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Sewer backup or overflow cleanup procedures:
This article provides a list of septic or sewage backup cleaning procedures, recommendations and standards for buildings.
Citing expert sources we describe the key steps in evaluating, cleaning up & disinfecting a building where there has been a sewage spill. We include safety procedures as well as explanatory details. We include a list of sewage spill cleanup guidelines & standards articles in PDF format near the end of this article.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
Read first: SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO where we give the first-response priorities & steps in a sewage spill or leak response.
There we list immediate actions including determining if the sewage spill area is safe to enter, steps to stop flowing sewage and wastewater, and protecting building occupants and contents as well as other damage control steps.
Next read this article.
Just below in this article -SEWAGE CLEANUP PROCEDURES & STANDARDS - we describe in more detail the steps in removing sewage & disinfecting & cleaning a building interior after a sewage backup or spill.
In this article (below) we also include sewage spill cleanup guidelines & standards published by experts.
[Click any image for an enlarged, detailed version]
Advice for Rapid Disinfecting & Drying Out a Sewage Contaminated Building
In planning for the clean-up of a sewage contaminated building, there are important considerations that an onsite expert would consider, such as the safety of building entry, health risks to occupants in other building areas, the scope of clean-up work needed, what materials can be salvaged and what items should be discarded, and the protection of other building areas during cleanup, such as a consideration of the ease with which air or dust can move from a contaminated area into the occupied building space.
An appropriate response to sewage spills in a building goes beyond dumping some kitty litter on the ground.
Following other sewage backup cleaning steps given just below we include a source list of documents describing what experts advise at SEWAGE CLEANUP STANDARDS. This article is adapted from those documents.
Watch out: sewage spills contain contaminants that can cause serious illness or disease. Disease causing agents in raw sewage include bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses and can cause serious illnesses including bacterial infections, Tetanus, Hepatitis A, Leptospirosis, infections by Cryptosporidium & Giardia and gastrointestinal diseases.
You should assume that any surface or material touched by sewage is contaminated.
Watch out: Unless you are wearing appropriate safety gear, do not enter confined spaces that have been contaminated with sewage, as toxic,
flammable or asphyxiating or even explosive gases including methane and hydrogen sulfide as well as airborne pathogens may be present.
Steps in an Effective Approach to Cleaning up a Sewage Spill
Immediate response to a sewage spill for safety of building occupants and for damage control are given
at SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO. If you have not read that article, do so, then return here. There we discuss building entry hazards such as electrical shock and other immediate risks.
Inspect for scope of sewage backup & contamination: an inspection of the building interior and exterior is required to make sure that the scope of cleanup and disinfection will be adequate following any sewage or plumbing drain backup or leak.
An inspection for mold or other contaminants in the same area, and further cleaning needs should be made at the same time so that you do not have to do the job twice. For upper building areas
Watch out: in our experience [DF] when a building has been wet enough to allow water to enter even just the very bottom of a wall cavity, there is a high risk of harmful and costly mold contamination of both the interior wall cavity surfaces as well as wall insulation.
Some materials (plaster, mineral wool or cellulose insulation) resist mold growth a bit more than others (drywall, fiberglass insulation, exposed wood surfaces).
More advice on handling wall and floor cavities where the floors have been wet is at Step 6. FLOOD DAMAGED BUILDING CLEAN-UP for carpeting and rugs that have been wet by area or building flooding
Decide who is going to perform the clean-up of the sewage spill: yourself or a professional contractor.
Reasons to hire a professional water restoration company:
Your insurance company is paying for the clean-up.
The total area of contamination and scope of work are just too large for you to handle
Sewage spill has been in place for 24-hours or longer
The building HVAC system (air conditioning, forced warm air heating system) has been contaminated
You or building occupants are people at extra risk: asthmatic, elderly, compromised immune system , infants
If you are going to perform the sewage spill cleanup yourself
Do not directly touch sewage material; sewage spill or sewage contaminated materials such as carpets, clothing, furniture that contact bare skin can cause a serious infection
Take extra care that eyes, open cuts or sores or similar high-risk areas do not come in contact with sewage; be sure to keep on eye protection when spraying or washing off items outdoors during salvage operations, as sprayed sewage droplets are unsafe.
Wash your hands frequently; wash and disinfect clothing, gloves, boots that are to be re-used. Effective hand washing requires plenty of soap and at least 30 seconds of active scrubbing.
Watch out: airborne water droplets of sewage contaminated water or cleaning water carry pathogens and are dangerous;
Ensure that your vaccinations are up to date for tetanus and diphtheria. Vaccinations are also
available for hepatitis A.
Don't touch fecal waste nor raw sewage with bare hands
Don't breathe or become wet by sewage waters
Do not touch your eyes, nose, ears, nor open cuts or sores when working around sewage
Do not eat, drink, apply lip balm or lipstick (!) and do not chew gum while working with sewage cleanup
If you are accidentally wet by or touch sewage, stop and bathe.
Clean everything: after working on sewage cleanup, change out of your work clothing and bathe; clean all clothing, equipment, tools that come into contact with sewage materials by using an appropriate sanitizer, or if appropriate, discard those materials.
Remove salvageable & non-salvageable contents & furnishings from the affected area.
Remove non-salvageable items for disposal: wet carpets and padding should have been removed and discarded as well as wet upholstered furniture & curtains. (Valuable area rugs may be able to be salvaged by professional cleaning and sanitizing). If walls are covered with plastic or vinyl wallpaper it should be removed as well to speed drying of drywall.
Use plastic bags to collect discarded materials for removal from the property.
If available, heavy-duty contractor-grade plastic bags will reduce the risk of tearing or or leaks. If you only have think kitchen garbage bags available, double-bag items for added safety.
Remove, clean, & store salvageable contents: wet contents that can be cleaned (hard-surfaced furniture, dishes, plastic items) should be removed from the sewage backup area and if weather permits, placed outdoors in a sheltered area. If weather or security do not permit that step, place salvageable items on a plastic-covered area of a concrete garage floor or similar area where the risk of cross-contamination of other building areas is minimized and where floor cleaning after salvage will be easy.
Where weather permits, complete cleaning of salvageable materials outdoors.
Be sure that cleaned salvaged items are stored dry and protected from the weather but do not bring them back into the sewage spill area until cleaning in that area and dryout of that area as well as restoration work have been completed.
For large sewage spill cleanup projects you may require a clearance inspection and testing before contents are returned to the area as well as before it can be occupied.
Tip: clothing can usually be laundered or dry-cleaned; sheets, towels, blankets and similar bedding may also be salvageable by cleaning;
Tip: take photographs of the sewage spill and of sewage or water-damaged building contents and materials to assist in a later inventory of losses. Photos can be particularly helpful if insured items must be disposed-of quickly as part of damage control for the building.
Prevent cross-contamination: measures to assure that sewage contaminated soil was not tracked into the living area, or appropriate cleaning there if needed and that airborne sewage-contaminated dust (or mold spores) are not blown to other building spaces.
Close doors between the contaminated area and other building rooms
Use 6-mil plastic taped as necessary at open doorways that cannot be closed.
Seal off HVAC air intake or outlet registers for systems that are (wisely) to be left shut down during the cleaning and drying procedure.
Use negative air (fans blowing out through one or more windows) to keep air pressure in the contaminated area lower than in the rest of the building. This step helps prevent sewage-contaminated dust from being blown to other building areas.
Demolition & removal of wastewater-contaminated materials: remove any suspect or contaminated drywall, carpeting, carpet padding, paneling, building insulation or similar materials in the affected area.
Remove & dispose of drywall, baseboard trim, or wall paneling that have been wet by sewage.
Evaluate the porosity of remaining building materials to decide on demolition/disposal vs. cleaning. Quoting from Morey (2007):
Highly porous (permeance factor >10) materials that have been exposed to sewage backflow and have a value that exceeds the cost of restoration such as high-value rugs and carpet, upholstery, and other textiles should be removed and restored off site.
Highly porous materials with low cost or replacement value, such as carpet cushion, carpet, cardboard, tackless strip, wicker, and straw, should be removed and discarded as soon as possible. Other materials, such as saturated mattresses and cloth upholstery, regardless of value, cannot be restored and should be discarded. If disposal is necessary, these materials should be bagged in plastic for removal to a proper disposal site.
Semiporous (permeance factor of >1 to 10) materials, including items such as linoleum, vinyl wall covering and upholstery, and hardboard furniture, along with construction materials such as wood, painted drywall, and plaster, should be cleaned, disinfected, or replaced as part of the initial restoration process.
If these materials are not removed or properly disinfected, they can become reservoirs for growth of microorganisms.
Nonporous materials (permeance factor ≤1) such as Formica™, linoleum, vinyl, and tile finishing materials can be inspected for subsurface contamination with a nonpenetration moisture meter.
Although these materials may be rated as nonporous, they must be evaluated carefully because contamination can migrate from the perimeter and become trapped below the surface. If migration of contamination below the surface has not occurred, these materials may be fully restored. - Morey (2007)
Remove other sewage-contaminated contents: all porous material (cardboard, paper, books cloth) carpeting, carpet padding, upholstered furniture, mattresses, curtains, stuffed animals, wet books and similar items should be discarded. Discard food that has been contaminated or is in the contaminated area.
Also discard items for which cleaning, even if technically possible, is not cost-effective - if it costs more to clean it than to replace it, it's trash.
Use plastic bags to collect baggable demolition materials for removal from the property.
Watch out: carpeting warning: while we frequently hear from readers whose building owner or cleaning company promise to "sanitize" wall to wall carpets that have been left in place, typically by using a carpet cleaning machine, steam, and spraying with a sanitizer. Those measures are unlikely to be effective.
It is very difficult to adequately sanitize a thick dense material like carpeting and virtually impossible to adequately sanitize carpet padding and flooring below a sewage-spilled-on carpet.
In more than 40 years of field inspection and lab testing I have not once found that steam cleaning of an in-situ carpet was able to penetrate to sufficient depth to sanitize dense carpets, carpet padding, floor surfaces below the padding, nor could it penetrate heavy upholstered furniture.
Generally health department and departments of environmental protection or conservation recommend that such carpets and their padding be discarded.
Valuable area rugs or carpets can sometimes be cleaned and sanitized by a carpet professional. In such cases the carpet is removed from the building for professional cleaning and disinfection off-site. Be sure to warn the professional that the area carpet was subject to a sewage spill.
Watch out: don't try leaving a "to be salvaged" wet carpet rolled up and waiting for days: the level of contamination will increase as will mold growth, and as well bleeding colors may ruin the carpet. Prompt removal and prompt cleaning and drying will be required.
Remove water & apply an initial disinfectant in the sewage spill area as quickly as possible: following removal of soaked contents.
Remove standing water using buckets, mops, sponges, water-removing shop vac (that will have to be disinfected or discarded after the project) or rented sewage spill cleanup equipment. Don't rent a shop vac for sewage spill cleanup without discussing that use with the rental service - doing so risks infecting someone else.
Collect and discard solid waste. Check with your local health department about requirements for bagging and disposal of solid sewage waste if it cannot be disposed-of into the public sewer system.
Initial disinfecting: After water removal, all affected materials should be decontaminated by spraying with a disinfectant solution. It is not the intent of this pre spray to effect full disinfection because the presence of organics precludes this. The objective is to initiate the reduction and containment of microorganisms as quickly as possible. - Morey (2007)
Prepare the affected area for rapid drying.
At SEWAGE BACKUP, WHAT TO DO under damage control as well as earlier in this article we advised removing stored contents, both salvageable to be cleaned and not-economical-to-salvage to be discarded. Now the sewage-contaminated area should be empty of contents, giving room for further demolition and cleaning.
Open lower wall cavities for the full length of walls along floors that were soaked with sewage effluent even if you do not see water stains on the upper walls themselves.
Starting in the areas that were most wet, remove baseboard trim and cut away the lower 12" of drywall. If there are water stains above floor level, remove drywall to at least 12" above the high water mark. Remove wet wall insulation if present.
Continue removing material around the room until you reach an area two feet past any area that was wet by sewage waters.
Watch out: if a sewage backup soaked building floors in a finished space there is a good chance that wastewater has penetrated into the lower wall cavities.
Removing baseboard trim and removing the lower 12-inches of drywall along the full length of walls that were soaked can reduce the chances of mold growth in the wall cavities, and exposure of those areas will also make building disinfection and the use of sanitizers easier later.
Simply cutting a few holes or use of a "water extraction" procedure that relies on small holes in walls or on dehumidifiers alone will rarely be effective against mold contamination following building flooding if the wall cavity bottoms have been soaked.
Wash the contaminated area surfaces that have been exposed after contents removal and drywall removal in the prior step.
Use a household detergent solution to remove visible sewage contamination and dirt. (Some stains may remain in some materials and will be further disinfected in the next step).
Watch out: failure to include this washing step means that disinfection / sanitizing, performed next, is likely to be ineffective.
Residual organic matter in cracks and crevices can be removed by pressure washing with a disinfectant solution.
The [pressure washing] solution then must be recovered with an extraction unit, immediately after application, to prevent further migration or saturation of contaminants into other porous materials. - Morey (2007)
Dry the affected area as rapidly as possible: using a combination of portable fans and dehumidifiers. If we can dry a wet building area in 24-48 hours the chances of a costly mold contamination issue are greatly reduced.
Dehumidifiers + Fans: When weather does not suggest opening building windows (rain, winter with heat on) one or more dehumidifiers combined with additional portable fans that stir building air will dry out a wet area far more quickly than the use of either a dehumidifier or a fan alone.
Watch out: if the area has become mold contaminated fans stir airborne mold spores - an unsafe condition that requires use of a HEPA-filter respirator for working in the area and careful containment to avoid blowing contaminated dust into other building areas.
Open windows + Fans: For dry clear weather an alternative dry-out procedure for wet building interiors can be followed using open windows.
To avoid cross-contamination of other building areas it's best if the wet area is under negative air pressure with respect to the rest of the building.
Fans blowing out from some windows can help speed air movement through the wet area.
fans, portable air conditioners & dehumidifiers used to move air containing sewage-contaminated droplets or airborne dust from the contaminated area will themselves become contaminated, unsanitary, and should not be re-used afterwards without cleaning or if that's not economical they should be replaced.
Generally it won't make sense to both run a dehumidifier and have windows open - you would be trying to dehumidify the whole world.
Second bacterial disinfection of the contaminated area. Professional cleaning companies use a variety of sanitizers and disinfectants beyond simple diluted bleach. The choice depends in part on just what surfaces and materials need treatment.
Generally you should select a disinfectant described by its manufacturer as bactericidal - able to kill bacteria. As Morey (2007) points out, the disinfectant selected must be capable of inactivating potential pathogenic microorganisms on inert substrates.
Using bleach to disinfect a sewage spill area:
If you are using bleach follow these guidelines & warnings
Bleach concentration: use a mixture of 3/4 of a cup household bleach per gallon of water (or other concentration recommended by the bleach or disinfectant manufacturer). Only use bleach that is labeled as Sanitizes or Kills Germs
Technical detail: chlorine bleach solutions in concentrations sufficiently strong to act as disinfectants in a sewage-spill-contaminated building need to be at a concentration of 50 to 1000 ppm (parts per million) for disinfecting surfaces of appliances and food preparation areas.
The chlorine concentration necessary for disinfecting walls and floors is 200 ppm.
Bleach disinfectant contact time: bleach or similar disinfectants must remain in complete surface contact for at least 15 minutes to be effective.
Allow the disinfectant to air-dry on the treated surface. If the bleach solution dries in less than this amount of time an additional application should be made so that total contact time with the disinfectant is adequate. - Berry et als., U.S. EPA ret. 2/2014
Watch out: Be careful using bleach: it is a powerful oxidant and should not contact skin or eyes; never mix bleach with ammonia - the result will be a release of dangerous chlorine gas. Watch out also that the use of bleach on most porous materials is likely to cause discoloration or loss of color.
Watch out: do not rely on disinfectants, sanitizers, or sealants as a substitute for actual physical washing and cleaning. It is important to physically remove contaminated materials or mold from buildings. Use of sprays or sealants alone is not reliable and is never a substitute for actual cleaning.
See MOLD CLEANUP - MISTAKES to AVOID where we discuss problems of unnecessary costs, cross contamination, using bleach to "kill" mold, reliance on ozone treatments and other snafus. If you or your contractor are thinking of using ozone generators in the building,
Watch out: reliance on ozone generators is not a safe reliable way to disinfect a sewage contaminated building.
Check for contaminated mechanical equipment: If building water supply, fixtures, appliances etc. were contaminated they will need to be cleaned and disinfected or if necessary replaced. Any possible effect on the building HVAC systems - for example a warm air heat or air conditioning duct system exposed to contamination.
Inspect the interior of air handlers that are in or close to the sewage-backup area. Inspect for evidence of sewage waters entering HVAC ducts - for example if sewage water entered a ceiling where ductwork is also routed.
Watch out: if HVAC equipment that moves air through the building was operated during the time of sewage contamination or sewage backup cleaning, that equipment and ductwork may be contaminated by unsanitary dust even if actual sewage liquid waste never entered therein.
Check for cross-contamination of other building areas by sewage-contaminated water or debris tracked from the cleaning area to the reset of the building, or sewage-contaminated dust or water droplets that may have entered other building spaces or may have contaminated the air conditioning or heating systems.
Simply noticing muddy of sewage-waste footprints passing out of the work area is evidence of floor contamination. Testing for contaminated dust or for high levels of sewage pathogens may mean a few surface tests for sewage contaminants in the living area, starting with the most-suspect areas of floors.
If you need to take this step check with a certified environmental test lab licensed for your state or province to ask what swab or tape lift or other sampling methods the lab recommends.
Check sewage or water ejecting systems & equipment: Examination of the sewage ejector pump to remove any other pending blockages and to assure that the proper type of sewage grinder pump, check valves, piping, etc. are installed.
Choices of post-cleanup sealants: in areas prone to high moisture such as basements and crawl spaces, additional optional protection against mold growth can be obtained by using a sanitizer and when surfaces are dry, a sealant. See
Sewage or flood warning systems: in low building floors, crawl spaces, basements, installation of a warning system that indicates if the sewage pump is not working, so that residents can stop using toilets and fixtures long enough to fix the problem and avoid future sewage spills in the structure.
Building moisture control: in addition to removing contaminated soil (ok) in a flooded dirt floor basement or crawl area, typically we'd install a heavy plastic barrier to prevent soil moisture from continuing to enter the crawl area where it invites mold contamination.
The following articles giving excellent examples of sewage backup response procedures for buildings, including a discussion of the health concerns, cleaning procedures, special considerations for carpeting and other materials, and even disposal of sewage or wastewater backup cleaning wastewater. I have bold-faced the most helpful documents below.
Alaska DEC, SEWAGE SPILL CLEANUP [PDF] Alaska DEC, Standard procedure for cleaning up domestic wastewater spills indoors & Standard procedure for cleaning up domestic wastewater or sewage spills outdoors (2011)
Recommended: Australia, SEWAGE SPILL RISK CONTROL [PDF] Redland City Council, PR_2127-055-27, Redland, Australia (2008) - helpful document
Sewage poses a very significant threat to human health. However, the severity of the
health threat depends on the content of the sewage and the degree and extent ofpenetration into the building environment.
The degree of penetration is dependent on the porosity of contaminated materials, the quantity of sewage, and the amount of time thesewage remains in contact with materials....
When a building is contaminated with sewage backing up from the septic lines, or flooding of a building occurs that involves sewage or a heavy load of organic matter, as
in the case of river flooding, a serious threat to human health exists. Without appropriate action, extensive damage to materials will occur immediately or in time.
Several days may elapse before the cause of the backup is determined, the problem is corrected, and flooding subsides. This allows extensive permeation and contamination of absorbent (hygroscopic) materials such as wood, gypsum, paper, and concrete to occur.
This penetration with water and organic matter leads to the growth of potentially disease-causing (or opportunistic) microorganisms.
These organisms may pose a serious health risk to occupants of the building. Organic matter and water-saturated materials can be used as substrate for the growth of microorganisms (such as gram-negative bacteria and toxigenic fungi) that can produce substances toxic to humans and damaging to materials.
A large amount of water inside a building will cause high humidity, which can also
contribute to microbial growth on structural materials and contents .
Recommended: Brennan, Terry, & Gene Cole, Ph.D., FLOOD-RELATED CLEANING [PDF] (2009, draft report), U.S. EPA
Excerpts: This document addresses approaches to cleaning up residences flooded after a hurricane or other weather event. It is based on a literature search conducted using PubMed, Science Direct, the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report search engines, and the files of the co-authors.
The report considers the types of illnesses associated with such flooding; the effectiveness, selection, use, and hazards of biocides for cleaning and decontaminating surfaces affected by the presence of microorganisms and their biofilms; and available guidance documents that provide recommendations for cleaning up after floods, hurricanes, and related events.
The literature search found the occurrence of a wide range of illness and injury due to floods.
These adverse health effects include physical injuries such as cuts and abrasions; infections due to contact with contaminated flood water and contaminated surfaces; exposure to non-biological contaminants such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, and pesticides, which can lead to health impacts; allergic or asthmatic episodes triggered by exposures to mold; and emotional trauma and post-traumatic stress.
Guidance documents related to flood cleanup are available from government agencies and nongovernmental organizations. The primary federal sources of guidance are the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA).
Non-governmental sources include the American Red Cross, the American Lung Association, the National Center for Health Housing, and the Institute of Inspection, Cleaning, and Restoration.
The guidance documents available from these sources vary in length and depth of coverage. The
EPA and CDC documents tend to be shorter than the others and to provide simple, direct guidance with only brief discussion of the issues involved.
All the guidance documents reviewed in this report agree that a flooded house should be dried quickly. They also agree that porous materials that contact flood water should be removed.
And while all recommend the use of water and detergents to clean hard surfaces, they differ on whether bleach and other biocides should be used.
Approaches to cleaning flood-contaminated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems are also addressed by many of the guidance documents.
This report also considers reported cases of injury due to the use of sanitizers, particularly bleaches and disinfectants. The health effects of mixing cleaners and disinfectants are also discussed.
California, SEWAGE OVERFLOW EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN [PDF] (2010) Channel Islands, California State University, four-year, public university in Camarillo, California. Established in 2002 Website: csuci.edu
Dorfman, Mark, Nancy Stoner, and Michele Merkel. SWIMMING IN SEWAGE [PDF] Natural Resources Defense Council and the Environmental Integrity Project, New York, NY [Online.] http://www. nrdc. org/water/pollution/sewage/sewage. pdf (2004). Excerpt: Theoretically (and by law), all this raw sewage, with its cargo of infectious bacteria, viruses, parasites, and a growing legion of potentially toxic chemicals, gets treated in wastewater treatment plants. But in reality, this aging, often neglected, and sometimes insufficient network of pipes releases untreated or only partly treated sewage directly into the environment.3
The average age of collection system components is about 33 years, but some pipes still in use are almost 200 years old.
EPA, SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOWS, What are they and how can we reduce them? [PDF] U.S. EPA Office of Wastewater Management, retrieved 2018/07/27, original source: www.epa.gov/npdes/pubs/ssodesc.pdf
This SOP outlines methods to prevent mold growth, the conditions under which mold and moisture remediation must be performed and the responsibilities of the affected parties. The goal is to reduce or eliminate excess moisture in less than 48 hours as a means to prevent mold growth. This SOP applies to the ICs, Clinical Center, and to all ORS and ORF staff participating in moisture remediation.
Florida, PROPER SEWAGE CLEAN-UP PROCEDURES [PDF] Florida Southwest District Health, (2011) Southwest District Health 13307 Miami Lane P. O. Box 850 Caldwell, Idaho 83606 Phone: (208) 455-5400 Fax: (208) 455-5405 http://www.swdh.org
Lstiburek, Joseph W., and P. ENG. Rebuilding Houston [PDF] ASHRAE Journal 59, no. 11 (2017): 70-76. Retrieved 2018/7/29 original source: http://ashraecok.org/images/downloads/Technical_Literature/180104_rebuilding_houston.pdf
No carpet cleaning wastewater or waste may be discharged to the storm drain.
Washington State, SEWAGE SPILL CLEANUP [PDF] Washington State Department of Health (2007) - not much help but points out you can salvage canned food by disinfecting the can exteriors. [Watch out for contaminated paper labeling & packaging]
Also see additional documents & citations at REFERENCES
Sewage or Septic Backup Cleanup Procedures & Standards Research
Additional citations are at REFERENCES at the end of this page
 "Remediation of Sewage Contaminated Crawlspaces", Byjim Holland, CR, "Cleaning and Restoration," July 1999, pp 22-24, original source: restcon.com/links/articles/Remediating%20Contaminated%20Crawlspaces.pdf
Benson, A., ed. (1990) Control of Communicable Diseases in Humans, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Berry, M.A. (1993) Protecting the Built Environment: Cleaning for Health, Tricomm 21st press, Chapel Hill, NC, p. 185.
Berry, Michael A., Jeff Bishop, Claude Blackburn, Eugene C. Cole, William G. Ewald, Terry Smith, Nathan Suazo, Steve Swan, and Mr William G. Ewald. "Suggested guidelines for remediation of damage from sewage backflow into buildings." Journal of Environmental Health 57, no. 3 (1994): 9-15.
Berry, Michael A. "Healthy school environment and enhanced educational performance the case of charles young elementary school Washington, DC." Retrieved April 9 (2002): 2005.
Rogers, S.A. (1991) Indoor fungi as part of the cause of recalcitrant symptoms of the tight building syndrome. Env. International. 17:271-275.
Brown, David A. "Moisture Management & Mold Remediation Program." Occupational Safety and Health (2007).
Clark, C.S. (1987) Potential and actual biological related health risks of waste water industry employment. J. Water Pollution Control. Fed. 59:12999-1008.
Cole, E.C. (1989) Remedial measures for biological pollutants in the home. Workshop on Biological Pollutants in the Home. U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, American Lung Association.
Cole, E.C. (1987) The application of disinfection and sterilization to infectious waste management. In: Tulis, J.J. and W. R. Thomann (eds.), Proceedings of strategies for improved chemical and biological waste management for hospitals and clinical laboratories. Duke University, University of North Carolina, North Carolina Pollution Pays Program.
Cutter Information Corp. (1991) Indoor Air Quality Update, Arlington, VA.
Dillon, H. Kenneth, Patricia A. Heinsohn, and J. David Miller, eds. Field guide for the determination of biological contaminants in environmental samples. AIHA, 2005.
Foarde, K.K.; D. Bush; J. Chang; E.C. Cole; D. Franke; and D. Van Osdell. (1992) Characterization of environmental chambers for evaluating microbial growth on building materials. IAQ 92, ASHRAE, San Francisco.
Henning, Stephen J., and Daniel A. Berman. "Mold Contamination: Liability and Coverage Issues: Essential Information You Need to Know for Successfully Handling and Resolving Any Claim Involving Toxic Mold." Hastings W.-Nw. J. Envt'l L. & Pol'y 8 (2001): 73.
International Institute of Carpet and Upholstery Certification. (1991) Carpet Cleaning Standard. S001-1991, International Institute of Carpet and Upholstery Certification, Vancouver, WA, 1991.
Morey, Philip R. "Remediation and control of microbial growth in problem buildings." Microorganisms in Home and Indoor Work Environments. Taylor & Francis, London (2001): 83-99.
Morey, PHILIP R. "Microbial remediation in non-industrial indoor environments." Sampling and analysis of indoor microorganisms, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA (2007): 231-242.
Morey, Philip R. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAMPLING STRATEGIES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS." Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms (2007): 51.
Patterson, R.; J.N. Fink; W.B. Miles. (1981) Hypersensitivity lung disease presumptively due to cephalosporium in homes contaminated by sewage flooding or humidifier water. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 68(2):128-132.
Robertson, K.A.; T.K. Ghosh; A.L. Hines; S.K. Loyalka; D. Novosel; R.C. Warder, Jr. (1990) Airborne microorganisms: their occurrence and removal. Indoor Air '90, Toronto.
Rogers, S.A. (1991) Indoor fungi as part of the cause of recalcitrant symptoms of the tight building syndrome. Env. International. 17:271-275.
Rutala, W.A.; E.C. Cole; and N.S. Wannamaker. (1991) Inactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis by 14 Hospital Disinfectants. Amer J. Med. 91:2675-2715.
Rutala, W.A. (1987) Disinfection, sterilization and waste disposal. In: Wenzel, R.P., Prevention and control of nosocomial infections. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.
Tyau, Gordon DC, Mark Lawton, P. Eng, and J. David Miller. "FIELD INSPECTION PROTOCOL FOR INVESTIGATION OF MOLD DAMAGED BUILDINGS." (2002).
Continue reading at SEWAGE CONTAMINATION in BUILDINGS - home, or select a topic from closely-related articles below, or see our complete INDEX to RELATED ARTICLES below.
 Amahmid, O., Asmama, S., & Bouhoum, K. (1999). The effect of waste water reuse in irrigation on the contamination level of food crops by Giardia cysts and Ascaris eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 49(1-2), 19-26.
 Barak, J.D., Whitehand, L.C., & Charkowski, A.O. (2002). Differences in attachment of Salmonella enterica serovars and Escherichia coli O157:H7 to alfalfa sprouts. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68(10), 4758-4763.
 Beuchat, L.R. (1996). Pathogenic microorganisms associated with fresh produce. Journal of Food Protection, 59(2), 204-216.
 Castro-Rosas, J., & Escartin, E.F. (2000). Survival and growth of Vibrio cholerae O1, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in alfalfa sprouts. Journal of Food Science, 65(1), 162-165.
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 Thanks to reader Charles Labs at 247inktoner.com Tel: 800-866-8022 (a provider of ink toner, ink cartridges and related supplies) for updating our CDC link on e-Coli 4/19/2013.
Morey, Philip R. "MICROBIOLOGICAL SAMPLING STRATEGIES IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTSÃ." Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms (2007): 51.
"International Private Sewage Disposal Code," 1995, BOCA-708-799-2300, ICBO-310-699-0541, SBCCI 205-591-1853, available from those code associations.
"Manual of Policy, Procedures, and Guidelines for Onsite Sewage Systems," Ontario Reg. 374/81, Part VII of the Environmental
Protection Act (Canada), ISBN 0-7743-7303-2, Ministry of the Environment,135 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto Ontario M4V 1P5 Canada $24. CDN.
Manual of Septic Tank Practice, US Public Health Service's 1959.
US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm
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