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PLUMBING SYSTEM INSPECT DIAGNOSE REPAIR
AGE of PLUMBING MATERIALS & FIXTURES
AIR DISCHARGE at FAUCETS, FIXTURES
ANTI SCALD VALVES
ANODES & DIP TUBES on WATER HEATERS
BACKUP PREVENTION, SEPTIC
BACKUP PREVENTION, SEWER LINE
BACKWATER VALVES, SEWER LINE
BATH & KITCHEN DESIGN GUIDE
CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS in WATER
CHEMICAL ODOR SOURCES
CHLORINE IN DRINKING WATER
DEBRIS in WATER SUPPLY, Water Heater
DEPTH of SEPTIC TANK
DRAIN & SEWER PIPING
FAUCETS & CONTROLS, KITCHEN & BATH
FAUCETS, OUTDOOR HOSE BIBBS
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOOR DRAIN / TRAP ODORS
FLUSHOMETER VALVES for TOILETS URINALS
GAS PIPING, VALVES, CONTROLS
GALVANIC SCALE & METAL CORROSION
HARD WATER - SOFTENERS
HEAT TAPES, Heat, Insulation prevent Freeze-Up
LEAD POISONING HAZARDS GUIDE
LEAD IN DRINKING WATER, HOW to REDUCE
METHANE GAS SOURCES
MIXING / ANTI-SCALD VALVES
MUNICIPAL WATER PRESSURE IMPROVEMENTS
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS IN WATER
ODORS, SEPTIC or SEWER
ODORS SEWER GAS in COLD WEATHER
ODORS, SULPHUR SMELL SOURCES
ANIMAL or URINE ODOR SOURCE DETECTION
PIPING IN BUILDINGS, Clogs Leaks Types
PLUMBING FIXTURES, KITCHEN, BATH
PLUMBING NOISE TRANSMISSION CONTROL
PLUMBING VENT DEFINITIONS & CODES
PLUMBING VENT DEFECTS & NOISES
PUMPS, WATER REPAIR
RELIEF VALVE LEAKS
RELIEF VALVE, TP VALVE, BOILER
RELIEF VALVE, TP VALVE, STEAM BOILER
RELIEF VALVE, WATER HEATER
RELIEF VALVE, WATER TANK
REPAIR BURST LEAKY PIPES
METHANE GAS HAZARDS
SEPTIC SYSTEM INSPECT DIAGNOSE REPAIR
SHUTOFF VALVE LOCATION, USE
SULPHUR & SEWER GAS SMELL SOURCES
SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS
TOILETS, INSPECT, INSTALL, REPAIR
WATER, WELLS, WATER TANKS: TESTING GUIDE
WATER PRESSURE LOSS DIAGNOSIS & REPAIR
WATER PUMPS & TANKS
WATER SOFTENERS & CONDITIONERS
WATER SOURCE ALTERNATIVES
WATER SUPPLY & DRAIN PIPING
WATER SHUTOFF VALVE LOCATION, USE
WATER SHUTOFF VALVE, WELL PUMP
WATER TESTS, CONTAMINANTS, TREATMENT
WELLS CISTERNS & SPRINGS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
Water supply & drain piping: This article defines and describes different types of building supply and drain piping with an alphabetical list of piping materials and properties. For each type of building piping material, in addition to giving its description and properties and use, we include special concerns or possible defects to watch-out for.
The articles at this website will answer most questions about water supply & drain piping, wells, & water tanks as well as many other building plumbing system inspection or defect topics. We link to in-depth articles on inspecting, testing, and repairing problems with building plumbing: water supply and drain waste vent piping, plumbing traps, piping materials, clogged or noisy pipes, and types of pipe hazards or product defects.
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See ABS PLASTIC PIPE FAILURES for details. Excerpts are below.
In widespread use as drain piping, black ABS drain piping, or "All Black -hit," defective black ABS plastic waste pipe manufactured in the mid 1980's failed by cracking - not something that should be a problem with current ABS products.
Our photo (left) illustrates ABS (black) and PVC (white) drain pipe materials used together. Currently there are primers and glues that can be used on either PVC or ABS or on a combination of the two. [Click to enlarge any image]
But watch out for older installations where these plastic drain materials may be mixed as it may be an indication of amateur work or use of improper glues that can result in leaks at joints and fittings.
See CAST IRON DRAIN PIPING for details. Excerpts are below.
Cast iron drain piping has been used in buildings for more than 100 years. This heavy material is available in diameters from 2" and up, with typical main building drains of 4" to 6" in diameter. A hub system connects pipe sections, originally using melted lead.
The cast iron pipe hub and stub were wiped with oil to remove water, avoiding a dangerous steam flash when lead was poured into the fitting. Most modern cast iron connections are made using rubber or plastic fittings that no longer require heating and melting lead.
The illustrations (left) show accessing a cast iron drain cleanout and two methods of emergency, temporary repair of leaks in drain piping.
Cast iron piping used for in-building drain piping as well as sewer lines is also illustrated at How to Locate the Main Building Drain, and
See COPPER PIPING in buildings for details. Excerpts are below.
Guide to Types of Copper Piping used in buildings
The following summary notes about copper and other types of building piping are from Carson Dunlop Associates' Home Reference Book, used with permission:
Copper piping has been used extensively since the early 1950s for supply lines from the city main to the house as well as for in-building water supply and drain piping.
Copper water supply piping is typically 1/2 or 3/4 inch diameter. Copper piping is typically 1/2 or 3/4 inch diameter. Copper piping has soldered connections and the walls of the pipe are thinner than galvanized steel. Copper piping has soldered connections and the walls of the pipe are thinner than galvanized steel.
From 1950 to 1970, 1/2-inch diameter piping was used commonly. After 1970, 3/4-inch diameter copper service piping has been common.
The life expectancy of copper piping is dependent on water conditions. In many areas, its life expectancy is indefinite. In harsh corrosive water or corrosive soil conditions, it may fail within 20 years or even less. Occasionally manufacturing defects also result in early failure of copper building piping.
Carson Dunlop Associates' sketch (left) illustrates three types of copper piping used in buildings for water supply or drains.
See GALVANIZED STEEL WATER PIPING for details. Excerpts are below.
Galvanized steel is not commonly used as a service pipe, although galvanized steel fittings may be found at the point of entry into the house. Where galvanized service piping is used, it is typically at least 1 1/4-inch diameter. The word galvanized means zinc-coated. The coating helps prevent the steel from rusting.
Galvanized steel piping was common until roughly 1950. This piping typically lasts 40 to 60 years. Some lower-quality pipes do not last as long and there are some oversized pipes still in use after 60 years. Where it is found today in single-family homes, it is usually near the end of its life.
Life expectancy of galvanized steel piping: Galvanized steel supply pipes are typically 1/2-inch diameter. The connections are threaded. When the pipe corrodes, the rust accumulation inside the pipe chokes down the diameter of the pipe, resulting in poor water pressure.
Rust also attacks the pipe walls, making the walls thinner. Eventually, the pipe will rust through, usually at the joints first, resulting in leakage.
- Home Reference Book, used with permission.
See GALVANIZED STEEL WATER PIPING for details. Excerpts are below.
Galvanized "iron" (galvanized steel) pipes were and continue to be used for both water supply pipes and water drain piping. Our photographs (below) show galvanized drain piping in use in buildings. At below left, the cleanout in a galvanized drain line has been lost, plugged with who-knows-what, and is an odor and leak source. At below-right, the rope trying to secure the galvanized drain line to the cast iron sewer piping confirm a history of leak troubles and improper plumbing connections.
See our detailed articles about lead plumbing pipes in buildings at
Portions of the following summary are from Carson Dunlop Associates' Home Reference Book, used with permission:
Lead piping was used between the street main and the house up until the 1950s. A good deal of lead supply line is still in use, and the health authorities indicate that as long as it is used regularly, there is no difficulty with it. If the water has not been run for some time, many recommend that the water be flowed for several minutes before using it.
Our photographs show a lead water entry main or service pipe (below-left) and lead plumbing drain piping (below-right).
The life expectancy of lead water supply piping is indefinite in some soils and in more corrosive soils we have plumbers' opinions that the service life of buried lead water supply piping is 40 to 50 years.
Also see AGE of PLUMBING MATERIALS & FIXTURES.
Orangeburg pipes, named not for their color but for the town where the Fibre Conduit Company, a major pipe manufacturer was located, were used outside buildings to connect the building drain to septic systems or in some areas to sewer pipes.
Orangeburg pipes are black, and somewhat fragile bituminous-coated fiber pipes.
OPINION: think Orangeburg pipe? think "tar impregnated cardboard". Inexpensive, widely used. Orangeburg piping was used in both un-perforated form as septic distribution piping and more widely in perforated form as effluent distribution piping in septic drainfields and as buried downspout drain lines.
As we explain at AGE of PLUMBING MATERIALS & FIXTURES, Orangeburg drain & septic field piping, most widely used in drain piping and septic fields, was made of ground wood fibers bound with an adhesive mastic (coal tar), typically looking like black"tarred" piping. Orangeburg piping was first used in Boston in 1865.
Despite it's name, "Orangeburg pipe" is not orange in color and it never was, though if you want to see some orange-colored sewer piping see our description of Terra Cotta (clay) pipes below in this article. The name Orangeburg pipe comes from the main producer of this product, the Fibre Conduit Co., in Orangeburg, New York. After 1948 the company changed its name to Orangeburg Manufacturing. Black coal-tar impregnated fiber piping was widely used in North American from 1950 to 1970.
Orangeburg drain piping and sewer piping was not made just by Fiber Conduit. Other manufacturers included American Piping Co., J.M. Fiber Conduit, Bermico (Brown Manufacturing), and American Manufacturing
We still come across Orangeburg pipe when excavating old septic drainfields and on occasion when inspecting an older home, say before 1970, you may see the top of a section of Orangeburg pipe peeking up above ground as a connection for a roof gutter downspout.
In our Orangeburg pipe downspout drain photo above we were pointing out (the pen) that perforated pipe was used as a buried drain right next to the building - inviting basement water entry even if the drain is not yet clogged. And figure, if you see a buried downspout drain using a material not commonly installed for 40 years, that the drain itself may be blocked or collapsed by now. Now think "Orangeburg pipe septic drainfield??"
See PLASTIC PIPING ABS CPVC PB PEX PVC or the specific article links just below for details about plastic drain and supply piping in buildings, including its history, failures, warranty claims, class actions, and present usage in construction.
Photo courtesy Galow Homes.
PLASTIC PIPING ABS CPVC PB PEX PVC
Plastic water service piping may be polybutylene (PB), polyethylene (PE), cross-linked and Tubing Tubing Tubing Tubing Tubing Tubing Tubing polyethylene (PEX), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) or chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC).
Most plastic piping is buried at least 18 inches deep (see DRAIN LINE DEPTH for details). Exposed piping may be subject to mechanical damage and deterioration from sunlight. - Home Reference Book, used with permission.
Terra cotta pipes are clay pipe that was used for external sewer (or septic system) connection in North America from about 1900 to 1940.
Terra cotta pipe is often deep red to orange in color, round with hubs to facilitate pipe section connections. (Photo, above left).
In smaller sizes terra cotta may be hexagonal in external shape (photo above right) though round in its interior profile. Joints in terra cotta piping were made using cement to surround the piping.
The material was both durable (it does not corrode or rot) but fragile, easily broken by heavy traffic above or by improper bedding in the trench if exposed to heavy rocks.
We also provide this photo of another type of octagonal clay sewer and septic piping that was often used in drainfields as disjointed sections.
Continue reading at ABS PLASTIC PIPE FAILURES or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Question: what's the right type of copper pipe to use at my urinals?
Inspector is challenging me about the type of copper pipe installed for waste pipe on my urinals. I installed DWV Copper tube and he says type m is minimum. What do you say I cannot find anything in ontario plumbing code 2006. - Karac Rushton - 6/29/2012
Reply: 2007 Ontario Plumbing code permits K & L copper; M above ground; DWV above ground but not buried.
Karac, the 2007 Ontario Plumbing code is available online at opseu560[dot]org/BuildingCode-2007[dot]pdf
220.127.116.11. Conformance to Standards
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