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Biogas & bio fuel productions systems:
This biogas article discusses designs, methods, and projects for biogas production to obtain useful renewable-energy methane gas for use as a fuel.
Our page top photo of the KIST biogas project in Rwanda, described by the Ashden Awards for sustainable energy program is from the Ashden awards program.
Watch out: Because sewer gas contains
methane gas (CH4) there is a risk of an explosion hazard or even fatal asphyxiation.
and the chance that there are possible
health hazards from sewer gas exposure, such as a bacterial infection we include here some safety warnings for people undertaking amateur biogas production projects.
We also provide a MASTER INDEX to this topic, or you can try the page top or bottom SEARCH BOX as a quick way to find information you need.
Biogas Plants: Using Septic Gas or Sewer Gas for Fuel
Various efforts have been made to use sewer gas or septic gas as a fuel for heating or lighting deriving methane from bacteria-powered manure or even human waste or food waste digesters in many countries.
What is Biogas and How Is It Used Around the World?
Bio-gas is a mixture of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) produced by the break-down or digestion of organic waste such as manure, vegetable matter, sewage, or even food waste. The gas produced is clean and burns clean, providing a more healthy fuel than some alternatives such as wood.
Because biogas is high in methane it can be used as a fuel for cooking, lighting, or even powering vehicles or other machines. And because bio gas can be produced from waste material its production is considered a potentially sustainable energy source.
Quoting below, we refer to Ashden's explanation of biogas:
Biogas systems use bacteria to break down wet organic matter like animal dung, human sewage or food waste. This produces biogas, which is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide, and also a semi-solid residue. The biogas is used as a fuel for cooking, lighting or generating electricity. Using biogas can save the labour of gathering and using wood for cooking, minimise harmful smoke in homes, and cut deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions. Biogas plants can also improve sanitation, and the residue is useful as a fertiliser
How is Biogas Produced?
Key in biogas production is the construction of a proper container (an anaerobic biogas digester) that is air-tight (and safe). When organic materials such as dung, vegetable matter, or sewage break down in the absence of large amounts oxygen (where anaerobic bacteria cause the desired decomposition) the result is a production of useful quantities of methane (CH4) that can be used as a fuel, along with carbon dioxide, and lower amounts of hydrogen and other trace gases.
This biogas production process produces little heat and an end product higher in nitrogen than if the same process is attempted in the presence of oxygen and aerobic bacteria.
The decomposition of waste matter by anaerobic bacteria occurs in two phases: acidic anaerobic bacteria break down the organic waste into peptides, glycerol, alcohol, sugars that are then further converted by other anaerobic bacteria into methane and the other materials listed above.
In large or commercial biogas production systems such as using large amounts of manure, the waste is mixed with water to form a slurry that is fed continuously through the digester. In smaller home or farm biogas producing designs the waste is fed into the digester in batches, manually and water is also added manually as required. -- various sources.
Large Scale Biogas Production & Use Projects
While using sewage waste to produce methane involves both the explosion hazard cited just below, and the difficulty of dealing with a high percentage of liquid volume, some efforts to obtain usable methane fuel gases from sewage have been reported.
The New York Times reported (May 13, 2010) a successful 2005 prison project in Cyangugu, Rwanda using "beehive-shaped converters to house bacteria to ferment the waste." [Photo, left, from the Ashden award for this KIST designed program ]
Methane was collected for cooking and the residue was used as fertilizer. The project design was used in six other prisons, reported the Times who credit the sewage methane gas production system design to the Kigali Institute for Science and Technology (KIST). KIST received an Ashden Award for sustainable energy projects for this effort.
Productive sources of bio-gas (gobar gas in Pakistan and India) currently (to 2010) include landfill produced biogas (50% methane) and bio-digesters or advanced wastewater treatment systems (up to 75% methane) designed for methane gas production and capture.
Small Scale Biogas Production & Use - Home & Do-it-yourself Bio-gas Projects
Some readers have asked if they could just capture methane gas from their septic tank to use as a household fuel for heating, cooking, or gas lighting. And there are septic-tank-like systems designed for that purpose, but as we warn below, don't just try hooking up your septic tank to a gas burner.
While rural farmers and families have made use of manure (animal dung) as fertilizer and when dried, as fuel for eons, use of manure to produce biogas for local use is more recent.
Indeed biogas can be produced, captured, compressed (like natural gas) and used as a fuel, including powering vehicles, and on a smaller scale, it has been successfully produced in home-sized biogas projects, such as in India and Pakistan where Ashden describes a one cubic meter floating-dome (thus safer) home-scale biogas plant installed by BIOTECH in a home in South India.
Manure from two to four cows or five to ten pigs can produce sufficient biogas to supply the cooking (and possibly lighting) needs for a single family.
Biogas plants in small scale projects produce methane or bio-gases from livestock manure mixed into a slurry using a system to which local toilets (producing human waste) may be connected.
Small biogas production systems and equipment are increasingly employed to use food or other organic waste as an energy source, both as home-made and commercially available equipment. In May 2015 the New York Times reported on the conversion of food scraps into a slurry used to produce biogas and fertilizer.
Insinkerator, Grind2Energy, and Quasar combine food waste grinding and naturally occurring bacteria to process organic waste. - Cardwell, Diane, "Food Scraps for Energy", The New York Times, 2 May 2015 p. B1-2.
An under-sink food waste grinder using "dry grind" technology to minimize water usage, produces a slurry that is drained to a storage tank for later transfer to a tank truck for movement by a food waste hauler to a processing facility. Contact information is provided below.
Typical Costs of Biogas Kits & Generator Systems
Low-cost brick-dome domestic biogas plants (properly constructed for safety?) can cost as little as $300 U.S. (Asia) to $1400. U.S. (Africa) and in addition to producing biogas for fuel, these systems can produce usable fertilizer.
Home biogas kits typically provide the key components to construct a biogas generator and leave construction or provision of the biogas container itself to the consumer. Kits for a home biogas generator typically cost inthe $500. U.S.D. range while plans for such kits sost about 1/10 of that - $50. U.S. D.
Higher-cost packaged home biogas systems that include everything including the digester container can cost considerably more, with prices up to $5000. U.S. for a complete packaged home system delivered.
In our OPINION the economy of home biogas production may be best supported by purchasing either kits that contain the necessary biogas generator components or plans for do-it-yourself projects.
Information on Biogas Generators & Kits
Anaerobic Digestion, biogas information in the UK, U.K. Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs, U.K. Department of Energy & Climate Change,
Website: http://www.biogas-info.co.uk/ information on anaerobic digestion, biogas and digestate
GVEP International, Global Village Energy Partnership, Website: http://www.gvepinternational.org/
Biogas is produced through the anaerobic digestion of organic waste such as animal and human, and household waste as well as agricultural by-products. In East Africa, biogas is largely used as a clean cooking fuel but can also be used for electricity production when coupled with a generator.
Biogas digesters also produce valuable by-products such as fertilizer that may supplement the biogas system owner’s income.
Like many energy products in African markets, this technology has previously been offered with limited consumer finance and aftersales service.
Companies such as SimGas East Africa in Tanzania are providing a holistic, full-service approach that includes installation, training, financing and maintenance for its customers. Takamoto Biogas in Kenya has integrated a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) financing scheme that enables biogas produced in individual systems to be sold as a service similar to grid electricity. This approach seeks to overcome the high upfront cost, one of the key barriers to uptake of many energy access technologies in Africa.
Biogas in New Zealand, Bioenergy Association of New Zealand (BANZ), Website: http://www.biogas.org.nz/
InSinkErator Disposers, Website; www.insinkerator
Emerson Electric Co, Grind2Energy organics recycling systems, Website: www.grind2energy.com Tel: 800-845-8345 - shown at above left.
Sources of Home Biogas System Designs, Plans, Biogas Kits & Biogas Components
Australia biogas, PO Box 422
Angaston SA 5353
Australia, ABN 33 140 114 432, Email: email@example.com , Website: http://www.biogasaustralia.com.au/
A kit for an 8 m³ digester complete consists of:
China biogas: Canadian student project, U. Calgary, Canada
Romo-Rábago, Blanca Elizabeth LOW COST BIODIGESTER AS A SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOLUTION FOR
JIUDAI YAKOU VILLAGE, CHINA, A CASE STUDY [PDF] Haskayne Schoole of Business, University of Calgary, retrieved 2018/09/12, original source: http://www.ecovillageofhope.org/content/Low%20cost%20biodigester.pdf
This research draws from a broad base of international case studies to evaluate the
feasibility of implementing a low cost biodigester at the Jiudai Yakou village, Yunnan
province, south western China. I compare the three most popular low cost biodigester
technologies currently used in developing countries to generate biogas.
technologies are assessed in terms of cost effectiveness, social, and ecological benefits, as
well as the potential for biogas production at the Jiudai Yakou village. Currently this
village does not have a reliable source of electricity, and it has an inefficient latrine
system to manage human and animal waste.
My working hypothesis is that by using a
low cost biodigester at the Chinese village, it can provide the villagers with a sustainable
source of renewable energy that is safe, more efficient and provides more ecological and
sanitary benefits than a traditional latrine.
E.U. Biogas sources & designs: European Union, Africa, Middle East, Central America.
HOUSEHOLD BIOGAS SEPTIC TANK SYSTEM [PDF], retrieved 2018/09/12, original source: http://solarcities.eu/sites/default/files/documents/household_biogas_septic_tank_system.pdf
Contains images and parts list, very little technical data - Ed.
Solarcities.eu Information: Website: http://solarcities.eu/contact SolarC³ITIES.eu is a team of versatail biogas specialist. We work all over the world, particularly Africa, the Middle East, and Central America, developing home-scale sustainable development solutions with, by, and for families and communities.
International Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, TECHNOLOGY REVIEW of BIOGAS SANITATION, [PDF] (2010) GIZ, Sustainable Sanitation Ecosan, for Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Postfach 5180, 65726 Eschborn, Germany Tel: +49 61 79-4220 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.gtz.de/ecosan retrieved 2018/09/12, original source: https://www.sswm.info/sites/default/files/reference_attachments/technology%20review%20of%20biogas%20sanitation.pdf
Modjinou, Mawufemo DESIGN OF BIOGAS SEPTIC TANKS FOR TREATING
DOMESTIC SEWAGE [PDF] (2014), MS thesis submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, KNUST - Kumasi,
Ghana - University Relations Officer, University Relations Office
Tel: +233-3220- 60021
E-Mail: email@example.com retrieved 2018/09/12, original source: http://ir.knust.edu.gh/bitstream/123456789/6890/1/Mawufemo%20Modjinou.pdf
Excerpts: This study is to design a novel septic tank, named Anaerobic Upflow Domestic Septic Tank
(AUDST) to recover biogas as energy and treat domestic sewage.
... The anaerobic digestion stage is made up of baffle and anaerobic filter for accommodating
sludge and providing a more intimate contact between anaerobic biomass and sewage which
improves treatment performance. The anaerobic unit is fitted with locally woven baskets
prefilled with packing materials. The aim is to strengthen the biological treatment process at this
The Facultative Filtration unit of the model is also packed with filtering media such as
gravels (3-6mm in diameter) that is low in cost, and has a high durability to produce effluent
with lower pollutants and suspended solids content to meet Ghana’s Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) standards for the discharge of domestic effluents.
Arjun biogas kits, Arjun Energy, Tamil Nadu India, Website http://www.arjunenergy.com/
Quoting: ...manufacturing & supplying a wide range of biogas plants to facilitate the domestic as well as the industrial sectors. In this range, we offer small digesters, domestic biogas digesters, gas storage balloons and many more
ARTI biogas kits, Samuchit Enviro Tech Pvt Ltd., Pune, India, Website: http://www.samuchit.com/
Quoting: We supply a household biogas plant kit consisting of connectors for inlets and outlets, drain valve, gas cock assembly, and a single burner biogas stove. The kit also includes an instructional video for constructing your own biogas plant. The digester and gas holder tanks and inlet and outlet pipes have to be purchased locally.
You only need some knowledge of plumbing and you can do it yourself! Hundreds of people across the world have constructed their own biogas plants from the instructional video and are happily using them.
feedstock inlet assembly
overflow outlet assembly
drain valve assembly
biogas outlet assembly (valve, pipe fittings, connectors) - note: these are standard gas pipigng or plumbing parts - Ed.
Abstract: India, as a developing country of fast growing population with an increasing rate of urbanization faces threefold crisis of shortage of energy, high rate of pollution, and abundance of waste. Though, technologies are available, high cost of production and maintenance, made solar energy less attractive to people in India.
All major rivers and water bodies in India are heavily polluted, mainly by fecal waste. This considerably reduces the availability of drinking water. There are a few massive projects in initiation to clean those rivers and water bodies. But such efforts may be successful only when, we could ensure all people in our nation use toilets.
There should not be simple toilets, as we have experience in our daily life, but technologically designed and planned in a statewide manner. There should not be separate septic tank for each house or building, but a centralized processing unit should be constructed and bio-gas can be produced with minimal amount of cost.
The fuel thus generated can be used for domestic as well as auto fuels. Decentralized planning and execution of the project for each locality in our country will be an effective alternative to solve severe scarcity of energy that we are going to face in near future, by minimum expenditure.
Industrial biogas: Dresser-Rand Guascor, Website: http://www.dresser-rand.com/bioenergy/
Quoting: Dresser-Rand Guascor® offers power generation and cogeneration equipment specially designed to work with a variety of biogases from different biodigestion processes.
Flexi Biogas, Nairobi via Facebook page https://www.facebook.com/pages/Biogas-International-Ltd/130767270356642
Excerpt from WSTF: The Water Sector Trust Fund (WSTF) is a Kenyan State Corporation under the Ministry of Water and Sanitation and established under the Water Act, 2016, with the mandate to provide conditional and unconditional grants to the Counties and to assist in financing the development of and management of water services in the marginalised and underserved areas...
Quoting: Zorg Biogas AG is a biogas plant construction company. Zorg Biogas's Engineering bureau designs and constructs biogas plants around the globe. Biogas plants produce biogas or electrical power from agricultural / food waste and specially cropped green biomass. Biogas is produced by means of controlled anaerobic digestion treatment of organic materials by bacteria. Biogas is similar to natural gas.
Tanzania & Kenya biogas: SimGas Tanzania Ltd.
P.O. Box 3016 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Tel: +255 (0) 6 84 747 427 (Airtel) Other telephone numbers are at the Simgas website: http://www.simgas.com/,
Quoting: a cooking fuel that replaces firewood, charcoal and kerosene.
Italy / Ukraine: biogas kits & systems: Biteco, Ukraine 02091 Kiev
Kharkovskoe avenue 150/15, office 5.
Tel: +38 (044) 362-76-75, listed under Italy this company's headquarters are in the Kiev, Ukraine
Biteco, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: http://www.biteco-energy.com/
Phillipines: Gendrano, Jose Carmelo M., HOW TO BUILD a LOW-COST FERROCEMENT BIOGAS DIGESTER [PDF], Philipine Center for Water and Sanitation (PCWS) Email: email@example.com
WASH Coalition, Pilipinas,
267 Ermin Garcia Street,
Cubao, Quezon City
Phone/Fax: (632) 912-0531
www.itnphil.org.phretrieved 2018/09/12, original source: http://www.itnphil.org.ph/docs/Ferrocement%20Biogas%20Digester.pdf
Polprasert, C., W. Kanok-Nukulchai, V.S. Rajput, A FERROCEMENT DIGESTER: BIOGAS and BIOMASS PRODUCTION [PDF] (1982), in Journal of Ferrocement: Vol 12, No. 1, January 1982, retrieved 2018/09/12, original source: https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/42851/IDL-42851_v12n1.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
This paper presents the detailed design and construction of four 3.5m3 biogas digesters using ferrocement. The digester is a fixed-cover type similar to the CHinese model, but a slurry mixing device was provided. Information about the biogas and biomass production from the digesters is included.
USA Home biogas kits & systems:
Hestia, Oregon, U.S.A. Tel: 1-844-US-HOMEBIOGAS Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, Website: http://hestiahomebiogas.com/
Complete packaged biogas kits ($4000. USD delivered) distributed in Oregon, kits & parts sold separately, biogas kit plans sold separately.
Weisman, Warren, "How to Make Biogas in 5 Easy Steps" (2014) Mother Earth News [web article] retrieved 2018/09/12, original source: https://www.motherearthnews.com/renewable-energy/how-to-make-biogas-in-5-easy-steps-zbcz1410
Biogas and Methane Gas Safety Warnings
Watch out: We reported at SEWER GAS ODORS that because sewer gas contains
methane gas (CH4) there is a risk of an explosion hazard.
At SEPTIC & CESSPOOL SAFETY we explain that gases produced in a septic tank are dangerous, as a potential
source of explosion and as a cause of death by asphyxiation if someone falls into or deliberately enters a septic tank.
Readers should also beware that because some waste contains other toxins including heavy metals, amateur attempts to collect and burn sewage-produced gases could produce dangerous levels of carcinogens or other contaminants.
Don't try just piping or pumping sewer gas out of a septic tank or sewer line (our photo at right) for fuel use. We do not recommend just "hooking up your septic tank" to obtain methane fuel gas.
Watch out: Biogas Safety Advice from Werkgrop Terlindenv
A biogas leak can be smelled if the hydrogen sulfide has not been removed from the biogas. It smells like rotten eggs. No one should go inside large digesters unless they have a companion on the outside who can get them out in case they need help. Although the methane and carbon dioxide of biogas are not poisonous, a person may stop breathing if there is too much biogas and not enough oxygen in the air they are trying to breath.
Never allow negative pressure in a biogas system. Negative pressure occurs when the force created by the weight of the gases outside the biogas system is greater than the force inside the system. In normal operations the pressure inside the system should always be greater.
How much greater should always be measured on a pressure gauge (see Diagram 14 [in the company's literature- ed.]).
Negative pressure will pull air into the biogas system and the mixture of biogas and air might explode. If that does not happen, the oxygen in the air will kill the biogas bacteria and the gas production rate will drop. The only time the danger of negative pressure usually becomes a real possibility is when a person wants more gas from a digester than it can produce or there is an unnoticed gas leak.
When opening a biogas digester for cleaning or repairing, do not use candles or smoke cigarettes. For light inside the digester, use a flashlight or have a person standing outside reflect sunlight off a mirror.
Make frequent smell checks for gas leaks in plastic pipes, Joints, clamps, and gate valves. Rats have been known to bite holes in plastic pipes.
Stoves and gas mantle lamps should be placed with fire safety in mind. Special care must be taken in buildings with grass roofs to make sure that gas lamps are a good distance from the roof.
If the rotten egg smell of biogas is noticed in a room, immediately open doors and windows in order to get rid of the trapped gas before looking for the leak. On no account should anyone smoke cigarettes in the room.
In case of fire in a house or engine room, shut the gas off at the gate valve just after the gas storage tank to keep biogas from feeding the fire.
When using any kind of gas, light the match first, then open the gas valve. If the valve is opened first and gas is allowed to flow without being lit for any length of time, large amounts of gas can escape and any flame might ignite a fireball.
Children must be taught not to play with fire close to biogas systems, in case there are any gas leaks which could cause a fire or explosion (A Chinese Biogas Manual, 1976).
Brass gate valves and pipes used in biogas systems must be of a lead-free type. The hydrogen sulfide in biogas will destroy lead, which will cause gas leaks. - Werkgrop Terlindenv (2015)
Also for general advice about methane gas safety in buildings, see DRAIN PIPING & SEWER ODORS for the full discussion of odors from building drains & drain piping.
Reader Question: is there danger if I use a simple bio gas system at home with out installing a non return valve on the gas outlet pipe
3 September 2015 Roy Silva. said:
I am referring to a home made bio gas tank. Kindly let me know whether if there is any danger to use a simple bio gas system at home with out installing a non return valve on the gas outlet pipe to prevent the system from any back pressure. Thanks.
Interesting biogas design question, Roy. I'm not a biogas energy system designer nor a professional engineer, but I looked around for biogas piping design guidelines.
And you are quite correct, a check valve should be located on a biogas piping system in at least some circumstances, and possibly for safety, all.
Regulators will direct the gas to utilization equipment such as boilers and engine generators and may be located upstream or downstream depending on specifications.
Check valves should be located where a reversal of flow would damage rotating equipment or disrupt the system’s pressure balance.
Biogas can become explosive within flammable concentrations of gas and air. - Goth (2015)
Varec at http://www.varec-biogas.com/ is a producer of the type of low-pressure gas system controls you'd want to investigate. Quoting the company's sales literature:
The Varec Biogas 211 Series Low Pressure Check Valve is ideal for low pressure gas control lines where reversal of flow must be prevented.
The check valve is normally installed downstream of (a) meters; (b) regulators; or (c) other gas control devices that could be damaged by an accidental reversal of gas flow, pressure or explosion shock waves. It is usually located in systems where gas flow between multiple digesters or gas holders must be prevented and when gas flow reversal between several pieces of equipment installed in parallel must be prevented. - Varec (2015)
Biogas System Safety, Piping Controls & Systems Research
"Biogas Control Systems and Safety Overview", Groth Corporation, 13650 N. Promenade Blvd., Sta ord, TX 77477 Ph (281) 295-6800 Email: email@example.com Website: grothcorp.com,- retrieved 3 Sept 2015 original source www.grothcorp.com/uploads/docLib_1181_grothbiogasselectionguide.pdf
"Biogas Control and Safety System Product Selection Guide", Groth Corporation, op.cit., - retrieved 3 Sept 2015 original source http://www.lindenequipment.com/linked/groth%20biogas%20brochure.pdf
"Biogas Problems: the ABSs of Safety", Werkgrop Terlinden, 1740 Ternath, Brabant, Belgium, Website: http://werkgroepterlinden.be, - retrieved 3 Sept 2015 original source: http://werkgroepterlinden.be/Biogas.html - Excerpts:
"Biogas safety control equipment", Marlia Ingenieros,MARLIA INGENIEROS, S.L. - Gran Vía de les Corts Catalanes 968 · 08018 Barcelona (España)
Tel. (+0034) 93 308 36 77 Eail: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.marlia-ing.com - retrieved 3 Sept 2015, original source: http://www.marlia-ing.com/Productos/catalogos/Biogas_safety_control_equipment.pdf
The company distributes biogas equipment from Shand & Jurs Equipment including waste gas burners as well as safety controls such as back pressure check valves, pressure relief and flame trap assemblies for biogs systems, flame check devices for biogas systems, and emergency relief vents for biogas systems.
"Gas Control Equipments", Akatek Biogas Technologies, Ktek Technology Engineering Yeni Bursa Yolu Uzeri, Aksoy Al. Yani, VezirÇiftliği Mevkii 41200 Kullar,
Kocaeli, Turkey Tel: 0090 262 335 15 98 - 99 Tel: +90 262 335 1598
The company's products include the TP17500M - Thermal Operated Shut-Off Valve supplied as part of a flame trap assembly
This study is to design a novel septic tank, named Anaerobic Upflow Domestic Septic Tank (AUDST) to recover biogas as energy and treat domestic sewage.
The green technology proposes alternate options to existing Domestic Septic Tanks (DST), encourages anaerobically pre-treatment to reduce bacteria, pollutants, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and Biological oxygen demand (BOD) before the effluent is discharged or is removed by cesspit trucks.
Studies have shown that DST in homes partially treat or just store sewage. Again, these DST have to be emptied from time to time because it lack features that will sustain anaerobic activity and usually the sludge is disposed of directly into the sea, water bodies and even into open places such as " Lavender Hills " without any treatment or disinfection.
These practices cause severe public health and environmental problems. To tackle the challenge at household level, DST are redesigned to treat domestic sewage with less management, low operating cost, low secondary discharge of pollutants. The proposed new design concept is operated through three (3) units: such as desilting, anaerobic digestion and facultative filtration units. The anaerobic digestion stage is made up of baffle and anaerobic filter for accommodating sludge and providing
a more intimate contact between anaerobic biomass and sewage which improves treatment performance. The anaerobic unit is fitted with locally woven baskets prefilled with packing materials. The aim is to strengthen the biological treatment process at this stage.
The Facultative Filtration unit of the model is also packed with filtering media such as gravels (3-6mm in diameter) that is low in cost, and has a high durability to produce effluent with lower pollutants and suspended solids content to meet Ghana's Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for the discharge of domestic effluents.
(PDF) Re-engineering Domestic Septic Tanks into Biogas Tanks. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304014463_Re-engineering_Domestic_Septic_Tanks_into_Biogas_Tanks [accessed Sep 12 2018].
Varec Biogas, 6101 Ball Road, Suite 201, Cypress, California 90630 USA, 1-866-4-BIOGAS, Email: email@example.com - retrieved 3 Sept 2015 original source http://www.varec-biogas.com/en/products/show/15
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(May 30, 2011) Technology Help! said:
In cities there are sewer lines, sewer treatments plants, water treatment plants, in rural areas many homes have septic and/or cesspools that produce methane type gases. Where there are connections to every home...couldn't there be a "buyback" from the towns to utilize the waste that the citizens produce that could be turned into energy for the towns and cities? Landfills sometimes have (North Attleboro MA) pipes that hit the methane pockets and are a constant torch at the landfill. Rural homes have cesspool/septic tanks in every yard. Isn't there a product that could be installed that could detect the carcinogens and filter them out leaving clean fuel to be used for the homeowner? There are outdoor woodburning furnaces that can be connected to the home, but the fuel burnt is still exposing the atmosphere. Isn't there something that can be utilized like the outdoor (Janco) woodburning furnace that could utilize the methane being produced while filtering out the bacterial components and carcinogens before they reach the air?
munyaradzi mavuka said:
i would like to know where to purchace this small scale domestic bio gas component where u connected to your existing sepict tank
my email address mavhuka@GMAILcom
A review of the sources and suppliers of biogas digesters described above shows that principally the systems focus on vegetable and kitchen waste for small home systems or on manure for some larger commercial systems. We have added biogas kit and component and design information sources to the article above.
Thanks for asking.
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Large-scale biogas plants, Ashden Awards for sustainable energy, quoting from that website's KIST (see below) project and award to the KIST bio gas prison bio gas project. The Ashden Awards for Sustainable Energy Allington House, 150 Victoria Street, London, SW1E 5AE, Tel. +44 (0)20 7410 0330 - http://www.ashdenawards.org
- original source: http://www.ashdenawards.org/winners/kist05. Also see the technical report On this Rwandan bio-gas project hosted at the Ashden website.
The Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST), has developed and installed large-scale biogas plants in prisons in Rwanda to treat toilet wastes and generate biogas for cooking. After the treatment, the bio-effluent is used as fertiliser for production of crops and fuelwood.
Large prisons, each housing typically 5,000 prisoners, are a legacy of the troubled past of Rwanda. Sewage disposal from such concentrated groups of people is a major health hazard for both the prison and the surrounding area. The prisons also use fuelwood for cooking, putting great pressure on local wood supplies.
Using biogas digesters to manage animal or human sewage is not a new idea, but in Rwanda has been applied on an enormous scale, and with great success. Each prison is supplied with a linked system of underground digesters, so the sight and smell of the sewage are removed. KIST staff manage the construction of the system, and provide on-the-job training to both civilian technicians and prisoners. The biogas is piped to the prison kitchens, and halves the use of fuelwood. The fertiliser benefits both crop production and fuelwood plantations.
The first prison biogas plant started operation in 2001, and has run with no problems since then. Biogas plants are now running in six prisons with a total population of 30,000 people, and KIST is expecting to install three more each year.
The Ashden judges were highly impressed with the scale of these biogas plants, and the benefits which they provide in a difficult environment - sanitation, fuel and new skills for prisoners. They also recognised the significant potential for using such systems in other institutions like schools, hospitals, and on dairy farms - work which KIST has started to undertake.
"Q+A on Not Wasting Waste: "I've heard that cow manure, but not human waste, can be used for energy production. Is it possible?", The New York Times, 11 May 2010, p. D2.
Kigali Institute for Science and Technology (KIST), Kigali, Rwanda, www.kist.ac.rw/ see biogas plants.
"Biomethane fuelled vehicles – the carbon neutral option", (bio-methane or bio methane), John Baldwin, CNG Services LTD., Claverton Energy Conference, Bath UK, 24 November 2008
Bio-Gas Technologies, Ltd., 2025 George St., Sandusky, Ohio 44870 Tel: 419.663.8000 - see http://www.biogastech.com/
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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