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ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS - INSPECT, TEST, REMEDY
ACOUSTICAL SEALANT CHOICES
AGE of a BUILDING - how to determine
AIR BYPASS LEAKS
AIR LEAK DETECTION TOOLS
AIR LEAK MINIMIZATION
AIR LEAK SEALING PROCEDURE
AIR POLLUTANTS, COMMON INDOOR
ALLERGENS in BUILDINGS, RECOGNIZING
ANIMAL ALLERGENS / PET DANDER
APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY RATINGS
ARCHITECTURE & BUILDING COMPONENT ID
ASBESTOS CEILING TILES, Asbestos-Containing
ASBESTOS CEMENT ROOFING
ASBESTOS CEMENT SIDING
ASBESTOS DUCTS, HVAC
ASBESTOS-FREE INSULATION MATERIALS
ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN buildings
ASBESTOS FLOORING HAZARD REDUCTION
ASBESTOS FLOORING REMOVAL GUIDE
ASBESTOS LIST of PRODUCTS
ASBESTOS MATERIAL REGULATIONS
ASBESTOS MATERIAL REGULATIONS Update
ASBESTOS MATERIAL REGULATIONS, OSHA
ASBESTOS PHOTO GUIDE to Materials
ASBESTOS REMOVAL, Amateur, Incomplete
Asbestos Removal, Certification
ASBESTOS REMOVAL, Wetting Guidelines
ASBESTOS RISK ASSESSMENT
Asbestos Under the Microscope
ATTIC LEAKS, CONDENSATION & MOLD
BASEMENT HEAT LOSS
BUCKLED FOUNDATIONS due to INSULATION?
BUILDING NOISE DIAGNOSIS & CURE
CATHEDRAL CEILING INSULATION
CEILING FINISHES INTERIOR
CEILINGS, DROP or SUSPENDED PANEL
CEILINGS, PLASTER TYPES
CERAMIC TILE FLOOR, WALL
CERAMIC TILE, ASBESTOS in?
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
CHINESE DRYWALL HAZARDS
DEW POINT CALCULATION for WALLS
EFFLORESCENCE, Salts & White / Brown Deposits
FIBERGLASS INSULATION MOLD
FLOOR TILE HISTORY & INGREDIENTS
FLOOR TILES ASBESTOS
FLOOR TYPES & DEFECTS
HEAT LOSS in BUILDINGS
HOUSE DOCTOR, how-to be
HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET
ICE DAM PREVENTION
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT GUIDE
INSULATION FACT SHEET- DOE
INSULATION IDENTIFICATION GUIDE
INSULATION R-Values & Properties
METAL LATH, PLASTER & STUCCO
METHANE GAS SOURCES
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
MOLD: A COMPLETE GUIDE TO MOLD
Museum Artifact Preservation
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS & SMELLS DIAGNOSIS & CURE
PAINT FALURE, DIAGNOSIS, CURE, PREVENTION
PLASTER & BEAVERBOARD & DRYWALL
PLASTER BULGES & PILLOWS
PLASTER LATH, METAL
PLASTER, LOOSE FALL HAZARDS
PLASTER TYPE IDENTIFICATION
PLASTER VENEER Best Practices
ROOF VENTILATION SPECIFICATIONS
SAFETY HAZARDS & INSPECTIONS
SEARS KIT HOUSES
SOUND CONTROL in buildings
Splits in Structural Wood Beams
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS
STUCCO WALL METHODS & INSTALLATION
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE PROBING
SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS
Thermal Expansion Cracking of Brick
THERMAL EXPANSION of MATERIALS
THERMAL IMAGING, THERMOGRAPHY
THERMAL MASS in BUILDINGS
THERMAL TRACKING Indicates Heat Loss
VAPOR BARRIERS & CONDENSATION in BUILDINGS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
VINYL CHLORIDE HEALTH INFO
Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs
WALL CONSTRUCTION BARRIER vs CAVITY
WATER ENTRY in buildings
WINDOWS & DOORS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
WOOD Burning Heaters Fireplaces Stoves
World Trade Center Collapse Dust Photos
Asbestos Bans, Rules, Regulations Guide: this article describes current asbestos exposure & handling regulations and lists the history of asbestos law and regulations for most countries. We include a list of countries where asbestos containing materials or products (ACM) are banned in various forms. We provide a summary of OSHA regulations for asbestos containing building materials, including assumed asbestos containing building materials (roofing, flooring, insulation, drywall, etc), suspected asbestos containing materials, and assumed asbestos containing materials. We address the handling of asbestos containing building materials, including the permissible exposure limits for asbestos particles or fibers in buildings (Asbestos PELs), ACM (asbestos containing materials), PACM (presumed asbestos containing materials), SACM (suspect asbestos containing materials), and ACRM (asbestos containing roofing materials). Also see ASBESTOS REGULATION Update where we include more recent asbestos regulations for the U.S. and other countries. That article clarifies just what products are currently permitted or not permitted to contain asbestos.
Green links show where you are. © Copyright 2013 InspectAPedia.com, All Rights Reserved. Author Daniel Friedman.
This article provides:
Photo above left: presumed-asbestos-containing material (PACM) acoustic ceiling tiles found above a suspended ceiling.
History & Dates of Asbestos Containing Material Bans & Regulations & Related Occupational Safety Regulatory History
Australian, New Zealand, & Japan Regulation of Asbestos Containing Products
According to the Government of South Australia SafeWork SA,
According to Australian contractor Bill Bradley, referring to Fibro asbestos-cement roofing, "Only cement sheet products made before 1987 contain the deadly stuff. In NSW, for example, the use of it was discontinued in cement sheets by 1982, in corrugated sheets by 1984 and in all other products by 1986. Products containing it have been totally banned in Australia since 2004."
In Japan asbestos production peaked in 1974 but did not significantly drop before 1990. - citation needed beyond Wikipedia
New Zealand banned the import of amphibole asbestos in 1984, and banned chrysotile asbestos in 2002
List of Countries Banning All Asbestos Use & Production as of 2005
List of Countries Banning Asbestos Use but Permitting Small Production or Trade in ACM
List of Countries that Ratified the 1986 ILO 162 Rules on Asbestos Safety in the Workplace
Definition of & Handling Rules for Suspect Asbestos Containing Materials (SACM) & Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials (PACM)
The term suspect ACM or SACM (Suspected Asbestos Containing Material) does not appear in either of the OSHA standards. The term, however, has long been used by the asbestos industry to refer to any building material that is suspected of being asbestos-containing (based on appearance, usage, age of building, etc.), but has not been proven conclusively to be ACM (asbestos containing material) (based on sampling and analysis, documentation, building records, etc).
For OSHA’s purposes, suspect material would include any material (including TSI, surfacing, and flooring) that a building owner suspects of containing asbestos and is found in a building constructed after 1980, or any material (excepting TSI, surfacing, and flooring) found in a building constructed prior to 1981.
Other typical suspect building materials would include ceiling tiles, asbestos-cement products (Transite®), and joint compound. The exercise of due diligence (as noted in the OSHA asbestos standards) requires that, where a building owner knows or should have known that materials other than PACM (presumed asbestos containing material) are asbestos-containing, these materials must be treated as ACM until proven otherwise.
This makes sense especially for building products for which a non-asbestos-containing-form was not ever produced, or was not produced during certain years. It is on this basis that we assert that it is possible to identify some asbestos-containing materials with confidence, even before any asbestos lab tests.
For examples of PACM (presumed asbestos containing materials), see:
A building constructed prior to 1981, therefore, could contain both PACM and suspect ACM. Newer buildings (constructed after 1980) would contain only suspect ACM.
Asbestos regulations for Ontario are published under the Occupational Health and Safety Act and are in Ontario Regulation 278/05 and provide a clearly-written and comprehensive guide to cleaning up and disposing of asbestos containing materials in or on buildings.
Beginning in 1986 OSHA set a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 0.2 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc) of air over an 8-hour time-weighted average exposure period. OSHA also set an action level of 0.1 f/cc of asbestos for an 8-hour TWA average, and (the highest permitted short term asbestos fiber exposure) 1.0 f/cc "excursion limit" for a 30-minute time period.
Thanks to reader Thomas Sukeforth for pointing out a 1994 summary of changes made to the OSHA Asbestos Construction standard and for suggesting a discussion of PACM (below).
Presumed Asbestos Containing Material (PACM) as OSHA defines it refers to thermal insulation and surfacing materials prior to 1980 but within the regulation they also mention that flooring (tile & sheet) and roofing materials shall also be deemed as asbestos containing unless sampled and shown otherwise.
For presumed asbestos-containing materials, there are two courses of action (under OSHA's standards):
According to CIH Kindley,
For our complete guide to recognizing asbestos-containing materials in buildings see the individual asbestos-containing products described at ASBESTOS IDENTIFICATION IN BUILDINGS. Two other articles provide longer lists of asbestos-containing products used on or in buildings and in other products as well:
Following are references to some common asbestos-containing building materials discussed in that article series.
Asbestos in Flooring Materials
Asbestos in Roofing Materials
According to NRCA, the National Roofing Contractors' Association, their studies up to February 1992 had not found a single roofing job at which these limits were exceeded, and NRCA reported that in some cases no fiber release was detected.
But it appears that the association may have been referring only to asphalt-based roofing materials, not jobs involving the demolition of other ACRM such as cement-asbestos roof shingles (or "asbestos roof tiles" as some consumers refer to them) which might produce different statistics.
Asbestos in Heating Systems
Asbestos in Siding Materials
For handling and disposal guidance concerning old roofing material, siding material, vinyl-asbestos floor tiles, asbestos pipe or boiler or furnace insulation, or other asbestos containing or suspect asbestos containing materials at a job-site, contact the US EPA, your state Department of Environmental Protection/Conservation, or your local building and health departments.
At OSHA Asbestos Roof/Siding Regulations we discuss (briefly) the regulation of demolition & removal of cement asbestos or other asbestos containing roofing and siding materials.
At Asbestos Roofing Materials we discuss environmental issues surrounding disposal of fiber cement roofing products that contain asbestos.
Asbestos regulations for Ontario are published under the Occupational Health and Safety Act and are in Ontario Regulation 278/05 also found at http://www.e-laws.gov.on.ca/html/regs/english/elaws_regs_050278_e.htm
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Questions & answers or comments about asbestos building material regulations, standards, & codes.
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Technical Reviewers & References
Related Topics, found near the top of this page suggest articles closely related to this one.