Aluminum electrical circuit ground wires
Do we have to Repair the Ground Wire When Making Aluminum Wiring Repairs using Pigtailing?
ALUMINUM WIRE GROUNDS - CONTENTS: Why the ground wire should be included when performing aluminum wiring repairs
How to make space in electrical boxes to fit copper pigtails and connectors on aluminum wiring; Choice of connectors for repairing aluminum ground wire connections; How to reduce the risks associated with aluminum electrical wiring
Do We Need to Pigtail the Ground Wire When Reducing the Hazard of Aluminum Electrical Wiring?
Readers faced with limited space in the electrical boxes of an aluminum-wired building ask if it is acceptable to just pigtail the current carrying conductors - the "hot" and "neutral" wires, leaving the aluminum ground wire alone.
Our photo (left) shows an improper aluminum wiring repair - the white twist-on connector is not recommended for this application. Thanks to Dr. Jess Aronstein for clarifying this question with the comments below.
The electrical ground is part of the electrical safety system and must be capable of carrying current under various fault and malfunction conditions.
The probability of any wire termination or splice of a ground conductor actually carrying substantial current is low relative to the circuit conductors (line and neutral), but not low enough that it can be ignored. That is why modern codes require full-size ground conductors.
The Installation Instructions for the AlumiConn™ include using copper pigtailing and an AlumiConn connector for the solid conductor aluminum ground wire, handling it just the same as the aluminum hot and neutral wires.
For the specific case shown at left (connection of a ceiling fan), King Innovations points out that ... in the application shown the use of "pigtails" is not required.The aluminum wires and fan can be directly wired to the AlumiConn connector.
However, if the installer is wiring a device such as an electrical switch or receptacle (a more common situation), pigtails would be needed.
Using the AlumiConn for aluminum ground wire repairs
In our version of the AlumiConn™ wiring sketch (left) the incoming solid aluminum ground wire is visible in silver connected to the top terminal in the AlumiConn™ connector - any terminal on the AlumiConn can be used to receive either an aluminum or a copper wire.
Notice that we show two solid aluminum (silver colored) and one solid copper (copper colored ) ground wires leaving the connector.
An aluminum ground wire entering the receptacle box,
A copper wire that in the illustration is a ground coming out of the fan assembly, is connected directly to the terminal block. If instead we were wiring a device, say an electrical receptacle, in our OPINION preferably wire #2 would be a copper pigtail wire connecting from the AlumiConn to the ground connection screw on the receptacle and, if it's a metal junction box, onwards to connect to the box as well, using an approved ground connector such as screws sold for that purpose.
An aluminum ground wire headed for power-out to the next receptacle box in a chain [If this receptacle were the last or only box in the circuit, those "AL power out (optional)" wires would not be present.]
To avoid clutter we didn't color the hot and neutral wires, but the same procedure as described above would apply to those elements of the circuit as well.
The AlumiConn™ connector shown here is used to splice a copper "pigtail" wire together with one or two aluminum wires as a step in reducing the fire hazard associated with aluminum electrical wiring. This connector performs well provided that the wires are properly secured in the connector, and it has been included in the US CPSC recommendations for aluminum wiring repair.
Questions regarding electrical code issues are best answered by your local electrical inspection authority, since applicable interpretations vary. In the long run, you should use what is presently listed for the application or what the local electrical inspection authority and your insurer will sign off on.
Because the reader was considering using twist on connectors where the recommended aluminum wiring repair connectors may not fit (not a procedure that we recommend) we strongly advised that he employ the special procedure (wire abrasion under a film of inhibitor, and pre twisting) as described at Reducing the Fire Hazards in Aluminum Wired Homes.
In the financial analysis of the cost of performing a complete and proper repair of aluminum electrical wiring, be sure to include consideration of the possibility that a repair considered to be permanent (CPSC --COPALUM) could have some long-term payback through the value that it adds to the property.
Detailed Advice for Aluminum Ground Wire Connections during Aluminum Wire Repair in buildings
Is it necessary to use a rated "pigtail" connector, such as the Alumiconn or COPALUM connectors, on the grounding circuit given that the ground only carries current if and when a fault occurs? It would save considerable money, and space in the fixture box, to use those rated connectors only on the hot and neutral wires which regularly carry current.
The question of how to handle the grounding conductor in aluminum wired homes arises from time to time, especially because in some installations of crowded wiring in junction boxes, people want to leave out the ground pigtail connection. Dr. Jess Aronstein, expert on aluminum wiring failures, testing, and repair procedures, in discussing this topic, has noted that:
The ground is part of the electrical safety system and must be capable of carrying current under various fault and malfunction conditions. The probability of any wire termination or splice of a ground conductor actually carrying substantial current is low relative to the circuit conductors (line and neutral), but not low enough that it can be ignored. That is why modern codes require full-size ground conductors.
The questions regarding code issues are best answered by your local electrical inspection authority, since applicable interpretations vary. In the long run, you should use what is presently listed for the application or what the local electrical inspection authority and your insurer will sign off on.
It must permit the repair of every connection to, or splice between, aluminum wire in the home;
The repaired connections must be permanent but must result in a system that can be maintained without the need for special switches, wall outlets or other connectors;
The repair technique must be practical for use in an occupied and furnished home.
In our [DF] non-nexpert-opinion, even though ground wires do not normally carry current, mechanical stresses and potentially loose connections remain, leading to a view that it may indeed be preferable to use a copper pigtail when connecting an aluminum grounding conductor to a device such as an electrical receptacle or light switch, and as well when making a connection between the grounding conductor and a metal junction box, say using a grounding screw sold for that purpose.
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) About Repairing the Ground Wire in Aluminum-Wired Homes
Question: Can I Use Twist-on Connectors for Aluminum Ground Wires?
If you do use any twist-on connectors (we and the US CPSC specifically do not recommend this approach, including we do not recommend use of the Ideal-65 "twister" purple twist on connector sold for aluminum wiring repair), we strongly advise that you employ the special procedure (wire abrasion under a film of inhibitor, and pre twisting) as introduced at http://www.inspectapedia.com/aluminum/Aluminum_Wiring_Risk_Reduction.htm and described in more detail in the report "Reducing the Fire hazard...." found at http://www.inspectapedia.com/aluminum/alreduce.pdf
In the financial analysis of the cost of aluminum wiring repair for large buildings, it is important to consider the possibility that a repair considered to be permanent (COPALUM or the Alumiconn) could have some long-term payback through the value that it adds to the property.
Best Practices Guide to Repairing Aluminum Ground Wire Connections
All aluminum wire conductors should be repaired, including the aluminum ground wire.
Since the electrical ground wire is not normally carrying current it may be that aluminum ground wire connections might be in better shape and at lower risk of failure than other wires in an AL wired circuit. BUT
One of the mechanisms that leads to poor aluminum ground wire connections is mechanical or other disturbances of the electrical device such as an electrical receptacle or switch or fixture. Even though it is not normally conducting current, the ground wire connection at the device is also subject to deterioration from these other forces.
Since at the very time that a ground wire is going to be called-on to conduct current is an emergency, it seems to me foolish to leave that wire in any doubt whatsoever.
Two Connectors Recommended for Repairing Aluminum Wiring, including Ground Wiring
The AMP/TYCO COPALUM crimp connector repair consists of attaching a piece of copper wire to the existing aluminum wire branch circuit with a specially designed metal sleeve and powered crimping tool. The metal sleeve is called a COPALUM parallel splice connector and is manufactured only by AMP Incorporated. This special connector can be properly installed only with the matching AMP tool. This tool makes a permanent connection that is, in effect, a cold weld. An insulating sleeve is placed around the crimp connector to complete the repair.
The CPSC-sponsored research, laboratory tests, and demonstration projects identified only one method of repairing existing aluminum wire circuits which meet these criteria. That repair is known as the crimp connector repair. But that CPSC publication was written before the AlumiConn was listed - the AlumiConn connector is also an acceptable repair. (just to be clear)
Question: How Can we Address the Problem of Limited Space in the Electrical Junction Box?
Two comments about the space problem inside the junction box:
NEC has made an exception to standard cu. in. space requirements per number of conductors to make it a little easier for an AL wire repair to meet code
When we had a space problem in junction boxes at a rewiring job we purchased box extenders - some suppliers call them "sidecars" that allowed me to extend the size of each metal junction box in the building by removing the exposed side plate of the box and screwing on the extender that gave a few more cu. in. of working space to push wires back into the box. This might mean cutting and patching drywall wherever this was needed at receptacles and switches.
At an actual 4" square junction box there are also box extenders that increase the total box depth - but that fix means loosening and then re-securing the box so that its face remains flush if it's showing in an interior space. In an attic or basement or other unfinished it should be possible to extend the box sizes without the cosmetic repair issue.
Another approach could be thinner (front to back) receptacles. They do vary a bit from brand to brand and model to model.
Space taken up by aluminum wiring repair connectors
The Alumiconn (recommended) is not much different from the Ideal #65 twist on connector (not recommended) in the volume that it takes up, provided that the wires are bent appropriately.
Just tighten the existing aluminum ground wire connections?
A general worry is that whenever we do any repair on a building safety topic that is less than the recommended or optimum procedures, the risk picture is foggy - people think that the issue has been "fixed" so they forget about it - which can lead to someone ignoring danger signals and later having a problem.
Question: What About Other Aluminum Wire "repair" Products such as CO/ALR devices?
Question: Do the grounds on an electrical receptacle also need to have an AlumiConn Connector or Just the Hot and Neutral
When using alumiconn connectors to pigtail plugs and switches, do the grounds on a plug also need to have a AlumiConn as well or just the hot and neutral?
Basically, yes you need to use a connector for EVERY wire that enters as aluminum and connects to something else, including the aluminum ground wire.
So the aluminum ground wire that enters an electrical receptacle box gets pigtailed to a short length of copper wire (the pigtail). That copper pigtail in turn completes the connection of the incoming ground to the electrical receptacle "box") itself as well as to the electrical receptacle - the device you refer to as many do as "the plug".
If your receptacle box is not the last one in a daisy-chain of receptacles, you'll see that there is (or should be) also an aluminum ground "leaving" the receptacle box and heading for the next box in the chain. You should not need an additional copper pigtail for that connection: each AlumiConn terminal block provides three points of connection. So as you'll see in King's illustration (reproduced with color cues on our web article), the three connections in the AlumiConn used to wire the ground will be used to receive (one-wire each) the following:
The incoming aluminum ground conductor wire arriving from the electrical panel
The copper pigtail that connects to the electrical receptacle ground screw and if the receptacle box is metal, also to the metal box using an approved clip or screw
The outgoing aluminum ground conductor wire heading to the next box in the chain
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Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
 "Record of Commission Action, Commissioners Voting by Ballot", CPSC Publication No. 516, Repairing Aluminum Wiring (original version op.cit.), (Briefing package dated March 15, 2011), Quoting: The Commission voted unanimously (5-0)·to approve republication of CPSC Publication No. 516, Repairing Aluminum Wiring, with the explicit recognition that the COPALUM and AlumiConn connectors currently are the only products that meet the agency's standards to prevent aluminum wire fire hazards Copy on file as /aluminum/Pub516_Alumi_Conn.pdf
 Dr. Jess Aronstein, firstname.lastname@example.org is a research consultant and an electrical engineer in Schenectady, NY. Dr. Aronstein provides forensic engineering services and independent laboratory testing for various agencies. Dr. Aronstein has published widely on and has designed and conducted tests on aluminum wiring failures, Federal Pacific Stab-Lok electrical equipment, and numerous electrical products and hazards. See Aluminum Wiring Bibliography and see FPE HAZARD ARTICLES, STUDIES for examples.
 "The Influence of Corrosion Inhibitor and Surface Abrasion on the Failure of Aluminum-Wired Twist-on Connections",
Aronstein, J.; Campbell, W.,
Components, Hybrids, and Manufacturing Technology, IEEE Transactions on
Volume 7, Issue 1, Mar 1984 Page(s): 20 - 24
 Thanks to reader Thomas Kremer for suggesting clarification to this topic 08/09
 Personal communication, Email, P. King to D Friedman, 3/10/2012 [copy on file AlumiConn_PK120310.pdf].
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume. Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Or choose the The Home Reference eBook for PCs, Macs, Kindle, iPad, iPhone, or Android Smart Phones. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference eBook purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAEHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
Recommended books on electrical inspection, electrical wiring, electrical problem diagnosis, and electrical repair can be found in the Electrical Books section of the InspectAPedia Bookstore. (courtesy of Amazon.com)
ALUMINUM WIRE REPAIR METHODS to reduce risk in buildings with Aluminum Electrical Wiring - Overview of Acceptable Repair Practices (in the document you are presently viewing)
ALUMINUM WIRE REPAIR DETAILS - "How to" details, how to identify, COPALUM repair, alternative repairs, history, products, research, source of special AMP TYCO COPALUM connectors & COPALUM Electricians (in the document you are presently viewing)
COPALUM Electricians: Sources of TYCO COPALUM -Certified/Trained Aluminum Wire Repair Services (in the document you are presently viewing)
05/21/2007 Reducing the Fire Hazards in Aluminum-Wired Homes, [.pdf document], Jess Aronstein, Ph.D., 21 May 2007. This document answers most technical questions about the hazards and remedies of aluminum electrical wiring and includes
a report on independent test results of alternative products and methods for repairing aluminum wiring. Some of the sections of this very thorough document are listed below:
02/09/2006Reducing the Fire Hazards in Aluminum-Wired Homes, Jess Aronstein, Ph.D., This older version of the above document also answers most technical questions about the hazards and remedies of aluminum electrical wiring
but lacks latest repair product testing such as the AlumiConn connector discussed above. Some of the sections of this very thorough document are listed below:
[UPDATED-DF 03/08/2003, Edits-df 02/09/2006]
Pigtailing using COPALUM - CPSC recommended,
Pigtailing using Scotchlok 3M - superceded by new alternate repair as of June 2007 - a tested, useable aluminum wiring connector method, with a link to step-by-step "how to" photos,
Pigtailing using Ideal 65 - NOT RECOMMENDED, aluminum wiring failures research, field and lab experience, expert sources.