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AGE of WATER HEATERS
APPLIANCE DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
AQUASTAT CONTROL Functions
BACKFLOW PREVENTER, HEATER WATER FEEDER
DRAIN a WATER HEATER TANK
ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
FLOODED WATER HEATER REPAIR
GAS FIRED WATER HEATERS
HOT WATER EXPANSION TANKS
HOT WATER SUPPLY
HOT WATER IMPROVEMENTS
HOT WATER DELIVERY SPEED UP
INDIRECT FIRED WATER HEATERS
MANUALS & PARTS GUIDES - HVAC
MIXING / ANTI-SCALD VALVES
NO HEAT - NO HOT WATER: HEATER DIAGNOSIS
NOISE, WATER HEATER
RELIEF VALVE, WATER HEATER
SOLAR HOT WATER HEATERS
TANKLESS WATER HEATERS
THERMOSTATS, WATER HEATER
TIMERS for ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
WATER HEATER ALTERNATIVES
WATER HEATER ANODES, DIP TUBES
WATER HEATER AIR INLET
WATER HEATER DEBRIS FLUSH
WATER HEATER DRAIN PROCEDURE
WATER HEATER EFFICIENCY
WATER HEATER FLUSH PROCEDURE
WATER HEATER NOISE DIAGNOSIS, CURE
WATER HEATER PROBLEM DIAGNOSIS
WATER HEATER COMPARISONS, PROPERTIES
WATER HEATER SCALE
WATER HEATER SAFETY
WATER HEATERS for HOME HEATING USE?
WATER ODORS, CAUSE CURE
WATER PIPES, Clogs Leaks Types
WATER PRESSURE TOO HIGH: DANGERS
WATER PRESSURE LOSS DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
WATER SOFTENERS & CONDITIONERS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
Hot water temperature code, laws & regulations listed by authority, country, state or province.
This article gives the allowable limits set on hot water temperatures for hot water used in buildings and compares regulations in various countries. For the U.S. we also include code citations and temperature limits by individual U.S. state.
Most other countries provide a single hot water temperature limit for water provided at plumbing fixtures and a separate hot water maintenance level for temperatures within the water heater itself.
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Also use your browser's on-page search function [ Ctrl-F ] to search for a country or U.S. state in the data below.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has pointed out a different set of hot water or thermal shock water temperature hazards as well as cold water thermal shock hazards. Quoting:
Reader Question: is it legal to have showers with no hot water temperature adjustment?
I want to know if it is legal to have showers with no way to adjust the temperature of the water. I hope you are unbiased. [At our facilities] our showers only have hot water coming out. I have RSD and my legs are extremely sensitive to hot and cold, and I can't even stand the mist if I stand back from the shower spray. Is there any law that says you have to be able to lower temps of hot water? I would think by now that there could be built in temp adjustments so there would be no handles to break. Thank you for any help you can provide.
Thank you for the question , it helps us realize where we need to work on making our text more clear or more complete. We must emphasize that an onsite inspection by a competent investigator will certainly find conditions and clues that may not yet have been observed nor reported, so any advice by remote email is of necessity incomplete and a bit theoretical.
For example, if the water coming out of showers is hotter than recommended by various safety standards that would be improper. I'm not sure I can say what's legal since rules that pertain to various types of public shower facilities management may be different, but it seems reasonable to me that you could expect basic safety and health standards to apply. That apology made, here are some comments:
There are several types of automatic mixing valves that are designed to be installed on hot water supplies or right at bath fixtures (like a shower) that can be set to a particular temperature - as a safety device to avoid scalding. See the article above for a table of temperatures that suggest what hot water temperature is considered "too hot" or at risk of scalding someone.
In my OPINION, where manual adjustments to shower temperature are not provided, an automatic anti-scalding device should be in place and should be set to a safe temperature. The highest temperature permissible that will reliably avoid scalding is 100 degF.
So start by making some actual temperature measurements, documenting the temp range and the temp variation (if it does) at different times of the day.
Regarding your question of "is it legal" to have no shower temperature control, see the various codes and laws summarized in our table above
Plumbing & Safety Standards for Hot Water
There are plumbing and safety standards that may apply to shower hot water temperature regulation, such as
Please keep me posted on how things progress, What we both learn may help me help someone else.
As for your hope that our reply would be unbiased, InspectAPedia is an independent publisher of building, environmental, and forensic inspection, diagnosis, and repair information for the public - we have no business nor financial connection with any manufacturer or service provider discussed at our website. We are dedicated to making our information as accurate, complete, useful, and unbiased as possible: we very much welcome critique, questions, or content suggestions for our web articles.
Legionella Bacteria & Legionnaires' disease hazards in hot water cylinders, geyers, water heater tanks
Watch out: attempts to avoid scalding burn hazards by lowering the maintenance temperature of the water heater itself convey a new hazard: at lower temperatures in water heaters there is a risk of formation of Legionella sp. bacteria. Regarding prevention of Legionella, cf Veterans Administration source in citations at the end of this article.
Details are at Legionella BACTERIA in WATER HEATERS.
Anti-Scald & Hot Water Safety Articles
Continue reading at TABLE OF SCALDING TEMPERATURES & TIMES or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question: scald protection requirements for New York City rental properties
11 March 2014 H.M. asked:
Do you know if you have to have Scald Protection in the shower hardware and rough-ins for a rental property in NYC?
Citing New York City's
Multiple Dwelling Law § 75; Multiple Residence Law§ 170; NYC Admin. Code § 27-2031
Hot Water Landlords must provide all tenants of multiple dwellings with both hot and cold water. Hot water must register at or above a constant temperature of 120 degrees at the tap. If a tub or shower is equipped with an anti-scald valve that prevents the hot water temperature from exceeding 120 degrees, the minimum hot water temperature for that tub or shower is 110 degrees.
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