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WATER PUMPS, TANKS, TESTS, WELLS, REPAIRS
WATER CONTAMINANT LEVELS
WATER HAMMER NOISE DIAGNOSE & CURE
WATER ODORS, CAUSE CURE
WATER PUMP REPAIR GUIDE
WATER PRESSURE LOSS DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
WATER PUMP SHORT CYCLING
WATER SOFTENERS & CONDITIONERS
WATER TANK REPAIR PROCEDURES
WATER TANK: USES, TROUBLESHOOTING
WATER TESTS, CONTAMINANTS, TREATMENT
WATER TREATMENT EQUIPMENT CHOICES
WELLS CISTERNS & SPRINGS
WELL FLOW RATE
WELL WATER PRESSURE DIAGNOSIS
WELL YIELD IMPROVEMENT
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
This article describes the construction of artesian water wells. We describe types of artesian wells, how water flow from the artesian well is controlled, special artesian well parts like the well spool, and we discuss special problems for artesian wells and the property aroudn them when there is a leak in the well casing.
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Our sketch at left explains how an artesian well is formed, and introdudes the proper term "Geologically-controlled flowing wells".
In a geologically-contrtolled flowing well, water is sent to the top of the well casing by pressures formed in the underlying geological structure of the earth.
In a topographically-controlled flowing artesian well, pressure that pushes water to the top of the well casing is developed by surrounding land and/water that create water pressure in the well that is higher than the surrounding land pressure. Sketch courtesy Michigan DEP. - Ed.
Questions about well spools & artesian well casing leak repair using well sleeves
Our water pump in the well recently went out and we hired a crew to replace the pump. However I am concerned if he used correct procedure and if caused more problems than we started with.
When he first strated pulling up the drop pipe the "spool" was stuck and he had problems with pulling it up at first, once it came free he set it back down and took the cable off.
Then he came up to the house and told me he is going to pour some acid down to soak over night and loosen up the "spool" so he could pull it up, he dumped about 2 gallons of it down there and the next day he pulled everything up again.
Later when he started blasting out the black water a bunch of sand came out and he told us we need an entirely new well because there is a hole in the case, and sleeving the case wasn't an option. However after he left I was looking at the pipes and wire left that was pulled up and they have some bad corrosion just above the water level. I am wondering if the acid he poured down the casing ate through the casing where it sat overnight and caused the hole? Also there was no sand to be found in the old pump which makes me more suspicious.
What is a Well Spool, Why a Well Spool may be Needed, How they are Installed on Artesian Wells
Your description of "a bunch of san dcame out..." may indeed be the first indicator that a homeowner sees pointing to a hole or crack in the well casing of an artesian well.
Below we describe well spools used for flowing artesian wells and possibly in other wells with a very high-rising static head.
We discuss the repair options for a cracked or leaky well casing separately at WELL CASING LEAK REPAIRS.
Types of well spools used to keep artesian wells from overflowing in freezing & non-freezing climates
Other Methods for Controlling Water Flow From Artesian Wells
An alternative to using a well spool to "cap" or withstand the pressure within an artesian well involves using any of several methods to first provide sufficient water pressure to supply the building and second a method to allow excess water to drain to an approved location.
Approved Artesian Well excess water discharge methods
Unapproved Artesian Well excess water discharge methods
Problems with Leaks in the Steel Casing of an Artesian Well
Our sketch at far left crams more parts into a small space than you'd find in a real water well - we've got the submersible pump up there near the top of the well casing; actually the pump will be located a few feet or more off of the well bottom, and actually in most water wells the steel casing extends from the ground surface down into bedrock but the well bore itself continues down through that rock to a deeper depth - the casing does not extend to the very bottom of the well. - Ed.
The Michigan DEP sketch above (figure 7) illustrates an improper means of getting rid of water leaking around the well casing of an artesian well. Illustration adapated from: Michigan DEP Flowing Well Handbook 
As the Michigan DEP points out,
We discuss the repair options for a cracked or leaky well casing separately and in detail at WELL CASING LEAK REPAIRS.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about artesian well spools
Questions & answers or comments about artesian wells: construction, troubleshooting, repair, & parts including well spools
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Technical Reviewers & References
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