"The Trouble With Aluminum Wiring," Consumer Reports, January, 1981, p. 42
"The Use of Aluminum Conductors with Electrical Wiring Devices in Electrical
Wiring Systems," Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., 333 Pfingsten Road,
Northbrook, IL 60062, Issued March 1973, reissued July 1980
J. Aronstein, "Reducing the Fire Hazard in Aluminum-Wired Homes,"
Wright-Malta Corporation, Ballston Spa, NY, Jan. 25, 1982
Information on Aluminum Wiring for Home Inspectors
D.J. Friedman, "Safety Considerations for the Electrical Inspector," The ASHI
Technical Journal of home inspection and in-service building component
failures, Vol. 2 No. 1, Winter, 1992
D.J. Friedman, "Aluminum Wiring Poses Potential Fire Hazard," The Journal of
Light Construction, June 1996 [Reprinted in the ASHI Reporter, January 1997,
Field Surveys of Aluminum Wiring Hazards & Failures
"National Controlled Study of Relative Risk of Overheating of Aluminum
Compared with Copper Wired Electrical Receptacles in Homes and Laboratory,"
Executive Summary. Prepared for U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
Report #F-C4812-01, Franklin Research Center, Philadelphia, PA, April 20,
R. Newman and W.H. King, Jr., "Pilot Survey of Branch Wiring Systems in
Montgomery County, Maryland," U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Sept.,
J. Aronstein, "Summary Report, Study of Overheating of Aluminum-Wired
Electrical receptacles in Scarborough, Toronto, Homes," Wright-Malta
Corporation, Ballston Spa, NY, Jan. 11, 1982
Aluminum Wiring Connectors/Connections
H. Dupre, "The Problems Involved in Designing Connectors for Aluminum Cable,"
Misc. Paper no. 51-325, AIEE Fall General Meeting, October, 1951.
J. Aronstein and W.E. Campbell, "Overheating Failures of Aluminum-Wired
Special Service Connectors," IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Mfg. Tech.,
V. CHMT-6 No. 1, Mar. 1983
N.T. Bond, "Reliability in Electrical Terminations on Aluminum Conductors,"
Electrical Products Div., Alcoa Conductor Products Co., Alcoa Laboratories,
C.W. Zimmerer and F.Neumer, "Aluminum Building Wires and Connectors,"
Bulletin of Research, No. 48, Underwriters Laboratories Inc., Sept. 1954
J. Aronstein and W.E. Campbell, "The influence of Corrosion Inhibitor and
Surface Abrasion on the Failure of Aluminum-Wired Twist-on Connections," IEEE
Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Mfg. Tech., V. CHMT-7 No. 1, March, 1984.
R. Schubert, "Erratic Behavior of Al/Al Wire Junctions," Elecrical Contacts -
1986, Proceedings of the 32nd IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts,
"Test of 'Old Technology' Aluminum Wire With Twist-On Connectors," Project
Report CPSC-C-79-0079, Task II, for U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission.
Wright-Malta Corp., Ballston Spa, NY, November 23, 1981
J. Aronstein, "Overheating Failures of Presently-Listed Aluminum Wiring
Connection Combinations Within Rated Service Conditions". Wright-Malta
Corp., Ballston Spa, NY, November 23, 1981
R.L. Hicks, "Pigtail Splicing Connections for Baseboard Heaters and Similar
Cyclic Loads," Ontario Hydro, Research Division
Failure Mechanisms of Aluminum Wiring
M. Braunovic, "Fretting Corrosion Between Aluminum and Different Contact
Materials," Electrical Contacts - 1977, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual
Meeting of the Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, 1977.
M. Braunovic, "Effect of Fretting on the Contact Resistance of Copper,
Aluminum, and Nickel-Coated Aluminum Wire Connections," Wear, V. 112, 1986.
N.T. Bond, D.L. Robinson, and M. Mohajery, "Fundamental Considerations of
Aluminum Electrical Contact Interfaces," Elecrical Contacts - 1977,
Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Holm Conference on Electrical
Contacts, Chicago, 1977.
J. Aronstein, "Electromigration Failure of Aluminum Contact Junctions,"
Elecrical Contacts - 1995, Proceedings of the 41st Annual Meeting of the
Holm Conference on Electrical Contacts, Montreal, 1995.
J. Aronstein, "Conduction in Failing Aluminum Connections," Electrical
Contacts - 1990, Proceedings of the 36th IEEE Holm Conference on Electrical
Contacts meeting jointly with the 15th International Conference on Electrical
Contacts," Montreal, 1990.
M. Leger, "Metallurgical Analysis of Failed CO/ALR Devices," Ontario Hydro,
#78-54-K, Ontario, Canada, February, 1978.
J. Aronstein, "Failure of Aluminum Connections in Residential Applications,"
Elecrical Contacts - 1991, Proceedings of the 37th Annual Meeting of the Holm
Conference on Electrical Contacts, Chicago, 1991.
J. Aronstein, "AC and DC Electromigration in Aluminum Contact Junctions,"
Electrical Contacts - 1996, Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Holm Conference on
Electrical Contacts meeting jointly with the 18th International Conference on
Electrical Contacts," Chicago, September 1996
Nickel Plated Aluminum Wire
H.O. Hansson, "Sinipal: Swedish-bred Aluminum Substitute for Copper Wire,"
Wire and Wire Products, September, 1970.
J. Aronstein and T.K. Hare, "Evaluation and Analytical Electron Microscopy
Investigation of a Plated Aluminum Wire for Branch Circuit Applications,"
IEEE Transactions on Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, V.
11, No.2, June 1988, p. 218-226
J. Aronstein and W.E. Campbell, "Evaluation of an Aluminum Conductor Material
for Branch Circuit Applications," IEEE Trans. Components, Hybrids, and Mfg.
Tech., V. CHMT-8 No. 1, Mar. 1985
Connector/connection standards and test methods
UL Standard 1567, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook IL
(CO/ALR Wiring Device Terminals for Aluminum Wire)
UL Standard 486C, Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook IL
(Splicing Connectors for Aluminum Wire)
ASTM B812-90, "Standard Test Method for Resistance to Environmental
Degradation of Electrical Pressure Connections Involving Aluminum and
Intended for Residential Applications," ASTM, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia,
"Aluminum Building Wire Installation Manual and Design Guide," The Aluminum
Government Agency Documents
R. Newman, "Hazard Analysis of Aluminum Wiring," April, 1975, U.S. CPSC,
J.T. Wilson, "Report of the Commission of Inquiry
on Aluminum Wiring," Ontario, Canada,
J. Aronstein, "Tests of 'Old Technology' Aluminum Wire," Wright-Malta Corp.
Project Report CPSC-C-81-1418, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission,
Washington, DC, Feb. 10, 1983
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