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ROOFING INSPECTION & REPAIR
AMERICAN CEMWOOD ROOFING
BEST ROOFING PRACTICES
BUILT UP ROOFS
CATHEDRAL CEILING VENTILATION
CERTIFICATIONS for ROOFING CONTRACTORS
CHIMNEY FLASHING Mistakes & Leaks
COLD WEATHER ROOF TROUBLE
DECKS, ROOFTOP CONSTRUCTION
EPDM, RUBBER, PVC ROOFING
EXTRACTIVE BLEEDING on SHINGLES
FIRE RETARDANT PLYWOOD
FLASHING on BUILDINGS
FLASHING, ASPHALT SHINGLE VALLEYS
FLASHING, CHIMNEY Mistakes & Leaks
FLASHING, CLAY TILE ROOFS
FLASHING MEMBRANES PEEL & STICK
FLASHING for METAL ROOFS
FLASHING ROOF WALL DETAILS
FLASHING ROOF-WALL SNAFU
FLASHING SIDING DETAILS
FLASHING WALL DETAILS
FLASHING WINDOW DETAILS
FLASHING WOOD ROOF DETAILS
FLAT ROOF MOISTURE & CONDENSATION
Green House or Solarium Roof Leaks
HEAT TAPES & CABLES for ROOF ICE DAMS
ROOF ICE DAM LEAKS
MASONITE WOODRUF FIBERBOARD ROOFING
NOISE CONTROL for ROOFS
PLASTIC ROOFING TYPES
PVC, EPDM, RUBBER ROOFING
ROOF ARCHITECTURAL STYLES - PHOTO GUIDE
ROOF CLEANING RECOMMENDATIONS
ROOF COLOR RECOMMENDATIONS
ROOF DORMER TYPES - PHOTO GUIDE
ROOF INSPECTION SAFETY & LIMITS
ROOF JOB PROBLEMS, RESOLVING
ROOF LEAK DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
ROOF NOISE TRANSMISSION
ROOF REPLACEMENT SNAFUs
ROOFING FELT UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREMENTS
ROOFING MATERIALS, Age, Types
ROOFING TILE SHAPES & PROFILES
ROOFING UNDERLAYMENT BEST PRACTICES
SADDLE CONSTRUCTION at CHIMNEYS
SNOW GUARDS & SNOW BRAKES
STANDARDS for ROOFING
STRESS SKIN INSULATED PANELS
TEST LABS - ROOF SHINGLE
TREES & SHRUBS, TRIM OFF BUILDING
TRUSSES, Floor & Roof
UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREMENTS on ROOFS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
WALK-ON ROOF SURFACES
WARRANTIES for ROOF SHINGLES
WORKMANSHIP & ROOF DAMAGE
This article discusses how to prepare an existing asphalt shingle roof for a roof-over or for re-roofing with new asphalt shingles. This article series discusses best practices in the selection and installation of residential roofing. This article includes excerpts or adaptations from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction, by Steven Bliss, courtesy of Wiley & Sons.
Also see the roofing article links listed at the "More Reading" links at the bottom of this article and our roofing home page: ROOFING INSPECTION & REPAIR.
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Reroofing saves the cost, trouble, and risks (water damage while the roof is exposed) associated with a tear-off. If the roof is structurally sound, most building codes allow for two layers of asphalt shingles and some allow for a third on roofs with a 5:12 or steeper pitch. If the original shingles are not badly curled and the sheathing is sound (check for bouncy areas), then a reroof is a good alternative.
Shingle Type Recommendations for Re-Roofing Asphalt Shingles
The heavier the shingle on the new layer, the less likely it is that irregularities in the surface below will telegraph through. Laminated or other heavy-textured shingles work well, as they do not need to be carefully fitted to the existing shingles, and the irregular texture will conceal any small bumps or dips from the original roof.
When is it Dangerous to Roof-Over Existing Roof Coverings?
Watch out: Check roof deck condition: if you are stripping roof shingles entirely from a roof deck, either because of their poor and rough-surface condition (not suitable to shingle-over), or because portions of the roof deck itself need to be replaced (perhaps due to rot, insect damage, water damage), be sure that you properly identify the type of roof sheathing used and its condition over the entire roof deck.
Don't even think about roofing-over a structure whose roof deck is in the condition shown in our photograph at left. But a careful inspection may be required to detect more subtle but dangerous roof deck conditions.
Watch out: Life Safety Issues: Walking on an old water-damaged roof with an un-sound roof deck can result in serious injury if a worker steps into a soft area and falls through the roof - a hazard more likely with thin plywood sheathing (on some low-cost homes as thin as 3/8" or even 1/4") and also more likely where the roof is known to have been leaking, or finally, where fiberboard roof sheathing has been used.
Roof deck fall through report: In the 1980's when we [DJF] were working on a roof-over job for a 1960's house we had observed from the building attic that thin 1/4" plywood had been used for roof sheathing and we already had a concern about the nail-holding ability of that material to prevent a roof blow-off.
We had also seen evidence of prior leaks on the north slope of the roof. But we failed to spot badly damaged roof sheathing in one area of the roof. After our in-attic inspection, our worker who weighed the least, D. S., was walking over one slope of this modestly-pitched hipped roof when she stepped right through a section of soft roof decking. Luckily D.S. was not hurt, but a fall off or fall-through injury could have been very serious.
Starter Course for Re-Roofing Asphalt Shingles
If laying three-tab shingles over three tab shingles, it is important to nest the new shingles against the old to create a flat surface. This process starts with a 5-inch starter strip fit along the eaves and set against the second course of existing shingles (see Figure 2-16).
Next install a course of shingles cut down to 10 inches wide, so they fit against the bottom edge of the existing third course (this creates a new 3-inch first course). After that, shingling should proceed normally, fitting each course up against the bottom of an existing course.
Fastening / Nailing Details When Re-Roofing with Asphalt Shingles
Use galvanized roofing nails long enough to fully penetrate the sheathing, typically 1 1/2 inches for a second roof and 1 3/4 inches for a third. Nesting each new row below an existing one keeps the new nails 2 inches below the existing, which will help minimize any splitting of the sheathing.
Flashings for Re-Roofing Asphalt Shingles
Depending on their condition and accessibility, some flashings can be reused. New shingles may be able to tuck under existing step flashing, chimney flashings, and front-wall flashings. If they are deteriorated, they must be replaced along with vent boots.
See FLASHING ROOF WALL DETAILS and FLASHING ROOF-WALL SNAFU for specifications of roof-wall flashing and for some photo-examples of troubles with existing step and counter flashing when re-roofing an existing structure.
Valley Details for Re-Roofing Asphalt Shingles
Any type of valley flashing will work and simply lays over the existing flashing (except in a tear-off, where all flashings should be replaced). Unless a metal valley flashing is used, the first step is to line the existing valley with a new underlayment consisting of either 90-pound roll roofing or a more durable modified bitumen membrane. Then install either a closed or woven valley as described above.
See roof valley details at ASPHALT SHINGLE VALLEY FLASHING.
-- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
Atlas Roofing Corp. www.atlasroofing.com Fiberglass and organic felt shingles
Certainteed Roofing www.certainteed.com Fiberglass shingles
Elk Premium Building Products www.elkcorp.com Fiberglass shingles
GAF Materials Corp. www.gaf.com Fiberglass shingles
Georgia-Pacific Corp. www.gp.com/build Fiberglass and organic felt shingles
IKO www.iko.com Fiberglass and organic felt shingles
Owens Corning www.owenscorning.com Fiberglass shingles
Tamko Roofing Products www.tamko.com Fiberglass and organic felt shingles
Air Vent/A Gibraltar Company www.airvent.com A complete line of roof ventilation products, including shingle-over and exposed-ridge vents with exterior wind baffles and internal weather filters. Also soffit and drip edge vents and passive and powered attic turbine-type vents.
Benjamin Obdyke www.benjaminobdyke.com Shingle-over ridge vents. Low-profile Roll Vent uses nylonmatrix. Extractor vent is molded polypropylene with internal and external baffles.
Cor-A-Vent www.cor-a-vent.com Shingle-over low-profile ridge vents, including Cor-a-vent, Fold-a-vent, and X-5 ridge vent, designed for extreme weather. Corrugated core.
GAF Materials Corp. www.gaf.com Cobra vent: roll-out shingle-over ridge vent with a polyester-matrix core 102 CHAPTER 2 | Roofing
Mid-America Building Products www.midamericabuilding.com Ridge Master and Hip Master shingle-over molded plastic ridge vents with internal baffles and foam filter
Owens Corning www.owenscorning.com VentSure corrugated polypropylene ridge vents; also passive roof vents and soffit vents
Trimline Building Products www.trimline-products.com Shingle-over low-profile ridge vents, Flow-Thru battens for tile roofs
Elk Premium Building Products www.elkcorp.com Highpoint polypropylene shingle-over ridge vents
Tamko Roofing Products www.tamko.com Shingle-over ridge matrix–type Roll Vent and Rapid Ridge (nail gun version) and Coolridge, which is molded polypropylene with external and internal baffles
Benjamin Obdyke www.benjaminobdyke.com Cedar Breather, a 3/8 -in.-thick matrix-type underlayment designed to provide ventilation and drainage space under wood roofing
More Information about Roofing Materials, Methods, Standards
Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association (ARMA) www.asphaltroofing.org
Cedar Shake and Shingle Bureau www.cedarbureau.org
Metal Roofing Alliance www.metalroofing.com
Tile Roofing Institute www.tileroofing.org
-- Adapted with permission from Best Practices Guide to Residential Construction.
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