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Commercial walk-in coolers:
This article provides design guides and troubleshooting guides from a variety of manufacturers of commercial walk-in coolers. Ranging from product brochures to engineering calculations on heat loss and gain and thus refrigeration capacity specifications, to assembly and repair procedurs for walk in coolers and the refrigeration equipment used to keep them at proper tempeature are provided here.
Do you have a guide on how to size and troubleshooting walk in coolers and freezers also info on commercial controls. - D.B. by private email
I will see what I can find and will include some basic information here as well as adding it online. If you have a specific question, let me know that as it'd direct my search.
When I worked on commercial cooler systems it was basically servicing a compressor/condenser (with receiver) and commercial pressure controls.
See PRESSURE CONTROLS & SAFETY SWITCHES
The charge was computed as with any system: manufacturer's specs + allowances for longer refrigerant piping if present; the receiver makes obtaining the precise charge not critical.
Sizing would depend on enough on-site data that I'm doubtful about finding a single generic reference.
Condensate handling was more of a concern as there was often a larger volume of condensate than in residential cooling and refrigeration systems.
See CONDENSATE PUMPS for an example of a silly commercial walk-in cooler's approach to handling condensate: "collect it in a bucket".
Factors Affecting the Design & Cooling Equipmetn Capacity Sizing for Commercial Walk-In Coolers & Freezers
Air circulation within the space
Air tightness, extent of air leaks or deliberate ventilation
Application and required holding temperature range
Environment, particularly ambient temperature range
Exposure to specific heat gain sources: sunlight, other equipment, &c.
Frequency of access or "usage" and type of access opening (insulated door, wood door, glass door
Insulation including all six sides. Some calculators separate out the insulation type or R-value of the cooler floor
Product: Type of product being cooled and the frequency and volume of additions (I think removals are less of a concern)
Volume and sometimes shape and also interior obstructions to air flow
For general equipment sizing and walk-in cooler design specifications see these information sources:
Heatcraft Refrigeration Products – North America
2175 West Park Place Blvd. Stone Mountain, GA 30087 USA
Tel: (770) 465-5600 Toll-Free: (800)-321-1881
Kysor/Warren 5201 Transport Blvd, Columbus , GA 31907 Toll-Free: (800) 866-5596, Tel: (706) 568-1514
Engineering Manual [for Walk-In Cooler Design] Commercial Refrigeration Cooling and Freezing Load Calculations and Reference Guide (2008) [PDF] http://www.heatcraftrpd.com/PDF%5CMisc%5CEM.pdf
Industrial Controls, with technical information aimed more at design engineers, gives some calculation formulas for walk-in cooler design (refrigeration load sizing) that could unerpin the calculator cited at U.S. Cooler's BTU calculator
Industrial Controls, 17 Christopher Way Eatontown, NJ 07724 USA, Tel: 800-281-4788, Website: http://www.industrialcontrolsonline.com/
Kolpak, 2915 Tennessee Ave North Parsons, TN 38363 USA Tel: 800-826-7036 Website: http://www.kolpak.com/
Provides this walk-in cooler product brochure
U.S. Cooler, 401 Delaware, Quincy, IL 62301 800.521.2665 Fax 217.228.2424 Email: email@example.com, Website: www.uscooler.com
U.S. Cooler's BTU Calculator at
Here's U.S. Cooler's walk-in cooler troubleshooting manual - but you'll see this is a manual on cooler assembly, NOT troubleshooting the cooling system itself.
Standards & Research on commercial cooler design, installation, repair
ANSI/AHRI Standard 1251 (SI) 2014 Standard for Performance Rating of Walk-in Coolers and Freezers, available from ANSI as well as other online sources as a PDF,
The purpose of this standard is to establish, for walk-in coolers and freezers: definitions; test requirements; rating requirements; minimum data requirements for Published Ratings; operating requirements; marking and nameplate data and conformance conditions.
Anupindi, Raja Srinivas Rao. "Performance standards for walk-in coolers and freezers in the United States as a function of local weather conditions." PhD diss., University of Missouri--Kansas City, 2011.
Deru, Michael, Kristin Field, Daniel Studer, Kyle Benne, Brent Griffith, Paul Torcellini, Bing Liu et al. "US Department of Energy commercial reference building models of the national building stock." (2011): 1.
Rainwater, Julius H. "Five defrost methods for commercial refrigeration."ASHRAE Journal 51, no. 3 (2009): 38.
Sartin, Bryan Curtis. "Derivation of walk-in cooler and freezer performance standard equations as they pertain to the ANSI/AHRI Standard 1250 and 1251." PhD diss., University of Missouri--Kansas City, 2013.
Yana Motta, Samuel F., Elizabet Vera Becerra, and Mark W. Spatz. "Low global warming refrigerants for commercial refrigeration systems." (2012).
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(Oct 10, 2012) Adalberto Arroyo said:
this page is the best have to much information verry good.
(Mar 26, 2014) Jezoar said:
Thanks guys! This was great! Keep up the good work.
what is a good R14 refrigeration pressure ? What should the refrigerant pressure be in my unit?
model cxa6 keeprite unit r14 refrigeration what psi pressure it should be good. - Litt 7/26/2011
what are the low and high readings for a 7.5 ton, 220 three phase compressor with two cooling coils and serves two inside units, mod BTA090C300H0, SER W01 195521 - firstname.lastname@example.org 8/2/11
The pressure of any refrigerant will measure very differently depending on system operating status. At equalization pressure the LOW and HIGH sides will read the same, and as long as there is at least some liquid refrigerant in the system the pressure will be given by a temperature/pressure chart for that specific refrigerant.
If you scroll down to the list of article references below you'll see a link to a refrigeration pressure and temperature chart provided by Reece, an Australian company. That chart is missing R-14 refrigerant but at encyclopedia
[dot]airliquide[dot]com[slash]Encyclopedia[dot]asp?GasID=61#VaporPressureGraph you can find that information.
You'll see that at 10 bars of pressure R14 will be at 185K or about -88 C - in other words readily boiling to a vapor at ambient pressures. At 40 bars the temperature will be 230K or -43C. For a working pressure/temperature chart for refrigerants at ambient and typical HVAC pressures I'd go to the unit manufacturer.
[dot]airliquide[dot]com[slash]Encyclopedia[dot]asp?GasID=61#VaporPressureGraph you can find that information.
I add that for R14, its Latent heat of vaporization (1.013 bar at boiling point) is 135.7 kJ/kg
One Bar is 0.06895 psi
One kJ/kg = 2.326 British BTUs/Lb
But I THINK that the question you are asking is what pressures will be seen on the HIGH and LOW sides of a refrigeration system using R14 refrigerant.
For any refrigerant, you have to consult the individual refrigerant pressure/temperature chart, note the temperature of your system and the measured HVAC-system running stable state suction pressure (LOW SIDE) evaporative data, and of course the running HIGH side for the compressor/condenser condensation pressure data.
You need to consul the manufacturer's technical literature for the refrigerant gas in use and the compressor model in use, and then you'll need to use a table of gases that provides temperature and pressure data in one place, as ambient temperature affects the answer. In sum there is no single precise right number. There are typical operating ranges of refrigerant pressures, as you can see a REFRIGERANT PRESSURE READINGS & CHARTS. Also take a look at our answer to Mr. Litt, just above.
Question: what causes excessive refrigerant pressure?
what cause to much high pressure - Anonymouse
Anon: among the reasons for excessively high pressure on the HIGH Side or output side of the compressor/condenser section of an air conditioner or heat pump are a plugged or debris blocked condensing coil, plugged refrigerant line, plugged dryer/filter on the line, or a stuck refrigerant metering device such as a capillary tube or thermostatic expansion valve. There may be other causes of high refrigerant pressure that other readers can add.
Question: High pressure readings on the low side of my heat pump
I am getting very high pressure readings on the low side of my heat pump. The discharge and return line to the air handler are cool and equal in temp.(showing no refrigerant movement), But my suction line and discharge line leading in to and out of my compressor are very hot. Have open the lines and checked the orifices and they are clear as is the lines to the air handler. Is it possible that the condensing alone can be clogged? I did have a compressor burn out last year. - D. Nix 8/7/11
High pressure on the low side sounds to me as if a metering device is stuck wide open; perhaps when your compressor burned up last year it left some debris in the refrigerant lines that has found its way to the TEV and has jammed it. Ask your HVAC tech to check the system again, check the TEV adjustment, and also consider installing a (new) filter/drier on both ends of the refrigerant piping system.
Question: can a refrigerant gas leak be fixed or does the whole compressor need replacement?
I need to know whether a leak form one of the compressor tubes is fixable or not. My technician said that the whole compressor would need to be replaced. - Ehab 8/176/11
Ehab refrigerant leaks can be repaired by various patch methods. But if the leak is discovered to be a symptom of more extensive corrosion, such as at a cooling coil, it's a much bigger repair than just a patch. I'm not sure why, if the compressor was working normally, you'd need to replace all the equipment- perhaps the tech is referring to the issue that s/he cannot any longer recharge with R12 or R22 - used in older compressors, but there are alternative refrigerants that can often work with some adjustments.
Question: Comment on hose color coding; How do I know if the HVAC Tech Put In Enough Refrigerant?
Blue line goes to bigger line in compressor and red on little line
For high side - Anon 10/6/11
Hello, For a typical home split air conditioner, how to make sure that the technician has filled in enough gas in the out door compressor unit? - Sanjay 7/21/2012
Sanjay, without evacuating the air conditioner completely and putting in a precisely measured charge using gauges and metering equipment, you cannot know yourself exactly how much refrigerant is in the system. But there are indications of the refrigerant charge being too much or too little that can show up without sophisticated instruments. For example:
- if you hear a bubbling sound in the liquid line the charge may be low
- if you see bubbles in the sight glass (usually only found on commercial refrigeration equipment and on some residential air conditioner or heat pump systems) the charge may be low
- if the cooling coil is frosting over one of the causes is low refrigerant charge
- if the compressor makes a horrible clanking sound and then stops dead, one of the possible causes is overcharging or another problem (such as a failed TEV or other refrigerant metering control) that has caused liquid slugging of the compressor on the suction side.
Beyond these observations, you need to be able to trust your HVAC technician. While mistakes are of course possible, no service tech any credible motive for placing an improper refrigerant charge into the system. Doing so just makes more work and trouble for everyone.
Question: replaced the compressor but it's still not cooling and pressures look wrong
(Aug 16, 2012) John said:
I got a question had my compressor replace and it's still not cooling the high side line is low and the low side is way to height like of 100 and the high is around 200 what could be the problem beside the company that put it in
Question: refrigerant pressures keep jumping up and down
(Sept 5, 2012) joe said:
low side pressure jumping up and down
Joe, a sticky TEV can cause odd pressure variations but if you are just seeing the gauge needle vibrate over a small range I suspect that's just an artifact of the compressor motor itself.
Question: how do you know if you got air into the refrigeration system?
(Oct 25, 2012) Bob W. said:
How would you know if you introduced air into an R22 system when charging?Would the low side guage fluctuate or would the reading on the low side bounce up and down?I charged my heat pump and the low side guage is reading a steady 70psi with no bouncing movements on the needle. Do you think I'm ok?
Air in the refrigerant system won't cause pressure gauge needle bounce, more likely that's an artifact of vibration or compressor operation. Too much air contamination would change refrigerant operating properties and accompanying moisture might freeze up an expansion valve or cap tube. The fix for that problme is ugly: evacuate the system and reinstall the proper charge - something you dont' want to do if it's not necessary.
You're probably OK.
Question: Rheem 15 seer 4 ton heat pump split system refrigerant connections
(Jan 20, 2013) Spongebert11 said:
why the compressor keep in operation while removing the compound gauge in closing for the system?
(Mar 25, 2013) HomeOwnerCharlie said:
a rheem 15 seer 4 ton heat pump split system. the new condenser has 3 freon connections. the old lennox was only a normal air conditioner system and it had 2 freon connections. i am familiar with liquid and vapor lines and connections, but the 3rd connection appears to be another liquid line. can you tell me what it is. the connection has a cap and a schrader valve, but no shut off valve. can you tell me what that 3rd connection is for.
(Jan 25, 2014) humphrey said:
you keep the HVAC compressor running when disconnecting the gauges to maintain the differences in pressure
Come compressor units are able to handle two or more separate refrigeration piping loops, for example supporting multiple split-system cooling units. Or perhaps what you see is provided for a line used when in heat mode.
Question: pressure readings 75 psi low 240 to 280 on the high side - yes it bounces
(June 18, 2014) Brian said:
my 2006 house 3 ton unit- little to no condensation inside- pressure readings 75 psi low 240 to 280 on the high side - yes it bounces. House cools. 74F inlet temp, 54 supply temp. 90F outside temp. should I be concerned about by metering valve that might be causing my bounce?
Brian I think it's worth looking-at. Look for dirt, contamianation, or frosting / icing.
Question: why do we use hoses with knurled connectors on refrigeration gauges
(Sept 14, 2014) rash said:
hi.what is the reason for fitting a gauge hose ends with brass knurled nuts?
Rash the knurling permits the technician to attach and detach the fittings by hand without using tools.
(Feb 6, 2015) Ben said:
i see grafts and what ever, but not a HIGH (?100-125) LOW (?25) i said the new unit sounded like it was working to hard (breathing) they said the freon was too high and let some out. i can't make heads or tails of what i've read so far in reguard to high/low
I'm a bit confused by your question too, but it's fair to gripe if you're not finding the info you need here. I'll review the article above to see what I can add about specific example HI and LO pressures. Understand that the actual reading of refrigerant pressure MUST be understood or interpreted along with a table giving the specific refrigerant as well as ambient and system temperatures.
Since the cooling system cannot manufacture its own refrigerant, if the refrigerant charge was too high according to your service tech, then the system was previously over-charged during service. Quite possibly the problem is elsewhere.
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Thanks to reader G.G. for technical comments regarding article text clarity, 12/30/2013.
TIF Instruments, Inc., 9101 NW 7th Avenue, Miami, Florida 33150 (This is where we've sent our TIF 8800 and TIF 5000 for repairs).
Jennifer Moore, Sales Administrator, Nextteq, LLC, Tampa FL, www.nextteq.com 813-249-5888. Nextteq is the master Distributor for Gastec in the United States. According to the company's website, Gastec Gas Sampling Pumps are the industry’s first and only pumps to provide on-the-spot measurement of ambient temperature. [Private email, JM to DF 5/23/08]
"Choosing and Using a Carbon Monoxide CO Monitor," Dan Friedman, The ASHI Technical Journal, Vol. 2 No. 1, July1991
Refrigeration Temperature & Pressure Chart, web search 07/27/2011, Reece National Support Centre
118 Burwood Highway
Burwood Victoria 3125 Australia. The company also has offices in New Zealand.
Phone: +613 9274 0000
Fax: +613 9274 0198, original source: http://www.reece.com.au/plumbing/techtools/refrigerant - quoting from Reece:
Reece is Australia‘s leading supplier of bathroom and plumbing products with over 400 stores across the country including our market leading Bathroom Life™ showrooms. We also cater for more specialised industries through our Irrigation, hvac-r and Civil businesses as well Onsite which services commercial plumbers and volume home builders.
Refrigeration temperature & pressure chart for R-14, R14, tetrafluoromethane, also referred to as CF4, web search 07/27/11, original source http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/Encyclopedia.asp?GasID=61#VaporPressureGraph
Carbon fluoride; Freon 14; Perfluoromethane; Carbon tetrafluoride; Halocarbon 14; R 14; PFC 14 are synonyms for R14 refrigerant.
How to diagnose and fix an air conditioning system that is not working
Since the failure of an air conditioner to turn on, loss of air conditioner cooling capacity, reduced air conditioning output temperatures, loss of cool air supply,
or even loss of air flow entirely can be due to a variety of problems with one or more components of an air conditioner or
air conditioning system, after reviewing the lost air conditioner cooling diagnosis procedures described in this article, be sure to also review the diagnostic procedures at each of the individual air conditioning diagnosis and repair major topics listed just below. To return to our air conditioning and refrigeration home page go to AIR CONDITIONING & HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS.
If your air conditioning or heat pump system has lost its cooling capacity or won't start select one or more of the diagnostic articles listed below.
A/C - HEAT PUMP CONTROLS & SWITCHES: air conditioner controls and switches - begin here if your A/C won't start. Here's an important tip: most refrigeration problems, in air conditioners, refrigerators, or freezers, are electrical, not mechanical. In air conditioning school, we used to drive out and collect abandoned refrigerators that people were tossing out during our community's spring cleanup week. Taking these appliances back into the shop we found that almost always the problem that had caused the owner to dispose of their air conditioner or freezer was in an electrical connection or electrical control. So it's worth checking out switches and controls on an air conditioner before replacing more costly components.
OPERATING DEFECTS: major air conditioning problem symptoms and how to get the air conditioning system working again,e.g. compressor or fan noises, failure to start, and inadequate cool air volume
A Toxic Gas Testing Plan: A Gas Sampling Plan for Residential and Commercial buildings lists some of the toxic indoor gases for which we test, depending on the building complaint and building conditions
Gas Exposure Hazard Levels: for Toxic Gas Exposure to Ammonia, Arsine, Arsenic, Bromine, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, Hydride, Ozone - allowable exposure levels and hazard levels
Formaldehyde: US EPA. UFFI (Urea Formaldehyde Foam Insulation) was previously considered a hazard (formaldehyde outgassing).
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Ozone Warnings - Use of Ozone as a "mold" remedy is ineffective and may be dangerous.
Sampling for gases in air such as VOC's, MVOC's, toxic chemicals, and combustion products.
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toxic gases and for leak tracing we also use Amprobe's Tif8850 and 8800, and the TIF 5000 automatic halogen leak detector (for air conditioning and cooling system refrigerant leak detection). All of these instruments, their applications, and sensitivities (minimum detectable limits) for specific
gases are described in our Gas Sampling Plan online document.
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