Water Softener Resin Replacement How to install or replace resin in a water softener
WATER SOFTENER RESIN REPLACE - CONTENTS: How to replace the resin media in a water softener treatment tank. Water softener media life, contaminants, cleaning, & replacement sources: where to buy water softener resin media & other parts needed to replace the media in a water conditioner.
Water Softener Treatment Tank Resin Replacement Procedure
Reader Question: how to replace the resin media inside of a water softener
8/31/14 Ron Fix It Man said:
My softener is 13 years old and I have read the resin becomes ineffective in about that life time. Iron out has been used with little benefit. Effectiveness of the softener has declined unless greater amounts of salt per cycle are used.
Troubleshooting reveals no improper cycle operation. Is it true the resin has a limited life? Can it be restored, say with a wash of dilute muriatic acid? If not, where can it be purchased?
Reply: procedure to replace water softener treatment tank resin media
Indeed it is possible to replace the resin in a water softener.
Water softener resin can last for 20 years or even longer, but may have a shorter life depending on the chemistry of the water being processed in the water softener. Some of the sources we reviewed give the view that chlorinated municipal water can cause water softener resin beads to deteriorate while others focused on iron contamination or even algae growth that could not be flushed from the resin tank. Another common water softener resin tank contaminant is sand or debris entering the softener from sediment-containing well water.
Water softener resin that has been fouled by iron or by organic growth such as algae can often be cleaned by treating the resin tank with a resin cleaner (Iron-out, ResUp, Bleach treatments - WELL CHLORINATION & DISINFECTION ) sold by your manufacturer or by separate water softener rehab suppliers (some are listed below in this article).
I would contact the manufacturer of the brand of water softener you already own to obtain an installation an maintenance manual if you don't already have one. That should show how to open the tank, replace the resin media (typical cost for the resin is around $100 U.S. from third party suppliers but I'd prefer to use what the manufacturer provides).
At the same time you might find that there are controls that need repair or rebuilding such as replacing O-rings, check valves, or other controls. It makes sense to do these repairs at the same time.
Watch out: Before replacing the resin in the water softener I'd want to be sure that the unit is otherwise operating properly. A very simple check would be to inspect for SNAFUs such as those we discuss in this article series (such as improper brine tank operation, sticking brine tank float, or other causes of not-softening). If on the other hand you don't see a proper water volume entering and leaving the brine tank then the problem is probably there, not with the resin.
Then run the water softener through a regen cycle, observe that water does enter the brine tank, that salty water does backwash through the water softener and out through its drain. Confirm that your softener is using the proper salt dose by measuring incoming water hardness.
Then measure the hardness of treated water after a water softener regeneration cycle. If the unit is indeed not softening the water then media replacement may be in order. You'll need between .6 cu. ft. and about 2 cu. ft. depending on the volume or size of your water softener treatment tank.
Illustrated Guide to Installing Gravel and/or Resin into the Resin Tank of a Water Softener
Prepare the Resin Tank to Insert Gravel & Resin - using a Pentair Fleck 5800 LXT Downflow/Upflow water softener as example
Photos above: a fiberglass (Vertex poly-glass 13x54-inch resin tank #65018 with central tub) water softener resin tank as delivered new, empty.
You can see the water softener distribution basket, a simple plastic filter screen on the bottom end of the water softener resin tank distribution riser pipe - this is the water pick-up tube that will be inserted into the resin tank. More about distribution riser pipes and how they may need replacement is found at WATER SOFTENER RESIN LOSS
This resin tank will be assembled with a Fleck water softener control valve head #V5800MEDS SPEC# 5816-01LXTB34. The control head uses an electronic timer (LXT-DC) for a "System 4 Meter" that operates on 12VDC via a voltage power adapter. The Brine valve is #1600, Injector size 1, meter size 3/4" turbine.
The second photo above shows the tube inserted into the resin tank. The open end of this tube will be connected to the softener control valve in the head of the water softener.
The quantity of resin required for the resin tank of a water softener depends on the tank size and is specified by the manufacturer [below].
Preparation of Gravel Media for Water Resin Tank Base
But first the tank needs to be filled with a layer of filtering gravel material in the tank bottom and then with the manufacturer's specified quantity of water softener resin.
Below: first gravel is washed thoroughly before it is inserted into the bottom of the water softener resin tank. The gravel acts as a filter to prevent loss of water softener resin beads.
The size of this smooth gravel placed into the bottom of the water softener resin tank ranges from about 5mm to 1cm. It was placed to a depth of about 1 1/2 feet, covering the distribution basket and lower portion of the distribution riser pipe.
Below: we're using a plastic bottle fit over the taped end of the resin tank riser pipe to funnel first gravel, then resin, into the softener tank.
Properties of Water Softener Resin
Below: our softener required three cubic feet of Purolite water softener resin beads.
Below for the scientifically-curious reader we show close-up photographs of Purolite® water softener resin beads. You can see that the resin particles vary in size but are about 0.4 to 1mm in diameter.
Watch out: Spilling these water softener resin beads on a walking surface will make it about as slippery as wet algae, with a very low static coefficient of friction (SCOF). What that means for normal people is if you step in this stuff you will fall on your you-know-what.
As we were working on a high (flat) rooftop in San Miguel de Allende, and as I didn't want to have to visit the mothers of the other workers to explain why they fell off of the rooftop, we took great care to sweep up any spillage immediately and very thoroughly.
Commonsense Precautions to Observe when Handling Water Softener Resin
Here is the Purolite® MSDS for Water Softener Resin Beads, [PDF] used for ion exchange, adsorbent, and/or Catalyst, Purolite® C100, Purolite
150 Monument Road
Bala Cynwyd, PA 19004 USA
Tel:+1 610 668 9090, Manufacturer: Purolite S.R.L.
Str.Aleea Uzinei nr.11,
Romania, and Purolite (China) Co. Limited
Qianlong Economic Development Zone,
Qianyuan Town, Deqing County,
Huzhou City, Zhejiang, China 313216.
The MSDS for these water softener resin beads indicates that "The mixture does not meet the criteria for classification." and also suggests Observe good industrial hygiene practices. Use personal protective
equipment as required. and also Wash hands after handling.Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.
Inhalation - Move into fresh air and keep at rest. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues.
Skin contact - Wash off immediately with soap and plenty of water. If irritation persists get medical attention.
Eye contact -
-Immediately flush with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes. If easy to do, remove contact lenses. If eye irritation persists, get medical advice/attention.
- Rinse mouth thoroughly. Never give liquid to an unconscious person. Do not induce vomiting. If vomiting occurs, the head should be kept low so that stomach vomit doesn't enter the lungs. Get medical attention if any discomfort continues.
Most important symptoms and effects, both acute and delayed - Eye contact: Contact may cause irritation with redness, tearing, pain, and/or blurred vision.
General information - If you feel unwell, seek medical advice (show the label where possible). Ensure that medical personnel are aware of the material(s) involved, and take precautions to protect themselves.
Install the Water Softener Control Head When Resin Tank is Filled
Below: an under-side view of the Fleck water softener control valve head.
When the resin tank has had its gravel and resin installed, the control head is re-connected to the tank.
Watch out: when replacing the softener control head by re-connecting it to the water softener body, Fleck warns [with minor edits for clarity]
DO NOT exceed 15 ft-lbs (foot pounds) of torque when installing the water softener control head to the resin tank body.
Exceeding this torque limit may damage the threads and cause water softener failure (and leaks).
Spin the valve onto the tank making sure that the threads are not cross-threaded, then rotate the valve freely without using force until it comes to a stop. (This position is considered "zero").
Then rotate the valve clockwise from "zero" to between 1/4 turn and 1/2 turn. STOP THERE.
At WATER SOFTENER RESIN LOSS we give additional details about the procedure for assembling the control head to the resin tank body.
Adjust the Water Softener Controls After Refilling Resin Tank
Below: the Fleck or Pentair water softener control head has been installed and is connected to the building water supply piping. The bypass valve on the water softener is set to SERVICE. As this is a new water softener installation (with new resin in the resin tank), the installer will need to set the water softener program or controls.
Watch out: At a new water softener installation or after sanitizing a water softener brine tank, you may need to run a regeneration cycle with an empty brine tank to be sure that you've flushed out debris in the system. Failure to adequately wash gravel installed in the base of a water softener resin tank or failure to flush out debris that is generated normally by plumbing work on a building can cause downstream sediment or charcoal filters to clog up very rapidly.
Before the first water softener regen cycle the softener must be programmed with proper salt dose and regeneration frequency. The specific parameters that must be set on a water softener control or timer will vary significantly among water softener models. Simple models simply set a salt dose and regen frequency while more sophisticated water softener controllers will want to be told the hardness of the water softener and the size or capacity of the resin tank.
Place Salt into the Water Softener Brine Tank
Below: A view into the empty salt or brine tank of the new water softener. You can see the covered-over brine tank float tube in the left side of the picture and the white salt screen at the bottom of the brine tank. The salt screen permits any soil mixed in with your salt to settle below the screen.
Our second photo (above) shows our initial installation of salt pellets into the brine tank. One 80 lb bag of salt (32.6 kilos) was enough to put the water softener into operation; later we filled the salt tank to near its top with salt pellets.
Below: the Pentair Water Systems - Fleck water softener control valve head display showing the remaining water capacity before the unit will need to run a regeneration cycle.
The softening capacity in liters (or gallons) depends on the supply water hardness, the resin tank size, and the volume of water usage. Our water softener was labeled Pentair, from Water Quality Systems, 5730 North Glen Park Road, Milwaukee WI 53209 USA, Tel: 262-238-4400, Waterpurification.pentair.com.
However the control head and manual label the equipment as by Fleck water softeners, adding to the usual confusion about identifying water softener brands and finding their manuals. WATER CONDITIONER / SOFTENER MANUALS provides free manuals and contact information for nearly all water softener or water conditioner brands.
Run First Softener Regeneration Cycle
Once the water softener is programmed, the brine tank full and you've checked to confirm that it is in SERVICE mode (see FLECK or PENTAIR WATER SOFTENER BYPASS VALVE) and that there are no plumbing leaks, run a first cycle or manual regeneration cycle.
Summary of 13 Steps To Replace the Water Softener Tank Resin
Put the building water supply on bypass to assure that water will remain available while the water softener is offline.
Watch out: I would not begin the disassembly of a water softener tank for resin replacement without first being sure I could leave the building with a working water supply - by installing bypass controls on water piping at the softener location if necessary
Watch out: I would also want to have on hand any replacement parts I'm likely to need such as the softener tank bottom water distributor and riser tube, O-rings, gaskets and seals. Having those parts ready not only speeds the softener resin replacement job itself, avoiding delays waiting for parts, it also reduces the risk that you think the job is done only to find that your re-charged water softener is leaking now that it has been re-assembled.
Disconnect the water softener from any electrical power supply
Remove the controls and softener head: the control valve or head needs to be removed from the water softener treatment tank.
Flush out / vacuum out the old water softener resin. Smaller water softener tanks may be tipped over and flushed out, or you may need to use a wet-dry shop vac to remove the resin from the tank.
Watch out: Check the level of resin in the water softener tank before you remove the old resin. You'll probably see that it fills the softener tank to about 1/3 from the tank top - a detail you'll use in calculating the amount of replacement water softener resin required.
Notice that some water softeners may include a sanitary gravel bed on the tank bottom that also needs to be cleaned or replaced.
Replace the water softener internal water distributor and riser tube (that's why I said to first check with your softener manufacturer for parts supply and to have these on hand)
Pour the new resin into the softener treatment tank up to the same level that you found resin before emptying the tank, or as your manufacturer directs for your softener model and size. You can measure the tank size to estimate the necessary volume.
Vcyl = pi x r2 x h
where pi = 3.1416,
r = the radius of the circle formed by the cylinder (inside of the softener treatment tank), and is simply 1/2 of the tank's inside diameter
h = the height of the cylinder of space inside the softener
Watch out! be sure to write the radius and height in the same units of measure - we use inches.
Note: the water softener resin tank is not filled with resin right to the top of the tank. Entering water needs space to mix with and interact (exchange ions with) the resin beads. Taller water softener tanks (over 40") are filled to about 60% while shorter water softener tanks may be filled to about 80% of their internal volume capacity.
Reassemble the water conditioner treatment tank, including the new O-rings and seals that fit your tank as we suggested earlier.
Run the water softener through an extra regeneration cycle
Test and compare the water hardness levels before and after the water has passed through the water softener.
Check / set the water conditioner control settings: check that you have set the proper regeneration cycle frequency and salt dose for the hardness of your water and the typical daily water volume used. See SOFTENER ADJUSTMENT & CONTROLS
Restore the water softener to operation
Check for leaks
Sources of water softener tank resin to replace original material
Typical water softener resin is sold in bead-form, as a conventional gel polystyrene sulfonate cation exchange resin that is ready for use in household or industrial water conditioning equipment such as a water softener or water conditioner. The resin should meet the specifications of your water softener manufacturer, and/or the U. S. Food and Drugs Code of the Federal Regulations section 21 paragraph 173.25.
Contact your water softener manufacturer, since as we note: there may be other parts that you also want to replace at the same time: the riser tube inside the treatment tank, O-rings, Seals, Gaskets and possibly check valves
APS Water: water softener resin beads, APS Water Services Co., 7320 Valjean Ave., Lake Balboa CA 91406, USA, Tel: U.S. 800-460-9011, Website: http://www.apswater.com/ Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
DOW HCR-SS Water Softener Resin, DOWEX™ HCR-S/S cation exchange resin
PurOLite Ion Exchange Resins, Purolite Water Softener Resin, 8% Crosslink - this is the water softener resin product used in our illustrations above.
Res-Kem General Water, Aston, PA Location
2 New Road
Aston, PA 19014
USA, Phone: 800-323-1983, Website: http://www.reskem.com, Email: email@example.com
Sears Water Softener Resin Cleaner, an iron-removing chemical treatment available from Sears and sold through Sears Distributors. Sears Item# 04234427000 | Model# 34427 Website: http://www.sears.com
Online sales stores such as Amazon
Diagnose & Fix Water Softener Problems: this article series describes procedures for diagnosing and repairing water softener or water conditioner problems including water conditioner control settings and adjustment or repair, brine tank and brine tank float cleaning and repair, and the proper amount of water softening or conditioning that is needed.
Reader Question: life of Culligan Mark 10 water softener resin
(Feb 17, 2013) Eric said:
I have a Culligan Mark 10 system and the Culligan folks came out to inspect what I think is a failing valve. Sure enough they concluded that the valve is failing, but they did their typical sales thing and offered to: replace the valve with modern technology and keep the resin tank in place, re-resin the tank, and flush the brine tank.
What is the life of resin? The Culligan guy said "15-20 years maximum". The system has now been unplugged for 3 weeks while we consider these options - does it take much to just start this back up if I go buy my own valve and install it?
If your water softener has been out of service for some time or is old, it would be appropriate to sanitize the unit - see SOFTENER CLEANING & SANITIZING for that procedure.
The life of water softener resins is indeed limited and I agree with your Cullligan representative. But you might want to take a look at
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Question: water softener is clogging my washing machine screen with yellow stuff
7/19/2014 (4 hours ago) james lavalley email is firstname.lastname@example.org said:
I have a performa water sofner. It keeps pluging up my washing machine screen with a
yellow substance and makes the washer not fill. Please help
This sounds as if the water softener is sending debris from the brine tank OR more likely the actual resin from the softener out with the house water supply. You could try emptying and sanitizing the brine tank (articles here describe how to do that).
But I suspect it's a resin problem - which means it's time to call your local water conditioner company to take a look at the equipment. If the water softener discharge tube basket is broken then it may be allowing resin to escape from the water softener.
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 North Dakota Standards for Water Softeners, North Dakota General Authority Law, Chapter 62-04-08, Water Softener Units http://www.legis.nd.gov/information/acdata/pdf/62-04-08.pdf. "The objective of this chapter is to provide a standard of quality, capacity,
and performance for water softener units. Water softener performance
is to be based upon referee tests procedures described in section
 Culligan Mark 10 Water Softener 1994-1998 Installation and Operating Instructions (covering models manufactured after 1995) (1-96) 01881948.pdf available from www.culligan.com
 Water Softeners, CMHC, Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, cmhc-schl.gc.ca/en/co/maho/wawa/wawa_005.cfm - October 2008. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation acknowledges the contribution of Health Canada to the development of this document. For further questions regarding water treatment and water quality, contact Health Canada at email@example.com or call 613-957-2991 or 1-866-225-0709.
 "Commercial Water Softener Installation and Operating Instructions", IBC Filtration & Water Treatment Products (Australia) for commercial, industrial and residential application www.ibcwater.com.au (07) 3219 2233
 "Non electric water softener,
Installation and Operating Instructions", IBC Filtration & Water Treatment Products (Australia), op.cit.
 "Water Softener Twin Tank Installation and Operating Instructions", IBC Filtration & Water Treatment Products (Australia), op.cit.
 Our Water Hardness Table used at originated with but was edited and added to from http://www.bestfish.com/tips/110598.html and also from http://www.water-research.net/hardness.htm
 Thanks to reader Gail Sanchez for discussing water softener backups and floods after an electrical outage - August 2010
 Water Right, 1900 Prospect Court
Appleton, Wisconsin 54914, Tel: 920-739-9401, Website: http://www.water-right.com/ and their water softener manuals are available online at http://www.water-right.com/library/literature/literature_manuals.html
 General Electric Corporation, Operation Manual, 740/760 [Water Conditioner or Water Softener] Control, 255 and Performa Series Valves, (268, 268 FA), General Electric Corp. 2007
Builder's Guide to Wells and Septic Systems, Woodson, R. Dodge: $ 24.95; MCGRAW HILL B; TP;
Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. This comprehensive guide filled with case studies can prevent that. Master plumber R. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction. Chapters cover virtually every aspect of wells and septic systems, including on-site evaluations; site limitations; bidding; soil studies, septic designs, and code-related issues; drilled and dug wells, gravel and pipe, chamber-type, and gravity septic systems; pump stations; common problems with well installation; and remedies for poor septic situations. Woodson also discusses ways to increase profits by avoiding cost overruns.
Country Plumbing: Living with a Septic System, Hartigan, Gerry: $ 9.95; ALAN C HOOD & TP;
Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. But it was written in the early 1980s. A lot has changed since then. In particular, the book doesn't cover any of the newer systems that are used more and more nowadays in some parts of the country -- sand mounds, aeration systems, lagoons, etc.
"International Private Sewage Disposal Code," 1995, BOCA-708-799-2300, ICBO-310-699-0541, SBCCI 205-591-1853, available from those code associations.
"Manual of Policy, Procedures, and Guidelines for Onsite Sewage Systems," Ontario Reg. 374/81, Part VII of the Environmental
Protection Act (Canada), ISBN 0-7743-7303-2, Ministry of the Environment,135 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto Ontario M4V 1P5 Canada $24. CDN.
Manual of Septic Tank Practice, US Public Health Service's 1959.
Builder's Greywater Guide, Art Ludwig; Buy New: $10.17. Installation of Greywater Systems in New Construction & Remodeling; A Supplement to the Book "Create an Oasis With Greywater" (Paperback).
Quoting a review from Amazon: I recommend that you get the 3 companion books on greywater treatment "Create an Oasis", "Branched Drain Greywater Systems" and "Builder's Greywater Guide". The information in these volumes will keep most of us far more informed than most of the regulators, the system builders, and the experts-in-theory. These volumes are real-world gems.
Art Ludwig has cut to the core of wastewater issues. He's obviously done all of his homework, mulled-over the variables, and come up with a common sense, economically reasonable, environmentally responsible approach to wastewater. I expect to save money that I would have spent on a post-septic tank, aerobic unit that would seemingly have been ecologically responsible; but because of the technological overkill, ultimately that system would have defeated my altruistic environmental concerns.
... These books talk the talk and walk the walk better than anything else that I've seen. Buy a set for yourself, a set for your neighbors, and a set for the regulators.
The Toilet Papers: Designs to Recycle Human Waste and Water : Dry Toilets, Greywater Systems and Urban Sewage (Paperback) Sim Van Der Ryn, Wendell Berry; Quoting from an Amazon review: With a title like "Toilet Papers" and from a distinguished eco-architect like Sim Van der Ryn, I needed no intro or review to buy a copy of this little, but well researched historical over-view of effluent mitigation and current eco-friendly toilet design.
This book is filled with good line drawings and photographs to depict everything from the historical perspective to the current dry toilets and their construction..
Quality issues in harvested rainwater in arid and semi-arid Loess Plateau of northern China,
K. Zhu, L. Zhang, W. Hart, M. Liu, H. Chen (out of print, find by search and deferred order).
Amazon's description may be helpful: Loess soils cover vast areas in the arid and semi-arid regions of northern China. Due to the lack of reliable surface water and ground-water, rainwater harvesting has played a prominent role in farmers' domestic usage and agricultural irrigation. An economical and valid type of water storage cistern with optimum design of components has been introduced to rural areas in the Loess Plateau. Different collection alternatives showed apparent variations in rainwater quality. By using different catchments, such as mortar roofs and cement-paved courtyards, compacted land or road surfaces, rainwater can be effectively collected for storage in cisterns. This study focused mainly on the quality of rainwater harvested from the different catchment systems and stored for different periods of time. By analysis of the water samples stored in these cisterns, it was evident that rainwater quality could be improved significantly by self-purification during the storage. With emphasis on rainwater quality affected by the
different catchment systems, it was found that the measured inorganic compounds in the rainwater harvested from roof-yard catchment systems generally matched the WHO standards for drinking water, while the concentrations of some inorganic compounds in the rainwater collected from land and road surfaces appeared to be higher than the guideline values for drinking water, but generally not beyond the maximum permissible concentrations. However, Fecal Coliform, which is an important bacteriological parameter for the three catchment systems, exceeded the limits of drinking water to a greater extend. Trace amounts of 55 organic pollutants were identified, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds and phthalate esters, etc. The analytical results indicated that roof-yard catchments that included the ''first flush'' usually provided safe drinking water with low organic contents, even for rainwater collected immediately after rainfall. In contrast, rainwater harvested from road surfaces had poor quality
with respect to the organic constituents, regardless of stored time.
City eying home water-recycling technology; uses bath and washer water for irrigation., (ReWater Systems' equipment for greywater irrigation):
This is an article from: San Diego Business Journal [HTML] (Digital) available online in digital format. I have not (yet) reviewed it -- DF
Onsite Wastewater Disposal, R. J. Perkins;
Quoting from Amazon: This practical book, co-published with the National Environmental Health Association,
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Valuable in matching the septic system to the site-specific conditions, this useful book will help you install a reliable system in
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consulting engineers, architects, homeowners, academics, and land developers will find this publication valuable.
Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems, Bennette D. Burks, Mary Margaret Minnis, Hogarth House 1994 - one of the best septic system books around, suffering a bit from small fonts and a weak index. (DF volunteers to serve as indexer if Burks/Minnis re-publish this very useful volume.)While it contains some material more technical than needed by homeowners, Burks/Minnis book on onsite wastewater treatment systems a very useful reference
for both property owners and septic system designers. We refer to it often.
While Minnis says the best place to buy this book is at Amazon (our link at left), you can also see this book at Minnis' website at http://web page .pace.edu/MMinnisbook
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems: How to Operate & Maintain [ copy on file as /septic/Septic_Operation_USDA.pdf ] - , Equipment Tips, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 8271 1302, 7100 Engineering, 2300 Recreation, September 1982, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfimage/82711302.pdf
Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook, R. Dodge Woodson. This book is in the upper price range, but is worth the cost for serious septic installers and designers.
Quoting Amazon: Each year, thousands upon thousands of Americans install water wells and septic systems on their properties. But with a maze of codes governing their use along with a host of design requirements that ensure their functionality where can someone turn for comprehensive, one-stop guidance? Enter the Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook from McGraw-Hill.
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* New International Private Sewage Disposal Code
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Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan, $ 18.95; Tab Books 1992. We have found this text very useful for conventional well and septic systems design and maintenance --DF.
Quoting an Amazon description:Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements. He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites.
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