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Motor capacitor location: how to find & recognize the electric start, run, or hard starting capacitor on an air conditioner or heat pump system. This air conditioning, heat pump, or other electric motor repair article series discusses the selection, installation, testing, & use of electric motor starter start and run capacitors designed to get a hard-starting air conditioner compressor motor, fan motor, refrigerator, or freezer compressor or other electric motor (such as a well pump) going.
This electric motor capacitor article series explains the selection, installation, testing, & use of electric motor starter start and run capacitors used on various electric motors found in or at buildings such as air conditioner compressors, fan motors, some well pumps and some heating equipment.
How & Where to Find or Locate the Starter Capacitor in or on Electrical Equipment
Look for starter capacitors in your air conditioning equipment in the outside air handler where a starter capacitor may be used to aid compressor motor start-up, and look for a smaller motor starting capacitor on fan motors, both
in the outside compressor/condenser and
indoors in the air handler unit's blower compartment.
A three-phase electric motor typically won't have a starter capacitor, but you won't find many residential cooling systems wired for 3-phase current. You also won't see a starter capacitor on scroll-type refrigeration compressor motors.
In our photo of a rather messy wiring job at left you can see two separate capacitors marked by the blue and red arrows.
Also see MOTOR CAPACITOR TYPES for help in determining which capacitor is which on your HVAC or other electrical equipment.
Start & Run & Dual Capacitor Specification References
Essex, Brown: "Motor Repair Supplies" (Catalog), Essex Group, Inc., 1601 Wall St., Fort Wayne, Indiana 46801, Tel: 219-461-4633, Website: www.superioressex.com, retrieved 6/20/14, original source: http://www.essexbrownell.com/uploadedFiles/Content/Products/MR%20Supplies%20Catalog-s.pdf - see pp. 86-89.
Sealed Unit Parts Co., Inc., PO Box 21, 2230 Landmark Place, Allenwood NJ 08720, USA, Tel: 732-223-6644, Website: www.supco.com, Email: info@supcocom, Supco Catalog, retrieved 6/20/14, original source: http://www.economicelectricmotors.com/cdrom/catalogs/Supco_catalog.pdf - see pp. 2-6.
van Roon, Tony, "Capacitors", [online article], retrieved 6/20/14, original source: http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/gadgets/caps/caps.html, gives a very detailed history of the invention and history of electrical capcitors beginning with van Musschenbroek's Leyden jar in 1745. This article includes
"Capacitor Nomenclature" by Dean Huster.
Kaiser, Cletus J., The Capacitor Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide For Correct Component Selection In All Circuit Applications. Know What To Use When And Where, 2d Ed., [at Amazon.com] C.J. Publishing (2011), ISBN-10: 0962852538, ISBN-13: 978-0962852534 - product description This book provides practical guidance and application information when using capacitors in electronics and electrical circuit design. This easy-to-use book covers the following capacitor types: Ceramic, Plastic Film, Aluminum Electrolytic, Tantalum, Glass, Mica, and others. This book also has a very comprehensive Glossary and Index. The Selection Guidelines and the Symbols and Equations sections have the answers to all of your daily application questions. This book is one in a series of component handbooks.
Examples & Sources of Start / Run Motor Capacitors
Packard 370V 45+5 MFD Round Run Capacitor
Supco™ 30+5 MFD 440V 440 Volt 50/60 Hz Round Motor Capacitor (typical application for Amana, Carrier, Rheem, Trane equipment)
Supco™ 45+5 MFD 440V 440 Vol 50/60 Hz Round Motor Capacitor (typical application for Amana, Carrier, Rheem, Trane equipment)
Supco HS6 (SPP6) Hard Start Relay Capacitor (230V) gives a starting torque boost of up to 500%. Quoting from product sales literature: The SUPCO SPP6 Super Boost hard start capacitor increases starting torque up to 500%. Features: Installs in seconds across run capacitor terminals Contains specially designed relay and large start capacitor for severe hard start problems. Applications: Room A/C units, Residential and commercial PSC A/C units and heat pumps, For all PSC A/C units from 4,000 thru 120,000 BTU's (1/2 thru 10 H.P.) Can be used on 120 thru 288 VAC units, For severe low voltage and hard starting compressors. SPP6 Specifications: Voltage: 115V - 230V. Increased Torque: 390 ounce inches. - retrieved 6/16/14 Amazon.com sales
Supco™ Universal (broad application) Capacitor, 10 MFD at 370V
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(Feb 21, 2014) Anonymous said:
is it possible to rebuild a submersible well pump
Yes ... maybe; it depends on the condition of the pump casing, parts, an in my opinion, an accurate diagnosis of the trouble; at some point rebuilding is not cost effective. Indeed there are specialists (H Shreck in Poughkeepsie used to be one of them) who rebuild electric motors of all kinds.
There are also many water pumps whose design makes it quite reasonable to replace pump impellers.
So to answer your question, I dunno - it depends on what's broken.
Question: fan will start but won't keep running.
(June 1, 2014) Anonymous said:
The fan on my Conquest 80 will not stay on (interior fan). It starts and then stops after a few seconds. It was installed in 2005. Help.
The start capacitor is for getting a motor started, not keeping it running.
Often motors have two windings, a start winding and a run winding. Your motor's run winding may be damaged.
Or your fan motor may require a dual capacitor (start and run) or a separate run capacitor to keep it spinning.
Or your system may have a faulty control.
Question: will a hard start capacitor reduce current drawn and stop tripping a breaker
(June 7, 2014) Joel said:
I have a commercial hood & exhaust fan (120v) running in a food truck that is used for catering. We occasionally need to run off a generator (3000w) and we've found that the fan cause the generator overload to trip. The fan has been tested and observed to draw 8 amps running at full speed. Given this, would it be possible to add a hard start kit, such as SUPCO SPP4E? Will need to confirm the motor size, just wondering if this would help.
The total draw of all items is less than 20 amps and the generator is capable of supplying 25 amps constant.
Thanks for the advice.
Joel I think the problem lies elsewhere and needs some further diagnostics. I suspect that your total current draw is exceeding the ability of the generator - you may be running more than the fan, such as lighting, a cooler, toasters, other electrical appliances. If it were just the fan, drawing 8A, it has no business tripping the breaker.
Put another way if the problem is the fan and there are NO other appliances running, then there is a failing fan motor drawing high current, or an electrical short circuit or other unsafe condition to find and fix.
A start capacitor or a run capacitor won't change the current drawn by the motor.
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Supco, Sealed Unit Parts Company, PO Box 21, 2230 Landmark Place, Allenwood, New Jersey, 08720, Tel: 732-223-6644, 201-449-3300, email: firstname.lastname@example.org, provided the compressor starting capacitor and packaging information (purchased by the author from an air conditioning parts supplier in New York) - our example uses a Sealed Unit Parts Company Solid State part No. RSC 10 115V starting capacitor which was designed for installation on refrigerators and freezers. See www.supco.com/
 "The E Class Advantage", Supco (op cit), describes the company's advanced start/run capacitor products. Web search 08/04/2011, original source: http://www.supco.com/eclassadvantage.htm Quoting from that article:
The SUPCO E-Class Series comprise the most advanced developments in start device technology:
1. Voltage sensing technology that monitors for motor start (current sensing devices require internal fuse protection).
2. A 2-wire connection that simplifies installation
3. A secondary timing circuit that ensures that the capacitor is not permanently left in the start winding circuit
4. A fully electronic device - minimizing the limitations of mechanical devices and secondary fusing associated with triac devices
5. A start device matched with an appropriately sized capacitor to cover the range of compressors for the intended application (one size does not fit all)
The use of compressor start devices results from a need to ensure that a compressor (usually air conditioning) will start under voltage conditions that are less than ideal. As discussed, several options exist in the market to address compressor start concerns. Start devices exist in many forms for specific applications. SUPCO provides a full range of products in all relevant technologies to effectively match the proper start device to the application. Care should be taken to utilize a device that meets the requirements of the job. Extra caution should be observed when employing the "one-size-fits-all" and "a bigger capacitor is better" approach to applying a start device. Consult SUPCO, a manufacturer with a complete product range, to ensure the greatest success in the start device application.
 "Motor Start and Run Capacitors", AFCAP (African Capacitors Limited), web search 08/05/2011, original source: http://www.afcap.co.za/manual/Part2.pdf
George Fazio, reader, contributed comments on failed starter capacitor diagnosis by noting the bulged capacitor ends. 09/25/2009
Troubleshooting Compressor Problems," Henry Puzio, Fuel Oil & Oil Heat with Air Conditioning Magazine, June 1993, p. 39
Tom Morris, Engineer, capacitor discussion and correction to the original data. Email to D Friedman 5/29/2006 - Thanks Tom for critical editing. The text
above explaining about capacitors was suggested by Mr. Morris. The original text of the 1993 compressor diagnosis article had the resistance explanation backwards.
Thanks to reader Diane McGivney for asking about air conditioner compressor motor starting capacitor costs and typical air conditioner service call fees - (May 2010)
Thanks to reader James Oiler for reporting on the replacement of a heat pump starter capacitor, August 2010.
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
"Air Conditioning & Refrigeration I & II", BOCES Education, Warren Hilliard (instructor), Poughkeepsie, New York, May - July 1982, [classroom notes from air conditioning and refrigeration maintenance and repair course attended by the website author]
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