SEWAGE CLEANUP STANDARDS - CONTENTS: outline of steps recommended for cleaning & disinfecting after a sewage backup; references for published standards & procedures for cleaning buildings where a sewage or wastewater backup or spill has occurred
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Sewer backup or overflow cleanup procedures:
This article provides a list of septic or sewage backup cleaning procedures, recommendations and standards for buildings.
Citing expert sources we describe the key steps in evaluating, cleaning up & disinfecting a building where there has been a sewage spill. We include safety procedures as well as explanatory details. We include a list of sewage spill cleanup guidelines & standards articles in PDF format near the end of this article.
Read first: SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO where we give the first-response priorities & steps in a sewage spill or leak response.
There we list immediate actions including determining if the sewage spill area is safe to enter, steps to stop flowing sewage and wastewater, and protecting building occupants and contents as well as other damage control steps.
Next read this article. Just below in this article -SEWAGE CLEANUP STANDARDS - we describe in more detail the steps in removing sewage & disinfecting & cleaning a building interior after a sewage backup or spill.
In this article (below) we also include sewage spill cleanup guidelines & standards published by experts.
[Click any image for an enlarged, detailed version]
Advice for Disinfecting & Drying Out a Sewage Contaminated Building
In planning for the clean-up of a sewage contaminated building, there are important considerations that an onsite expert would consider, such as the safety of building entry, health risks to occupants in other building areas, the scope of clean-up work needed, what materials can be salvaged and what items should be discarded, and the protection of other building areas during cleanup, such as a consideration of the ease with which air or dust can move from a contaminated area into the occupied building space.
An appropriate response to sewage spills in a building goes beyond dumping some kitty litter on the ground.
Following other sewage backup cleaning steps given just below we include a source list of documents describing what experts advise at SEWAGE CLEANUP STANDARDS. This article is adapted from those documents.
Watch out: sewage spills contain contaminants that can cause serious illness or disease. Disease causing agents in raw sewage include bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses and can cause serious illnesses including bacterial infections, Tetanus, Hepatitis A, Leptospirosis, infections by Cryptosporidium & Giardia and gastrointestinal diseases. (SEWAGE & SEPTIC CONTAMINANTS)
You should assume that any surface or material touched by sewage is contaminated.
Watch out: Unless you are wearing appropriate safety gear, do not enter confined spaces that have been contaminated with sewage, as toxic,
flammable or asphyxiating or even explosive gases including methane and hydrogen sulfide as well as airborne pathogens may be present.
Steps in an Effective Approach to Cleaning up a Sewage Spill
Immediate response to a sewage spill for safety of building occupants and for damage control are given at SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO. If you have not read that article, do so, then return here. There we discuss building entry hazards such as electrical shock and other immediate risks.
Inspect for scope of sewage backup & contamination: an inspection of the building interior and exterior is required to make sure that the scope of cleanup and disinfection will be adequate following any sewage or plumbing drain backup or leak.
An inspection for mold or other contaminants in the same area, and further cleaning needs should be made at the same time so that you do not have to do the job twice. For upper building areas see MOLD CONTROL, FLOOD RESPONSE and for basements and crawl spaces also see CRAWLSPACE MOLD ADVICE
Decide who is going to perform the clean-up of the sewage spill: yourself or a professional contractor.
Reasons to hire a professional water restoration company:
Your insurance company is paying for the clean-up.
The total area of contamination and scope of work are just too large for you to handle
Sewage spill has been in place for 24-hours or longer
The building HVAC system (air conditioning, forced warm air heating system) has been contaminated
You or building occupants are people at extra risk: asthmatic, elderly, compromised immune system , infants
If you are going to perform the sewage spill cleanup yourself
Do not directly touch sewage material; sewage spill or sewage contaminated materials such as carpets, clothing, furniture that contact bare skin can cause a serious infection
Take extra care that eyes, open cuts or sores or similar high-risk areas do not come in contact with sewage; be sure to keep on eye protection when spraying or washing off items outdoors during salvage operations, as sprayed sewage droplets are unsafe.
Wash your hands frequently; wash and disinfect clothing, gloves, boots that are to be re-used. Effective hand washing requires plenty of soap and at least 30 seconds of active scrubbing.
Watch out: airborne water droplets of sewage contaminated water or cleaning water carry pathogens and are dangerous; Ensure that your vaccinations are up to date for tetanus and diphtheria. Vaccinations are also
available for hepatitis A.
Don't touch fecal waste nor raw sewage with bare hands
Don't breathe or become wet by sewage waters
Do not touch your eyes, nose, ears, nor open cuts or sores when working around sewage
Do not eat, drink, apply lip balm or lipstick (!) and do not chew gum while working with sewage cleanup
If you are accidentally wet by or touch sewage, stop and bathe.
Clean everything: after working on sewage cleanup, change out of your work clothing and bathe; clean all clothing, equipment, tools that come into contact with sewage materials by using an appropriate sanitizer, or if appropriate, discard those materials.
Remove salvageable & non-salvageable contents & furnishings from the affected area.
Remove non-salvageable items for disposal: wet carpets and padding should have been removed and discarded as well as wet upholstered furniture & curtains. (Valuable area rugs may be able to be salvaged by professional cleaning and sanitizing). If walls are covered with plastic or vinyl wallpaper it should be removed as well to speed drying of drywall.
Use plastic bags to collect discarded materials for removal from the property. If available, heavy-duty contractor-grade plastic bags will reduce the risk of tearing or or leaks. If you only have think kitchen garbage bags available, double-bag items for added safety.
Remove, clean, & store salvageable contents: wet contents that can be cleaned (hard-surfaced furniture, dishes, plastic items) should be removed from the sewage backup area and if weather permits, placed outdoors in a sheltered area. If weather or security do not permit that step, place salvageable items on a plastic-covered area of a concrete garage floor or similar area where the risk of cross-contamination of other building areas is minimized and where floor cleaning after salvage will be easy.
Where weather permits, complete cleaning of salvageable materials outdoors.
Be sure that cleaned salvaged items are stored dry and protected from the weather but do not bring them back into the sewage spill area until cleaning in that area and dryout of that area as well as restoration work have been completed. For large sewage spill cleanup projects you may require a clearance inspection and testing before contents are returned to the area as well as before it can be occupied.
Tip: clothing can usually be laundered or dry-cleaned; sheets, towels, blankets and similar bedding may also be salvageable by cleaning;
Tip: take photographs of the sewage spill and of sewage or water-damaged building contents and materials to assist in a later inventory of losses. Photos can be particularly helpful if insured items must be disposed-of quickly as part of damage control for the building.
Prevent cross-contamination: measures to assure that sewage contaminated soil was not tracked into the living area, or appropriate cleaning there if needed and that airborne sewage-contaminated dust (or mold spores) are not blown to other building spaces.
Close doors between the contaminated area and other building rooms
Use 6-mil plastic taped as necessary at open doorways that cannot be closed.
Seal off HVAC air intake or outlet registers for systems that are (wisely) to be left shut down during the cleaning and drying procedure.
Use negative air (fans blowing out through one or more windows) to keep air pressure in the contaminated area lower than in the rest of the building. This step helps prevent sewage-contaminated dust from being blown to other building areas.
Demolition & removal of wastewater-contaminated materials: remove any suspect or contaminated drywall, carpeting, carpet padding, paneling, building insulation or similar materials in the affected area.
Remove & dispose of drywall, baseboard trim, or wall paneling that have been wet by sewage.
Evaluate the porosity of remaining building materials to decide on demolition/disposal vs. cleaning. Quoting from Morey (2007):
Highly porous (permeance factor >10) materials that have been exposed to sewage backflow and have a value that exceeds the cost of restoration such as high-value rugs and carpet, upholstery, and other textiles should be removed and restored off site. Highly porous materials with low cost or replacement value, such as carpet cushion, carpet, cardboard, tackless strip, wicker, and straw, should be removed and discarded as soon as possible. Other materials, such as saturated mattresses and cloth upholstery, regardless of value, cannot be restored and should be discarded. If disposal is necessary, these materials should be bagged in plastic for removal to a proper disposal site.
Semiporous (permeance factor of >1 to 10) materials, including items such as linoleum, vinyl wall covering and upholstery, and hardboard furniture, along with construction materials such as wood, painted drywall, and plaster, should be cleaned, disinfected, or replaced as part of the initial restoration process. If these materials are not removed or properly disinfected, they can become reservoirs for growth of microorganisms.
Nonporous materials (permeance factor ≤1) such as Formica™, linoleum, vinyl, and tile finishing materials can be inspected for subsurface contamination with a nonpenetration moisture meter. Although these materials may be rated as nonporous, they must be evaluated carefully because contamination can migrate from the perimeter and become trapped below the surface. If migration of contamination below the surface has not occurred, these materials may be fully restored. - Morey (2007)
Remove other sewage-contaminated contents: all porous material (cardboard, paper, books cloth) carpeting, carpet padding, upholstered furniture, mattresses, curtains, stuffed animals, wet books and similar items should be discarded. Discard food that has been contaminated or is in the contaminated area. Also discard items for which cleaning, even if technically possible, is not cost-effective - if it costs more to clean it than to replace it, it's trash.
Use plastic bags to collect baggable demolition materials for removal from the property.
Watch out: carpeting warning: while we frequently hear from readers whose building owner or cleaning company promise to "sanitize" wall to wall carpets that have been left in place, typically by using a carpet cleaning machine, steam, and spraying with a sanitizer. Those measures are unlikely to be effective.
It is very difficult to adequately sanitize a thick dense material like carpeting and virtually impossible to adequately sanitize carpet padding and flooring below a sewage-spilled-on carpet. (CARPET MOLD / ODOR TESTS & CARPET PADDING ASBESTOS, MOLD, ODORS) In nearly 30 years of field inspection and lab testing I have not once found that steam cleaning of an in-situ carpet was able to penetrate to sufficient depth to sanitize dense carpets, carpet padding, floor surfaces below the padding, nor could it penetrate heavy upholstered furniture.
Generally health department and departments of environmental protection or conservation recommend that such carpets and their padding be discarded.
Valuable area rugs or carpets can sometimes be cleaned and sanitized by a carpet professional. In such cases the carpet is removed from the building for professional cleaning and disinfection off-site. Be sure to warn the professional that the area carpet was subject to a sewage spill.
Watch out: don't try leaving a "to be salvaged" wet carpet rolled up and waiting for days: the level of contamination will increase as will mold growth, and as well bleeding colors may ruin the carpet. Prompt removal and prompt cleaning and drying will be required.
Remove water & apply an initial disinfectant in the sewage spill area as quickly as possible: following removal of soaked contents.
Remove standing water using buckets, mops, sponges, water-removing shop vac (that will have to be disinfected or discarded after the project) or rented sewage spill cleanup equipment. Don't rent a shop vac for sewage spill cleanup without discussing that use with the rental service - doing so risks infecting someone else.
Collect and discard solid waste. Check with your local health department about requirements for bagging and disposal of solid sewage waste if it cannot be disposed-of into the public sewer system.
Initial disinfecting: After water removal, all affected materials should be decontaminated by spraying with a disinfectant solution. It is not the intent of this pre spray to effect full disinfection because the presence of organics precludes this. The objective is to initiate the reduction and containment of microorganisms as quickly as possible. - Morey (2007)
Prepare the affected area for rapid drying. At SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO under damage control as well as earlier in this article we advised removing stored contents, both salvageable to be cleaned and not-economical-to-salvage to be discarded. Now the sewage-contaminated area should be empty of contents, giving room for further demolition and cleaning.
Open lower wall cavities for the full length of walls along floors that were soaked with sewage effluent even if you do not see water stains on the upper walls themselves.
Starting in the areas that were most wet, remove baseboard trim and cut away the lower 12" of drywall. If there are water stains above floor level, remove drywall to at least 12" above the high water mark. Remove wet wall insulation if present.
Continue removing material around the room until you reach an area two feet past any area that was wet by sewage waters.
Watch out: if a sewage backup soaked building floors in a finished space there is a good chance that wastewater has penetrated into the lower wall cavities. Removing baseboard trim and removing the lower 12-inches of drywall along the full length of walls that were soaked can reduce the chances of mold growth in the wall cavities, and exposure of those areas will also make building disinfection and the use of sanitizers easier later.
Simply cutting a few holes or use of a "water extraction" procedure that relies on small holes in walls or on dehumidifiers alone will rarely be effective against mold contamination following building flooding if the wall cavity bottoms have been soaked.
Wash the contaminated area surfaces that have been exposed after contents removal and drywall removal in the prior step. Use a household detergent solution to remove visible sewage contamination and dirt. (Some stains may remain in some materials and will be further disinfected in the next step).
Watch out: failure to include this washing step means that disinfection / sanitizing, performed next, is likely to be ineffective.
Residual organic matter in cracks and crevices can be removed by pressure washing with a disinfectant solution.
The [pressure washing] solution then must be recovered with an extraction unit, immediately after application, to prevent further migration or saturation of contaminants into other porous materials. - Morey (2007)
Dry the affected area as rapidly as possible: using a combination of portable fans and dehumidifiers. If we can dry a wet building area in 24-48 hours the chances of a costly mold contamination issue are greatly reduced.
Dehumidifiers + Fans: When weather does not suggest opening building windows (rain, winter with heat on) one or more dehumidifiers combined with additional portable fans that stir building air will dry out a wet area far more quickly than the use of either a dehumidifier or a fan alone.
Watch out: if the area has become mold contaminated fans stir airborne mold spores - an unsafe condition that requires use of a HEPA-filter respirator for working in the area and careful containment to avoid blowing contaminated dust into other building areas.
Open windows + Fans: For dry clear weather an alternative dry-out procedure for wet building interiors can be followed using open windows.
To avoid cross-contamination of other building areas it's best if the wet area is under negative air pressure with respect to the rest of the building. Fans blowing out from some windows can help speed air movement through the wet area.
fans, portable air conditioners & dehumidifiers used to move air containing sewage-contaminated droplets or airborne dust from the contaminated area will themselves become contaminated, unsanitary, and should not be re-used afterwards without cleaning or if that's not economical they should be replaced.
Generally it won't make sense to both run a dehumidifier and have windows open - you would be trying to dehumidify the whole world.
Second bacterial disinfection of the contaminated area. Professional cleaning companies use a variety of sanitizers and disinfectants beyond simple diluted bleach. The choice depends in part on just what surfaces and materials need treatment. Generally you should select a disinfectant described by its manufacturer as bactericidal - able to kill bacteria. As Morey (2007) points out, the disinfectant selected must be capable of inactivating potential pathogenic microorganisms on inert substrates. (DISINFECTANTS & SANITIZERS, SOURCES). The second disinfection treatment will be allowed to air-dry.
Using bleach to disinfect a sewage spill area:
If you are using bleach follow these guidelines & warnings
Bleach concentration: use a mixture of 3/4 of a cup household bleach per gallon of water (or other concentration recommended by the bleach or disinfectant manufacturer). Only use bleach that is labeled as Sanitizes or Kills Germs
Technical detail: chlorine bleach solutions in concentrations sufficiently strong to act as disinfectants in a sewage-spill-contaminated building need to be at a concentration of 50 to 1000 ppm (parts per million) for disinfecting surfaces of appliances and food preparation areas. The chlorine concentration necessary for disinfecting walls and floors is 200 ppm.
Bleach disinfectant contact time: bleach or similar disinfectants must remain in complete surface contact for at least 15 minutes to be effective. Allow the disinfectant to air-dry on the treated surface. If the bleach solution dries in less than this amount of time an additional application should be made so that total contact time with the disinfectant is adequate. - Berry et als., U.S. EPA ret. 2/2014
Watch out: Be careful using bleach: it is a powerful oxidant and should not contact skin or eyes; never mix bleach with ammonia - the result will be a release of dangerous chlorine gas. Watch out also that the use of bleach on most porous materials is likely to cause discoloration or loss of color. See MOLD CLEANUP, BLEACH for more advice.
Watch out: do not rely on disinfectants, sanitizers, or sealants as a substitute for actual physical washing and cleaning. It is important to physically remove contaminated materials or mold from buildings. Use of sprays or sealants alone is not reliable and is never a substitute for actual cleaning.
Watch out: reliance on ozone generators is not a safe reliable way to disinfect a sewage contaminated building.
Check for contaminated mechanical equipment: If building water supply, fixtures, appliances etc. were contaminated they will need to be cleaned and disinfected or if necessary replaced. Any possible effect on the building HVAC systems - for example a warm air heat or air conditioning duct system exposed to contamination.
Inspect the interior of air handlers that are in or close to the sewage-backup area. Inspect for evidence of sewage waters entering HVAC ducts - for example if sewage water entered a ceiling where ductwork is also routed.
Watch out: if HVAC equipment that moves air through the building was operated during the time of sewage contamination or sewage backup cleaning, that equipment and ductwork may be contaminated by unsanitary dust even if actual sewage liquid waste never entered therein.
Check for cross-contamination of other building areas by sewage-contaminated water or debris tracked from the cleaning area to the reset of the building, or sewage-contaminated dust or water droplets that may have entered other building spaces or may have contaminated the air conditioning or heating systems.
Simply noticing muddy of sewage-waste footprints passing out of the work area is evidence of floor contamination. Testing for contaminated dust or for high levels of sewage pathogens may mean a few surface tests for sewage contaminants in the living area, starting with the most-suspect areas of floors. If you need to take this step check with a certified environmental test lab licensed for your state or province to ask what swab or tape lift or other sampling methods the lab recommends.
Check sewage or water ejecting systems & equipment: Examination of the sewage ejector pump to remove any other pending blockages and to assure that the proper type of sewage grinder pump, check valves, piping, etc. are installed. See SEWAGE GRINDER PUMPS.
Choices of post-cleanup sealants: in areas prone to high moisture such as basements and crawl spaces, additional optional protection against mold growth can be obtained by using a sanitizer and when surfaces are dry, a sealant. See
Prevent a future sewage backup: to prevent a recurrence of building sewage spills see Step 4 found in SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO
Sewage or flood warning systems: in low building floors, crawl spaces, basements, installation of a warning system that indicates if the sewage pump is not working, so that residents can stop using toilets and fixtures long enough to fix the problem and avoid future sewage spills in the structure.
Building moisture control: in addition to removing contaminated soil (ok) in a flooded dirt floor basement or crawl area, typically we'd install a heavy plastic barrier to prevent soil moisture from continuing to enter the crawl area where it invites mold contamination.
The following articles giving excellent examples of sewage backup response procedures for buildings, including a discussion of the health concerns, cleaning procedures, special considerations for carpeting and other materials, and even disposal of sewage or wastewater backup cleaning wastewater. I have bold-faced the most helpful documents below.
Proper Sewage Clean-up Procedures, Florida Southwest District Health, (2011) Southwest District Health
13307 Miami Lane P. O. Box 850
Caldwell, Idaho 83606
Phone: (208) 455-5400
Fax: (208) 455-5405
Sewer Overflows, U.S. EPA - www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/ssodesc.pdf
Sewage Spill Cleanup, Washington State Department of Health (2007) - not much help but points out you can salvage canned food by disinfecting the can exteriors. [Watch out for contaminated paper labeling & packaging]
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 "Remediation of Sewage Contaminated Crawlspaces", Byjim Holland, CR, "Cleaning and Restoration," July 1999, pp 22-24, original source: restcon.com/links/articles/Remediating%20Contaminated%20Crawlspaces.pdf
Benson, A., ed. (1990) Control of Communicable Diseases in Humans, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Berry, M.A. (1993) Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health, Tricomm 21st press, Chapel Hill, NC, p. 185.
Berry, Michael A., Jeff Bishop, Claude Blackburn, Eugene C. Cole, William G. Ewald, Terry Smith, Nathan Suazo, Steve Swan, and Mr William G. Ewald. "Suggested guidelines for remediation of damage from sewage backflow into buildings." Journal of Environmental Health 57, no. 3 (1994): 9-15.
Berry, Michael A. "Healthy school environment and enhanced educational performance the case of charles young elementary school Washington, DC." Retrieved April 9 (2002): 2005.
Rogers, S.A. (1991) Indoor fungi as part of the cause of recalcitrant symptoms of the tight building syndrome. Env. International. 17:271-275.
Brown, David A. "Moisture Management & Mold Remediation Program." Occupational Safety and Health (2007).
Clark, C.S. (1987) Potential and actual biological related health risks of waste water industry employment. J. Water Pollution Control. Fed. 59:12999-1008.
Cole, E.C. (1989) Remedial measures for biological pollutants in the home. Workshop on Biological Pollutants in the Home. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, American Lung Association.
Cole, E.C. (1987) The application of disinfection and sterilization to infectious waste management. In: Tulis, J.J. and W. R. Thomann (eds.), Proceedings of strategies for improved chemical and biological waste management for hospitals and clinical laboratories. Duke University, University of North Carolina, North Carolina Pollution Pays Program.
Cutter Information Corp. (1991) Indoor Air Quality Update, Arlington, VA.
Dillon, H. Kenneth, Patricia A. Heinsohn, and J. David Miller, eds. Field guide for the determination of biological contaminants in environmental samples. AIHA, 2005.
Foarde, K.K.; D. Bush; J. Chang; E.C. Cole; D. Franke; and D. Van Osdell. (1992) Characterization of environmental chambers for evaluating microbial growth on building materials. IAQ 92, ASHRAE, San Francisco.
Henning, Stephen J., and Daniel A. Berman. "Mold Contamination: Liability and Coverage Issues: Essential Information You Need to Know for Successfully Handling and Resolving Any Claim Involving Toxic Mold." Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. & Pol'y 8 (2001): 73.
International Institute of Carpet and Upholstery Certification. (1991) Carpet Cleaning Standard. S001-1991, International Institute of Carpet and Upholstery Certification, Vancouver, WA, 1991.
Morey, Philip R. "Remediation and control of microbial growth in problem buildings." Microorganisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments. Taylor & Francis, London (2001): 83-99.
Morey, PHILIP R. "Microbial remediation in non-industrial indoor environments." Sampling and analysis of indoor microorganisms, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA (2007): 231-242.
Morey, Philip R. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAMPLING STRATEGIES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTSÃ." Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms (2007): 51.
Patterson, R.; J.N. Fink; W.B. Miles. (1981) Hypersensitivity lung disease presumptively due to cephalosporium in homes contaminated by sewage flooding or humidifier water. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 68(2):128-132.
Robertson, K.A.; T.K. Ghosh; A.L. Hines; S.K. Loyalka; D. Novosel; R.C. Warder, Jr. (1990) Airborne microorganisms: their occurrence and removal. Indoor Air '90, Toronto.
Rogers, S.A. (1991) Indoor fungi as part of the cause of recalcitrant symptoms of the tight building syndrome. Env. International. 17:271-275.
Rutala, W.A.; E.C. Cole; and N.S. Wannamaker. (1991) Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis by 14 Hospital Disinfectants. Amer J. Med. 91:2675-2715.
Rutala, W.A. (1987) Disinfection, sterilization and waste disposal. In: Wenzel, R.P., Prevention and control of nosocomial infections. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.
Tyau, Gordon DC, Mark Lawton, P. Eng, and J. David Miller. "FIELD INSPECTION PROTOCOL FOR INVESTIGATION OF MOLD DAMAGED BUILDINGS." (2002).
 Amahmid, O., Asmama, S., & Bouhoum, K. (1999). The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 49(1-2), 19-26.
 Barak, J.D., Whitehand, L.C., & Charkowski, A.O. (2002). Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to alfalfa sprouts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(10), 4758-4763.
 Beuchat, L.R. (1996). Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. Journal of Food Protection, 59(2), 204-216.
 Castro-Rosas, J., & Escartin, E.F. (2000). Survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae O1, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alfalfa sprouts. Journal of Food Science, 65(1), 162-165.
 Charkowski, A.O., Barak, J.D., Sarreal, C.Z., & Mandrell, R.E. (2002). Growth and colonization patterns of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on alfalfa sprouts and the effects of sprouting temperature, iinoculum /in·oc·u·lum/ (-ok´u-lum) pl. inoc´ula material used in inoculation.
 Evans, M.R., Ribeiro, C.D., & Salmon, R.L. (2003). Hazards of healthy living: Bottled water and salad vegetables as risk factors for Campylobacter infection. Emerging Infectious Disease, 9(10), 1219-1225.
 Frost, J.A., McEvoy, M.B., Bentley, C.A., Andersson, Y., & Rowe, B. (1995). An outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection associated with consumption of iceberg. Emerging Infectious Disease, 1(1), 26-28.
 Guo, X., Chen, J., Brackett, R.E., & Beuchat, L.R. (2001). Survival of Salmonellae on and in tomato plants from the time of inoculation at flowering and early stages of fruit development through fruit ripening,
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 Guo, X., Iersel, M.W.V., Chen, J., Brackett, R.E., & Beuchat, L.R. (2002). Evidence of association of salmonellae with tomato plants grown hydroponically in inoculated nutrient solution. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(7), 3639-3643.
 Itoh, Y., Sugita-Konishi, Y., Kasuga, E, Iwaki, M., Hara-Kudo, Y., Saito, N., Noguchi, Y, Konuma, H., & Kumagai, S. (1998) Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli enterohemorrhagic Escherichia EHEC Any of the E coli serotypes–eg O29, O39, O145 that produces shiga-like toxins, causing bloody inflammatory diarrhea, evoking a HUS. See Escherichia coli O157:H7, Hemolytic uremic syndrome. O157:H7 present in radish sprouts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64(4), 1532-1535.
 Madden, J.M. (1992). Microbial pathogens in fresh produce--The regulatory perspective. Journal of Food Protection, 55, 821-823.
McMahon, M.A.S., & Wilson, I.G. (2001). The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 70(1-2),155-162.
 Puohiniemi, R., Heiskanen, T., & Siitonen, A. (1997). Molecular epidemiology of two international sprout-borne Salmonella outbreaks. Journal of Clinical Microbiology
. 35(10), 2487-2491.
 Shearer, A.E., Strapp, C.M., & Joerger, R.D. (2001). Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction-based system for detection of Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on fresh fruit and vegetables. Journal of Food Protection, 64(6), 788-795.
 Takeuchi, K., Hassan, A.N., & Frank, J.F. (2001). Penetration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 into lettuce as influenced by modified atmosphere and temperature. Journal of Food Protection, 64(11), 1820-1823.
 Wright, C., Kominos, S.D., & Yee, R.B. (1976). Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa recovered from vegetable salads. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 31(3), 453-454.
 Thanks to reader Charles Labs at 247inktoner.com Tel: 800-866-8022 (a provider of ink toner, ink cartridges and related supplies) for updating our CDC link on e-Coli 4/19/2013.
Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies, Anish R. Jantrania, Mark A. Gross. Anish Jantrania, Ph.D., P.E., M.B.A., is a Consulting Engineer, in Mechanicsville VA, 804-550-0389 (2006). Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF.
Builder's Guide to Wells and Septic Systems, Woodson, R. Dodge: $ 24.95; MCGRAW HILL B; TP;
Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. This comprehensive guide filled with case studies can prevent that. Master plumber R. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction. Chapters cover virtually every aspect of wells and septic systems, including on-site evaluations; site limitations; bidding; soil studies, septic designs, and code-related issues; drilled and dug wells, gravel and pipe, chamber-type, and gravity septic systems; pump stations; common problems with well installation; and remedies for poor septic situations. Woodson also discusses ways to increase profits by avoiding cost overruns.
Country Plumbing: Living with a Septic System, Hartigan, Gerry: $ 9.95; ALAN C HOOD & TP;
Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. But it was written in the early 1980s. A lot has changed since then. In particular, the book doesn't cover any of the newer systems that are used more and more nowadays in some parts of the country -- sand mounds, aeration systems, lagoons, etc.
Morey, Philip R. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAMPLING STRATEGIES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTSÃ." Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms (2007): 51.
US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual [online copy, free] Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm Onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems,
Richard J Otis, published by the US EPA. Although it's more than 20 years old, this book remains a useful reference for septic system designers.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Program Operations; Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory; (1980)
"International Private Sewage Disposal Code," 1995, BOCA-708-799-2300, ICBO-310-699-0541, SBCCI 205-591-1853, available from those code associations.
"Manual of Policy, Procedures, and Guidelines for Onsite Sewage Systems," Ontario Reg. 374/81, Part VII of the Environmental
Protection Act (Canada), ISBN 0-7743-7303-2, Ministry of the Environment,135 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto Ontario M4V 1P5 Canada $24. CDN.
Manual of Septic Tank Practice, US Public Health Service's 1959.
Onsite Wastewater Disposal, R. J. Perkins;
Quoting from Amazon: This practical book, co-published with the National Environmental Health Association,
describes the step-by-step procedures needed to avoid common pitfalls in septic system technology.
Valuable in matching the septic system to the site-specific conditions, this useful book will help you install a reliable system in
both suitable and difficult environments. Septic tank installers, planners, state and local regulators, civil and sanitary engineers,
consulting engineers, architects, homeowners, academics, and land developers will find this publication valuable.
Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems, Bennette D. Burks, Mary Margaret Minnis, Hogarth House 1994 - one of the best septic system books around, suffering a bit from small fonts and a weak index. While it contains some material more technical than needed by homeowners, Burks/Minnis book on onsite wastewater treatment systems a very useful reference for both property owners and septic system designers.
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems: How to Operate & Maintain [ copy on file as /septic/Septic_Operation_USDA.pdf ] - , Equipment Tips, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 8271 1302, 7100 Engineering, 2300 Recreation, September 1982, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfimage/82711302.pdf
Septic System Owner's Manual, Lloyd Kahn, Blair Allen, Julie Jones, Shelter Publications, 2000 $14.95 U.S. - easy to understand, well illustrated, one of the best practical references around on septic design basics including some advanced systems; a little short on safety and maintenance. Both new and used (low priced copies are available, and we think the authors are working on an updated edition--DF.
Quoting from one of several Amazon reviews: The basics of septic systems, from underground systems and failures to what the owner can do to promote and maintain a healthy system, is revealed in an excellent guide essential for any who reside on a septic system. Rural residents receive a primer on not only the basics; but how to conduct period inspections and what to do when things go wrong. History also figures into the fine coverage.
US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm
Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook, R. Dodge Woodson. This book is in the upper price range, but is worth the cost for serious septic installers and designers.
Quoting Amazon: Each year, thousands upon thousands of Americans install water wells and septic systems on their properties. But with a maze of codes governing their use along with a host of design requirements that ensure their functionality where can someone turn for comprehensive, one-stop guidance? Enter the Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook from McGraw-Hill.
Written in language any property owner can understand yet detailed enough for professionals and technical students this easy-to-use volume delivers the latest techniques and code requirements for designing, building, rehabilitating, and maintaining private water wells and septic systems. Bolstered by a wealth of informative charts, tables, and illustrations, this book delivers:
* Current construction, maintenance, and repair methods
* New International Private Sewage Disposal Code
* Up-to-date standards from the American Water Works Association
Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan, $ 18.95; Tab Books 1992. We have found this text very useful for conventional well and septic systems design and maintenance --DF.
Quoting an Amazon description:Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements. He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites.
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The HOME REFERENCE BOOK - the ENCYCLOPEDIA of HOMES, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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