasis on field training for installers. When electrical work is performed by a trained qualified electrician, it's generally obvious immediately when a device cover is removed. Unfortunately we are not the first observe a broad range of skill and training in electrical work, particularly in rural areas where building code enforcement may be lax and "improvements" are made by property owners and untrained mechanics. (9)
Combined with demanding field conditions which we've described in this article, improvements in component design may be a more successful step to reduce water entry, moisture, corrosion, and failures in electric service panel connectors and components.
The author is continuing and expanding this study to allow examination of additional variables
Readers who have suggestions for critical observations which should be collected during field work are urged to contact the author, Dan Friedman - contact information is given at the end of this document.
The original illustrations and photos, available by clicking on the links below, are called-out in the article text by individual [Figure #].
Also see GALVANIC SCALE & METAL CORROSION
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Search Arguments and Databases scanned in 1990 looking for reports on rust and corrosion damage to electrical components and service panels:
In ENGI1 database Set Items Description S1 6327 ELECTRIC AND (SERVICE OR PANEL) S2 1206 S1 AND (CORROS? OR RUST? OR BURN? OR BREAK? OR SHORT? OR D-EFECT? OR FIRE? OR BREAK?) S3 54 S2 AND RESID? S4 28 S3 AND RESIDENTIAL S5 917 S2 NOT (ENERGY OR CONSERV? OR UTILIZ? OR COGENER? OR TRANSFORM?) S6 91 S5 AND (CONNECT? OR WIRE) S7 80 S6 NOT (POLLUT? OR SANIT? OR COMMERC?) S8 71 S7 NOT MOTOR? S9 71 S8 NOT CIVIL ENGINEERING S10 71 S9 NOT CIVIL? S11 65 S10 NOT (EARTHQU? OR TRANSMISSION) S12 44 S11 NOT CONDUCT? S13 26 S12 AND CONNECT? S1 6327 ELECTRIC AND (SERVICE OR PANEL) 03036115 E.I. Monthly No: EIM9103-010031 Title: Aging tests of amorphous current transformers used in ground fault interrupters. Author: Nafalski, A.; Matras, G.; Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Stryczewska, H. Corporate Source: Lublin Tech Univ, Poland Conference Title: 1990 International Magnetics Conference - INTERMAG Conference Location: Brighton, Engl Conference Date: 1990 Apr 17-20 Sponsor: IEEE Magnetics Soc E.I. Conference No.: 14086 Source: IEEE Transactions on Magnetics v 26 n 5 Sep 1990. p 2005-2007 Publication Year: 1990 CODEN: IEMGAQ ISSN: 0018-9464 Language: English Document Type: JA; (Journal Article) Treatment: A; (Applications); X; (Experimental) Journal Announcement: 9103 Abstract: It is pointed out that the magnetic material for cores of a differential current transformer (DCT) of a ground fault interrupter (GFI) should be characterized by high initial permeability, little dependence on temperature, and a low remanence. These parameters have been taken into consideration during selection of the most suitable annealing regime of Co-based (CoFeMnMo)//7//7(SiB)//2//3 material. It is assumed that a GFI is required to have a service life of 20-years continuous operation. Hence, the magnetic properties of the core of the DCT must be highly stable and exhibit virtually no deterioration over this period. During its operational lifetime, the core may be subjected to rapid saturation due to short circuits and earth faults, etc., as well as cyclic temperature changes. The effects of temperature aging and high current transients on the performance of the DCT were investigated. It is concluded that current shocks do not significantly alter the small-signal magnetic permeability of Co-based amorphous cores of selected annealing. The material examined exhibits degradation of magnetic properties due to aging greater than that reported for Fe-based materials. The relatively rapid aging is probably connected with the selected quick quenching in water following annealing. 9 Refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC INSTRUMENT TRANSFORMERS--*Aging; MAGNETIC MATERIALS--Amorphous; ELECTRIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS; MAGNETIC CORES Identifiers: GROUND FAULT INTERRUPTERS; AMORPHOUS CURRENT TRANSFORMERS Classification Codes: 714 (Electronic Components); 421 (Materials Properties); 708 (Electric & Magnetic Materials); 701 (Electricity & Magnetism); 704 (Electric Components & Equipment) 71 (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS); 42 (MATERIALS PROPERTIES & TESTING); 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING) 02192698 E.I. Monthly No: EI8704034809 Title: METHODS FOR MITIGATING CORROSION OF COPPER CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL WIRES IN CONDUIT. Author: Anon Source: Electr Power Res Inst Rep EPRI EL 4981 Jan 1987 116P Publication Year: 1987 CODEN: EPELD3 Language: ENGLISH Document Type: RR; (Report Review) Treatment: X; (Experimental) Journal Announcement: 8704 Abstract: A method perfected in this study makes it possible to locate and assess corrosion in underground distribution cables in conduit. In addition, the study identified two techniques utilities can use to protect such cables from corrosion, which has been an increasing problem in many residential service areas. (Edited author abstract) Descriptors: *ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION--*Underground Installation; ELECTRIC CABLES--Corrosion Protection; ELECTRIC CONDUITS; ELECTRIC MEASUREMENTS--Resistance Identifiers: CORROSION EXTENT MEASUREMENT; UNDERGROUND RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION Classification Codes: 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 539 (Metals Corrosion & Protection); 942 (Electrical & Electronic Measuring Instruments) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 53 (METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING); 94 (INSTRUMENTS & MEASUREMENT) 02102866 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8607-045187 Title: ECONOMICS OF DIRECT CONTROL OF RESIDENTIAL LOADS ON THE DESIGN AND OPERATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: PART III. THE ECONOMICS OF LOAD MANAGEMENT. Author: Davis, Murray W.; Krupa, Theodore J.; Diedzic, Matthew J. Corporate Source: Detroit Edison Co, Detroit, MI, USA Conference Title: IEEE Power Engineering Society 1982 Summer Meeting. Conference Location: San Francisco, CA, USA Conference Date: 1982 Jul 18-23 Sponsor: IEEE Power Engineering Soc, New York, NY, USA E.I. Conference No.: 01344 Source: Publ by IEEE, New York, NY, USA Pap 82 SM 441-4, 8p Publication Year: 1982 Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Journal Announcement: 8607 Abstract: This paper is the third in a series of three papers which address the economics and effects of controlling central air conditioners, electric water heaters, and service voltage on the design and operation of the distribution system. The load characteristics measured throughout a single distribution circuit over a five year period were used as a basis for evaluating the benefits and costs of direct load control on the distribution system. Models were developed to evaluate the impact of various load control strategies on distribution system losses and on changes in the thermal capacity of transformers and cables. A cost summary is presented along with a break-even analysis which incorporates T&D system benefits in an overall economic evaluation of load control. (Author abstract) 4 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION--*Economics; ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS--Load Management; buildings--Air Conditioning Identifiers: DIRECT CONTROL; RESIDENTIAL LOADS; SINGLE DISTRIBUTION CIRCUIT; THERMAL CAPACITY; LOAD CONTROL STRATEGIES; CENTRAL AIR CONDITIONERS Classification Codes: 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 911 (Industrial Economics); 402 (buildings & Towers); 643 (Space Heating & Air Conditioning) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT); 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING); 64 (HEAT & THERMODYNAMICS) 02820962 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8911-040960 Title: Assessment of conductors. Author: Zollars, William B. Corporate Source: Alcoa Conductor Products Co, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Conference Title: Proceedings of the Sessions Related to Steel Structures at Structures Congress '89 Conference Location: San Francisco, CA, USA Conference Date: 1989 May 1-5 Sponsor: ASME, New York, NY, USA E.I. Conference No.: 12363 Source: Proc Sess Relat Steel Struct Congr. Publ by ASCE, New York, NY, USA. p 74-82 Publication Year: 1989 ISBN: 0-87262-697-0 Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Treatment: X; (Experimental) Journal Announcement: 8911 Abstract: This paper deals with the mechanical integrity of conductors after several years in service and discusses current innovative conductor designs which benefit the structural designer working to re conductor lines. Conductor properties may be altered due to fatigue from aeolian vibration, operation at elevated temperatures, and atmospheric corrosion. Loss of strength and additional sag due to elevated temperature operation are also discussed. (Edited author abstract) 2 Refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC CONDUCTORS, WIRE--*Testing; ELECTRIC LINES--Towers Identifiers: TRAPEZOIDAL STRANDS; ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS Classification Codes: 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 421 (Materials Properties); 422 (Materials Testing) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 42 (MATERIALS PROPERTIES & TESTING) 02317438 E.I. Monthly No: EI8710103817 Title: PREVENTING SERVICE CONNECTION CORROSION. Author: St-Onge, Hank Corporate Source: Duratron Systems Ltd Source: Water and Pollution Control (Don Mills, Canada) v 124 n 5 Jun 1986 p 16-17 Publication Year: 1986 CODEN: WPCOAR ISSN: 0043-1117 Language: ENGLISH Document Type: JA; (Journal Article) Treatment: A; (Applications) Journal Announcement: 8710 Abstract: Service connections and buried electrical systems joined to non-metallic mains require special corrosion control measures. This article discusses copper services and corrective measures that may be taken to protect them. Also discussed are buried electrical systems, corrective measures, sacrificial anode applications, and anode requirements. Descriptors: *PIPELINES--*Corrosion Protection; ELECTRIC LINES--Corrosion Protection; CORROSION PROTECTION, ANODIC Identifiers: SERVICE CONNECTION Classification Codes: 619 (Pipes, Tanks & Accessories); 539 (Metals Corrosion & Protection); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution) 61 (PLANT & POWER ENGINEERING); 53 (METALLURGICAL ENGINEERING); 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING) 02278688 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8710-067724 Title: C724 - A NEW HIGH STRENGTH COPPER ALLOY FOR ELECTRONIC/ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS. Author: Breedis, J. F.; Hauser, R. J. Corporate Source: Olin Corp, New Haven, CT, USA Conference Title: Eighteenth Annual Connectors and Interconnection Technology Symposium Proceedings. Conference Location: Philadelphia, PA, USA Conference Date: 1985 Nov 18-20 Sponsor: Electronic Connector Study Group Inc, Fort Washington, PA, USA E.I. Conference No.: 09575 Source: Annual Connectors and Interconnection Technology Symposium Proceedings 18th. Publ by Electronic Connector Study Group Inc, Fort Washington, PA, USA p 123-130 Publication Year: 1985 CODEN: ACIPE3 Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Journal Announcement: 8710 Abstract: A new high strength, precipitation hardened copper alloy has been developed for the electronic/electrical connector market in response to the need for high reliability and stability in service, while minimizing material cost. The alloy, designated as C724, has a Cu-Ni-Al base composition with supplemental additions of Mg and Mn. Physical and mechanical properties of this alloy that are important to designers of electronic/electrical connectors are summarized, as well as compared with other copper alloys used in this application. C724 is available in two mill hardened tempers encompassing yield strengths of between 100 to 140 KSI with isotropic longitudinal and transverse minimum bend radius limits of 1. 5-3t. The alloy is resistant to stress relaxation with at least 90% of the initially imposed stress expected to remain after 10 years at 221 DEGREE F (105 DEGREE C). The alloy also has excellent stress corrosion resistance, comparable to mill hardened beryllium copper alloys. (Edited author abstract) 4 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC CONNECTORS--*Materials; COPPER AND ALLOYS-- Applications Identifiers: HIGH STRENGTH COPPER ALLOY; ELECTRONIC/ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS ; CONNECTOR MATERIALS DESIGN; STRESS RELAXATION; STRENGTH RELAXATION; ISOTROPIC BEND PROPERTIES Classification Codes: 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 544 (Copper & Alloys); 714 (Electronic Components) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 54 (METAL GROUPS); 71 (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS) 01890891 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8509-052110 Title: INFRARED INSPECTION OF UNDERGROUND SECONDARY CONNECTIONS. Author: Gitto, Joseph F.; Perl, Martin Corporate Source: Consolidated Edison Co of New York Inc, New York, NY, USA Conference Title: Proceedings of the 9th Annual Engineering Conference on Reliability for the Electric Power Industry. Conference Location: Hershey, PA, USA Conference Date: 1982 Jun 16-18 Sponsor: IEEE Reliability Soc, New York, NY, USA; AIIE, Lehigh Valley Chapter, USA; EPRI, Palo Alto, CA, USA; ASQC, Milwaukee, WI, USA; ANS, Delaware Valley Section, USA; et al E.I. Conference No.: 05668 Source: Publ by ASQC, Milwaukee, WI, USA p 294-296 Publication Year: 1982 Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Journal Announcement: 8509 Abstract: The application of infrared (IR) scanning by utilities for aerial surveys of residences, inspection of substation equipment and overhead connections is well known. This paper describes a new application for IR scanning - inspection of underground secondary connections in manholes and secondary service boxes. Infrared scanning of underground secondary connections, at Con Edison, has been found to be a viable method for preventive maintenance. Detection of potential failures permits an orderly and timely repair of the defective condition before the existence of an emergency (customer outage) condition. Descriptors: *THERMOGRAPHY--*Applications; ELECTRIC CONNECTORS-- Nondestructive Examination; FAILURE ANALYSIS Identifiers: INFRARED INSPECTION; SCANNING; UNDERGROUND SECONDARY CONNECTIONS Classification Codes: 944 (Moisture, Pressure & Temperature, & Radiation Measuring Instruments); 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 714 (Electronic Components); 421 (Materials Properties); 422 (Materials Testing) 94 (INSTRUMENTS & MEASUREMENT); 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 71 (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS); 42 (MATERIALS PROPERTIES & TESTING) 30mar91 15:21:50 User042798 Session B20.4 $9.67 0.406 Hrs FileKI $9.67 Estimated total session cost 0.406 Hrs. Logoff: level 25.02.16 B 15:21:50 (second access, same date) In ENGI1 database Set Items Description S1 0 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE PANEL S2 1401 ELECTRIC? AND (RESIDENTIAL) S3 23 S2 AND PANEL? S4 22 S3 NOT PANEL MEASUREM? S5 21 S4 NOT COGENER? S6 19 S5 NOT LOAD MANAGEMENT S7 16 S6 NOT POWER GENERATION S8 16 S7 NOT CONSERVAT? S9 16 S8 NOT VIDON S10 15 S9 NOT UNDERGROUND S11 11 S10 NOT PHOTOVOLTAIC S12 11 S11 NOT OPTICAL 11/L/7 01476082 E.I. Monthly No: EI8401002616 E.I. Yearly No: EI84040628 Title: PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICAL WIRING SYSTEM COMPONENT PARTS. Author: Anon Corporate Source: B. C. Research, Vancouver, BC, Can Source: Res Rep Can Electr Assoc n 000 U 114 Mar 1982 112p Publication Year: 1982 CODEN: RCEADM Language: ENGLISH Journal Announcement: 8401 Abstract: The general performance of many residential electrical wiring system components is examined, and some components, like receptacles, extension cords, incandescent light fixtures, fluorescent light ballasts, panelboards, and nylon-sheathed wire, are found unacceptable because of poor quality control, poor design, unpredicted current 'normal' use conditions, lack of compatible accessories, poor installation workmanship, manufacturing economics, and other factors. A case is made for the imposition of improved performance standards for some residential electrical wiring components on the grounds of reducing annoyance, apprehension, and the incidence of serious consequences of component failures. Better means for inspection authorities are suggested to gather and collate information on performance for prompt forwarding to the standards committees empowered to enact and improve performance standards. Refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC WIRING, buildings--*Components; ELECTRIC WIRING-- Performance Identifiers: RESIDENTIAL WIRING COMPONENTS PERFORMANCE Classification Codes: 402 (buildings & Towers); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution) 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING); 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING) ?f residential service entrance and (electric? or panel) 5622 RESIDENTIAL 47149 SERVICE 3715 ENTRANCE 4 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE 315005 ELECTRIC? 9233 PANEL S14 4 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE AND (ELECTRIC? OR PANEL) 14/L/1 02530600 E.I. Monthly No: EI8803023150 Title: DEVELOPMENT OF DESIGN GUIDELINES AND PRACTICES FOR IMPROVING RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCES. Author: Keyes, C. Corporate Source: Ontario Research Foundation, Toronto, Ont, Can Source: Res Rep Can Electr Assoc 228 U 359 May 1987 var pagings Publication Year: 1987 CODEN: RCEADM ISSN: 0823-2660 Language: ENGLISH Document Type: RR; (Report Review) Treatment: T; (Theoretical); X; (Experimental) Journal Announcement: 8803 Abstract: Residential service entrance fusible panelboards are a major identifiable cause of electric fires. Although some remedial measures have been taken, a continuing change to more cyclic loading on panelboards in the form of electric heating may cause a resurgence of failures in the future. The primary objectives of this three-part report were to investigate the problems associated with new and existing service entrance equipment and to establish design guidelines and practices for improved reliability particularly where loads such as electric heat are involved. Parts I and II explore in detail the reliability issues surrounding existing and new service equipment respectively. Based on the conclusions and recommendations of these two parts, the guidelines for improving service entrance equipment reliability, found in Part III, are developed. 38 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC SWITCHBOARDS--*Reliability; ELECTRIC LOADS; ELECTRIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS; ELECTRIC SWITCHES--Testing; STANDARDS; ELECTRIC CONTACTS--Failure Identifiers: RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE RELIABILITY TESTING; INSULATION TESTS; ELECTRICAL TESTS; WEIBULL STATISTICS; ARRHEMIUS MODEL Classification Codes: 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 922 (Statistical Methods); 902 (Engineering Graphics & Standards) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 92 (ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS); 90 (GENERAL ENGINEERING) 14/L/2 02294586 E.I. Monthly No: EI8708079092 Title: RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE CURRENT UNBALANCE. Author: Anon Corporate Source: Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ont, Can Source: Res Rep Can Electr Assoc 234 U 384 Apr 1985 80p Publication Year: 1985 CODEN: RCEADM ISSN: 0823-2660 Language: ENGLISH Document Type: RR; (Report Review) Treatment: A; (Applications); X; (Experimental) Journal Announcement: 8708 Abstract: The residential service entrance current unbalance study is a preliminary survey of line-to-line current unbalances at the service entrance of typical homes during the heating season. This information is of interest to heating equipment and control manufacturers and the electrical utilities involved in the off-oil program. The results provide an indication of the improvements possible from electrical load redistribution and whether the electrical distribution panelboard and plenum heaters are being utilized to the full potential. 2 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS--*Load Distribution; HEATING-- Electric; ELECTRIC POWER DISTRIBUTION; ELECTRIC APPLIANCES Identifiers: LOAD DISTRIBUTING CONTROLLER; SPACE HEATING SYSTEMS; CURRENT UNBALANCES; HOMEOWNERS' ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Classification Codes: 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 643 (Space Heating & Air Conditioning); 704 (Electric Components & Equipment) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 64 (HEAT & THERMODYNAMICS) ?f circuit breaker? 83508 CIRCUIT 4587 BREAKER? S15 3517 CIRCUIT BREAKER? ?f s15 and residential 3517 S15 5622 RESIDENTIAL S16 10 S15 AND RESIDENTIAL ?type s16/l/all 00404433 E.I. Monthly No: EI7410060568 Title: Circuit Breakers or Safety Fuses in Residential buildings. Considerations Associated with the Design of Electric Installations. Title: LEITUNGSSCHUTZSCHALTER ODER SICHERUNGEN IM WOHNUNGSBAU. UEBERLEGUNGEN BEI DER PLANUNG ELEKTRISCHER INSTALLATIONEN. Author: Popper, Wilhelm Corporate Source: Bernische Kraftwerke, Bern, Switz Source: Bulletin de l'Association Suisse des Electriciens v 65 n 13 Jun 29 1974 p 957-963 Publication Year: 1974 CODEN: BUSEAH ISSN: 0004-587X Language: GERMAN Journal Announcement: 7410 Abstract: Criteria for the selection between circuit breakers and fuses are indicated. The importance of maximum short-circuit current is pointed out and a simple method for its determination is presented, along with two practical examples. The effect of local conditions on the decision between circuit breakers and fuses is discussed. Problems associated with series connection of circuit breakers are considered. 2 refs. In German. Descriptors: *buildings--*Electric Equipment; ELECTRIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS; ELECTRIC FUSES Classification Codes: 402 (buildings & Towers); 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 914 (Safety Engineering) 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING); 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT) 21/L/1 02523070 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8801-003024 Title: EFFECT OF HARD WATER SCALE BUILDUP AND WATER TREATMENT ON RESIDENTIAL WATER HEATER PERFORMANCE. Author: Talbert, S. G.; Stickford, G. H.; Newman, D. C.; Stiegelmeyer, W. N. Corporate Source: Battelle, Columbus Div, Columbus, OH, USA Conference Title: ASHRAE Transactions 1986. (Technical Paper Presented at the 1986 Annual Meeting.) Conference Location: Portland, OR, USA Conference Date: 1986 Jun 22-25 Sponsor: ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA, USA E.I. Conference No.: 10599 Source: ASHRAE Transactions 1986 v 92 pt 2B. Publ by ASHRAE, Atlanta, GA, USA p 433-447 Publication Year: 1986 CODEN: ASHTAG ISSN: 0001-2505 Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Journal Announcement: 8801 Abstract: Conventional gas and electric storage-type residential water heaters were operated at four different U. S. cities under accelerated test conditions to measure the effect of scale buildup on efficiency and to assess the benefits and limitations of common water treatment methods. The four selected test sites had hard water supplies with expected scale-forming tendencies and were located in Columbus, OH; Lisle, IL; Roswell, NM; and Marshall, MN. The main conclusions are as follows. After 60 lbs (27 kg) of scale buildup at two of the test sites (representing an estimated 20 years of equivalent scale buildup), the efficiency of the gas water heaters gradually declined about 5%, while that of the electric water heaters remained constant. However, the buildup of scale in the electric heaters caused the electric heating element to fail periodically, and in the gas-fired heaters, it caused the tank metal temperatures near the burner to operate hotter. (Edited author abstract) 3 refs. Descriptors: *WATER TREATMENT; WATER HEATERS--Performance Identifiers: WATER TREATMENT METHODS; SCALE DEPOSITS; ANODE-CORROSION PROBLEMS; EFFICIENCY TEST RESULTS; CORROSION TESTS; SCALE BUILDUP COMPARISON STUDIES Classification Codes: 433 (Railroad Transportation); 643 (Space Heating & Air Conditioning); 913 (Production Planning & Control) 43 (TRANSPORTATION); 64 (HEAT & THERMODYNAMICS); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT) 00101338 E.I. Monthly No: EI70X149050 Title: Comparison of concrete encased grounding electrodes to driven ground rods. Author: WIENER, P. Corporate Source: Dept of Water and Power, Los Angeles, Calif Source: IEEE Trans Ind Gen Appl v IGA-6 n 3 May-June 1970 p 282-7 Publication Year: 1970 Language: ENGLISH Journal Announcement: 70X1 Abstract: An experimental study was made to compare the efficacy of concrete encased grounding electrodes to that of driven ground rods for grounding residential and small commercial electric services. The resistance of the concrete encased electrodes was generally lower than that of the driven ground rods and the concrete encased electrodes were more effective in carrying current from the 120/ 240 v systems. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT--*Grounding; ELECTRODES--Corrosion; ELECTRIC LINES--Grounding Classification Codes: 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution) Set Items Description S1 0 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE PANEL S2 1401 ELECTRIC? AND (RESIDENTIAL) S3 23 S2 AND PANEL? S4 22 S3 NOT PANEL MEASUREM? S5 21 S4 NOT COGENER? S6 19 S5 NOT LOAD MANAGEMENT S7 16 S6 NOT POWER GENERATION S8 16 S7 NOT CONSERVAT? S9 16 S8 NOT VIDON S10 15 S9 NOT UNDERGROUND S11 11 S10 NOT PHOTOVOLTAIC S12 11 S11 NOT OPTICAL S13 1 RESIDENTIAL WIRING COMPONENTS S14 4 RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE AND (ELECTRIC? OR PANEL) S15 3517 CIRCUIT BREAKER? S16 10 S15 AND RESIDENTIAL S17 0 S2 AND NEUTRAL BUS S18 43 S2 AND RUST? OR S2 AND CORROSION S19 43 S18 AND RESIDENTIAL S20 41 S19 NOT SILICON S21 8 S20 NOT UNDERGROUND S22 17 S2 AND FIRE 22/L/1 02965808 E.I. Monthly No: EI9010117824 Title: What causes wiring fires in residences?. Author: Smith, Linda E.; McCoskrie, Dennis Source: Fire Journal (Boston) v 84 n 1 Jan-Feb 1990 7p Publication Year: 1990 CODEN: FIJOAU ISSN: 0015-2617 Language: English Document Type: JA; (Journal Article) Treatment: G; (General Review); X; (Experimental) Journal Announcement: 9010 Abstract: The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) first sponsored a project to identify the causes of residential fires involving the electrical distribution system in 1980. To augment this effort, CPSC sponsored a second phase of data collection in additional cities in 1984 and 1985. This second phase used the same data collection criteria and questionnaire as the first phase, but a different contractor delivered the training. Overall, 16 fire departments participated in the study and contributed 149 fire investigations that met the criteria for the project. This article presents the results of these combined efforts. Descriptors: *HOUSES--*Building Wiring; ELECTRIC WIRING, buildings--Fires Identifiers: US CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Classification Codes: 402 (buildings & Towers); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 914 (Safety Engineering) 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING); 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT) 22/L/7 02275376 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8709-063447 Title: FIRE RELATED HAZARDS OF CABLES: THE CANADIAN POSITION: DEVELOPMENT OF FIRE RESISTANT INSIDE WIRING CABLE. Author: Hartley, M. D.; Jaques, R. E. Corporate Source: Canada Wire & Cable Ltd., Toronto, Ont, Can Conference Title: Proceedings of 35th International Wire and Cable Symposium. Conference Location: Reno, NV, USA Conference Date: 1986 Nov 18-20 Sponsor: US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, NJ, USA E.I. Conference No.: 10049 Source: Proceedings of International Wire and Cable Symposium 35th. Publ by US Army Communications-Electronics Command, Fort Monmouth, NJ, USA p 554-559 Publication Year: 1986 CODEN: PIWSDG ISSN: 0091-7702 Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Journal Announcement: 8709 Abstract: The Canadian Electrical Code and the National Building Code in Canada recognize only two designations in regards to fire resistance of cables; cables for use in combustible (residential) buildings and cables for use in non-combustible buildings. The Test standard for cables for non-combustible buildings resembles IEEE-383. However, it is more severe; particularly for small nonarmoured cables such as Inside Wiring Cable. This forthcoming requirement has necessitated material and product development. Although an Inside Wiring Cable modification of both insulation and jacket was undertaken, the large volume fraction of combustible material in the jacket vis a vis the insulation made it the area of greatest impact. The paper outlines the development and its effect on cable performance. (Author abstract) 12 refs. Descriptors: *TELECOMMUNICATION CABLES--*Fire Protection; FIRE PROTECTION --Safety Codes Identifiers: FIRE HAZARDS; CSA STANDARD C22. 2; FIRE TESTS Classification Codes: 716 (Radar, Radio & TV Electronic Equipment); 718 (Telephone & Line Communications); 914 (Safety Engineering) 71 (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT) 22/L/9 01939666 E.I. Monthly No: EI8601002264 E.I. Yearly No: EI86036463 Title: ARCING FAULTS IN METALLIC CONDUIT AT 120 AND 240 V. Author: FULLER, JACKSON F.; HANNA, WILLIAM J.; KALLENBACH, GENE A. Corporate Source: UNIV OF COLORADO, DEP OF ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING, BOULDER, CO, USA Source: IEEE TRANS IND APPL V IA-21 N 3 1985 P 820-825 Publication Year: 1985 CODEN: ITIACR ISSN: 0093-9994 Language: ENGLISH Document Type: JA; (JOURNAL ARTICLE) Treatment: T; (THEORETICAL) Journal Announcement: 8601 Abstract: OVER THE YEARS, MANY FIRES HAVE BEEN BLAMED ON THE FAILURE OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT OR WIRING IN RESIDENTIAL OR COMMERCIAL INSTALLATIONS. TO HELP RESOLVE THE QUESTION OF WHETHER OR NOT THESE ACCUSATIONS HAVE SUBSTANCE, MANY TESTS HAVE BEEN PERFORMED TO EVALUATE VARIOUS TYPES OF WIRE AND INSULATION IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS ON 120-V AND 240-V AC CIRCUITS. EVIDENCE FROM A RECENT FIRE IN A LOCAL COMMERCIAL INSTALLATION AT 208/120 V INDICATED THAT PAPER PRODUCTS LYING ON THE EXTERIOR OF A CONDUIT WERE IGNITED BY AN INTERNAL ARC BETWEEN A CONDUCTOR AND THE METALLIC CONDUIT WALL. THE FAULT CURRENT DID NOT TRIP A STANDARD 100-A PLASTIC CASE PANEL BREAKER. LABORATORY TESTS WERE PERFORMED IN AN ATTEMPT TO DUPLICATE THE CONDITIONS AND CONFIRM THE CONCLUSIONS. THE RESULTS ARE REPORTED. 17 REFS. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC FAULT CURRENTS; ELECTRIC WIRING--FIRE PROTECTION; ELECTRIC ARCS; ELECTRIC CONDUITS Identifiers: AC ARCS; ARCING FAULTS Classification Codes: 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 701 (Electricity & Magnetism); 402 (buildings & Towers); 914 (Safety Engineering) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT) 22/L/10 01868164 E.I. Monthly No: EIM8505-024805 Title: ARCING FAULTS IN METALLIC CONDUIT AT 120 AND 240 VOLTS. Author: Fuller, Jackson F.; Hanna, William J.; Kallenbach, Gene A. Corporate Source: Univ of Colorado at Boulder, Dep of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Boulder, CO, USA Conference Title: Conference Record - Industrial & Commercial Power System Technical Conference 1984. ( Papers presented at the 1984 Annual Meeting - IEEE Industry Applications Society.) Conference Location: Atlanta, GA, USA Conference Date: 1984 May 7-10 Sponsor: IEEE Industry Applications Soc, Static Power Converter Committee, New York, NY, USA; IEEE, Atlanta Section, Atlanta, GA, USA E.I. Conference No.: 04511 Source: IEEE Conference Record of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference 1984. Publ by IEEE, New York, NY, USA. Available from IEEE Service Cent (Cat n 84CH2040-4), Piscataway, NJ, USA p 108-111 Publication Year: 1984 CODEN: CRICDM Language: English Document Type: PA; (Conference Paper) Journal Announcement: 8505 Abstract: Over the years many questions have been raised about the number of fires that have actually been caused by the failure of electric equipment or wiring in residential or commercial installations. To help resolve these questions, many tests have been performed to evaluate various types of wire and insulation in different environments on 120 and 240 volt ac circuits. Evidence from a recent fire indicated that combustible material lying on the exterior of a conduit was ignited due to an internal arc between a conductor and the metallic conduit wall. Laboratory tests were performed in an attempt to duplicate the conditions and confirm the conclusions. This paper is a report of the results. 17 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC ARCS; ELECTRIC WIRING, buildings; ELECTRIC FAULT CURRENTS; ELECTRIC CONDUITS; buildings--Fire Protection Identifiers: ARCING FAULTS; BUILDING FIRES; ARC PHYSICS Classification Codes: 701 (Electricity & Magnetism); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 402 (buildings & Towers); 931 (Applied Physics) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING); 93 (ENGINEERING PHYSICS) 22/L/11 01599826 E.I. Monthly No: EI8412130645 E.I. Yearly No: EI84040368 Title: REDUCTION OF FIRES CAUSED BY RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ENTRANCE PANEL BOARDS. Author: Hicks, R. L.; Liberatore, P.; Bartlett, D.; Major, R. Corporate Source: Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ont, Can Source: Res Rep Can Electr Assoc n 83-33 Dec 1983 27p Publication Year: 1983 CODEN: RCEADM Language: ENGLISH Journal Announcement: 8412 Abstract: The performance of residential electrical service entrance panelboards is reviewed. Field data identifying them as an identified cause of electrical fires are presented. Remedial measures already taken and additional steps which might further reduce the possibility of fires from panelboards are identified. Recommendations are made to carry out evaluative tests in support of remedial measures and to prepare guidelines on the design of future service entrances. 31 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC SWITCHBOARDS--*Fire Protection; ELECTRIC WIRING, buildings--Fire Protection; HOUSES--Electric Equipment; buildings--Electric Equipment; APARTMENT HOUSES--Electric Equipment Identifiers: ELECTRICAL SERVICE ENTRANCE; PANEL BOARDS Classification Codes: 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 706 (Electric Transmission & Distribution); 402 (buildings & Towers) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 40 (CIVIL ENGINEERING) 22/L/16 00774475 E.I. Monthly No: EI7803016949 Title: EXPLORATORY STUDY OF GLOWING ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS. Author: Meese, William J.; Beausoliel, Robert W. Corporate Source: NBS, Washington, DC Source: National Bureau of Standards, Building Science Series n 103 Oct 1977 22 p Publication Year: 1977 CODEN: BSSNBV ISSN: 0083-1794 Language: ENGLISH Journal Announcement: 7803 Abstract: This report describes and characterizes with quantifiable electrical and thermal measures the extent to which loose electric connections in residential-type branch circuits have overheated in the laboratory. With loose electric connections, which conceivably could be inadvertantly duplicated in field installations, but with otherwise normal installation and operating conditions, visible glows have been observed under laboratory test conditions in nominal 120 v, 15 and 20 amp branch circuits with both copper and aluminum wire. Characteristics of the glow condition are differentiated from arching/sparking as sometimes observed in making or breaking electric circuits. 8 refs. Descriptors: *ELECTRIC CONNECTORS; ELECTRIC SPARKS; ELECTRIC ACCIDENTS-- Prevention; FIRE PROTECTION Identifiers: ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS; GLOWING ELECTRIC CONNECTIONS; FIRE HAZARDS Classification Codes: 701 (Electricity & Magnetism); 704 (Electric Components & Equipment); 714 (Electronic Components); 914 (Safety Engineering) 70 (ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING); 71 (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS); 91 (ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT)
HOLM93A 0 600 600 15.2 16.5 13.8 13 18 .5 600 600 18.1 20.9 15.3 14 28 .9 600 600 20.4 27.6 13.2 13 48 9.3 600 600 56.9 79.2 34.6 21.9 115.9 X Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 NOTE: Y1 AND Y2 HAVE BEEN INSERTED IN ORDER TO GET A DOTTED LINE FOR THE FINAL GRAPH. SPLOT DOES NOT SEEM TO HAVE ANY OTHER WAY TO DO THIS. THE PLOTS OF Y1 AND Y2 WITH SOLID AND DASHED LINES WILL NOT PRINT IF ABOVE THE UPPER Y-AXIS LIMIT. DO THIS. THE PLOTS OF Y1 HOLM93B.DAT 2 8.2 9.2 7.2 5.9 9.5 4 39.6 58.5 20.5 18.1 88.3 6 45.5 74.2 16.8 20.6 187.7 X Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y7 .2 7.2 5.9 9.5 4 39.6 58.5 20.5 18.1 88.3 6 45.5 74.2 16.8 20.6 187.7 X Y1 Y2 Y3 Y4 Y5 HOLM93C 1 600 5 600 7 600 -0.12 57.4 2.88 87.3 10.3 151.1 -0.12 62.9 2.88 102.6 10.3 221.6 -0.12 51.8 2.88 71.9 10.3 80.6 -0.12 47.7 2.88 60.9 10.3 106.3 -0.12 87.1 2.88 121.7 10.3 218 0.12 111 3.12 179.3 10.5 348.7 0.12 133.7 3.12 231.2 10.5 411.7 0.12 88.3 3.12 127.4 10.5 285.5 0.12 69.5 3.12 90.3 10.5 258 0.12 146.8 3.12 286 10.5 434 133.7 3.12 231.2 10.5 411.7