Evaporation-Transpiration and Evapo-Transpiration Absorption Septic Systems Design
EVAPORATION SEPTIC SYSTEM DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS - CONTENTS: Design specifications for evaporation transpiration type septic systems (ETs). Design specifications for evapo-transpiration septic absorption systems (ETAs). Site Requirements for Evaporation, Transpiration-Absorption Type Septic Systems. Design Criteria for Evaporation, Transpiration-Absorption Type Septic Systems
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Evaporation - Transpiration septic system design & regulation: this document uses the New York State wastewater treatment standard for individual household septic systems
(Appendix 75-A) to provide an example of state regulated design and installation of evaportion-transpiration septic systems.
Design Regulations for Evaporation-Transpiration (ET) and Evapo-Transpiration Absorption (ETA)
Septic Systems Design Criteria
[Click to enlarge any image]
Tafgard soil based wastewater treatment systems - developed in Japan by Taisei Kogyo Co., Ltd., this system uses a combination of a five-chamber waste treating septic tank designed by Taisei, effluent disposed-of by an evaporation-transpiration system through a Tafgard geotextile and aerated soil (effluent spread horizontally and upwards from distribution piping). The Taisei septic tank utilizes a chain of bacteria, protozoan, metazoans and various kinds of enzymes.
For details about evaporation / transpiration septic system design, construction, and repair,
see EVAPORATION-TRANSPIRATION SEPTIC SYSTEMS. Citation of this article by reference to this website and brief quotation for the sole purpose of review are permitted. Use of this information at other websites, in books or pamphlets for sale is reserved
to the author.
[Regulation and System Design Criteria for Raised Septic Systems,
Septic Mound Systems, Intermittent Sand Filter Bed Systems,
Evaporation-Transpiration Septic Systems,
Evaporation-Transpiration Absorption Septic Systems, and
Other Alternative Septic Systems]
Effective Date: 12/01/1990
(1) Evaporation/Transpiration/Absorption Septic Systems - General
ET systems rely on the upward movement of moisture through the
soil, surface vegetation and into the air rather than absorption into the soil.
ETA systems also use the absorptive capabilities of the soil and are less
dependent on evaporation and transpiration.
(2) Site Requirements for Evaporation, Transpiration-Absorption Type Septic Systems
(i) All systems previously discussed, except
intermittent sand filters, have been determined to be unacceptable for the
planned building site.
(ii) An expansion area equal to or greater than 50% of the required basal area
shall be available on the site.
(iii) All minimum vertical and horizontal separation distances can be maintained
as described in Table 2 from both the edges of the basal area and the designated
(iv) An environmental assessment determines that the development of the site
with this system is consistent with the overall development of the area and will
cause no adverse environmental impacts.
(3) Design Criteria for Evaporation, Transpiration-Absorption Type Septic Systems
(i) The designer must consider all of the items listed below and be able to
document from reliable sources (i.e., National Weather Service, Soil
Conservation Service) the parameters used and show that the net outflow from the
system exceeds the inflow without the exposure of sewage or partially treated
sewage on the surface of the ground:
Total rainfall and snowfall.
The percentage of the rainfall and snowfall that will infiltrate into the soil
and the percentage that can be expected to runoff the system.
The annual land evaporation rate of the area.
The vertical rise of water than can be expected in the soil due to capillary
The amount of transpiration expected from the surface vegetation.
The permeability of the underlying soil and the impact the system will have on
the groundwater level.
(ii) The design must provide for a trench depth that is not greater than 30
inches below the surface.
(iii) Pressure distribution of effluent throughout the system is required.
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US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual [online copy, free] Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm Onsite wastewater treatment and disposal systems,
Richard J Otis, published by the US EPA. Although it's more than 20 years old, this book remains a useful reference for septic system designers.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Program Operations; Office of Research and Development, Municipal Environmental Research Laboratory; (1980)
"International Private Sewage Disposal Code," 1995, BOCA-708-799-2300, ICBO-310-699-0541, SBCCI 205-591-1853, available from those code associations.
"Manual of Policy, Procedures, and Guidelines for Onsite Sewage Systems," Ontario Reg. 374/81, Part VII of the Environmental
Protection Act (Canada), ISBN 0-7743-7303-2, Ministry of the Environment,135 St. Clair Ave. West, Toronto Ontario M4V 1P5 Canada $24. CDN.
Manual of Septic Tank Practice, US Public Health Service's 1959.
Onsite Wastewater Disposal, R. J. Perkins;
Quoting from Amazon: This practical book, co-published with the National Environmental Health Association,
describes the step-by-step procedures needed to avoid common pitfalls in septic system technology.
Valuable in matching the septic system to the site-specific conditions, this useful book will help you install a reliable system in
both suitable and difficult environments. Septic tank installers, planners, state and local regulators, civil and sanitary engineers,
consulting engineers, architects, homeowners, academics, and land developers will find this publication valuable.
Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems, Bennette D. Burks, Mary Margaret Minnis, Hogarth House 1994 - one of the best septic system books around, suffering a bit from small fonts and a weak index. (DF volunteers to serve as indexer if Burks/Minnis re-publish this very useful volume.)While it contains some material more technical than needed by homeowners, Burks/Minnis book on onsite wastewater treatment systems a very useful reference
for both property owners and septic system designers. We refer to it often.
While Minnis says the best place to buy this book is at Amazon (our link at left), you can also see this book at Minnis' website at http://web page .pace.edu/MMinnisbook
Septic Tank/Soil-Absorption Systems: How to Operate & Maintain [ copy on file as /septic/Septic_Operation_USDA.pdf ] - , Equipment Tips, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 8271 1302, 7100 Engineering, 2300 Recreation, September 1982, web search 08/28/2010, original source: http://www.fs.fed.us/t-d/pubs/pdfimage/82711302.pdf
Septic System Owner's Manual, Lloyd Kahn, Blair Allen, Julie Jones, Shelter Publications, 2000 $14.95 U.S. - easy to understand, well illustrated, one of the best practical references around on septic design basics including some advanced systems; a little short on safety and maintenance. Both new and used (low priced copies are available, and we think the authors are working on an updated edition--DF.
Quoting from one of several Amazon reviews: The basics of septic systems, from underground systems and failures to what the owner can do to promote and maintain a healthy system, is revealed in an excellent guide essential for any who reside on a septic system. Rural residents receive a primer on not only the basics; but how to conduct period inspections and what to do when things go wrong. History also figures into the fine coverage.
Grass is Always Greener Over the Septic Tank, Bombeck, Erma: $ 5.99; FAWCETT; MM;
This septic system classic whose title helps avoid intimidating readers new to septic systems, is available new or used at very low prices.
It's more entertainment than a serious "how to" book on septic systems design, maintenance, or repair. Not recommended -- DF.
US EPA Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Manual Top Reference: US EPA's Design Manual for Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal, 1980, available from the US EPA, the US GPO Superintendent of Documents (Pueblo CO), and from the National Small Flows Clearinghouse. Original source http://www.epa.gov/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/625R00008/625R00008.htm
Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook, R. Dodge Woodson. This book is in the upper price range, but is worth the cost for serious septic installers and designers.
Quoting Amazon: Each year, thousands upon thousands of Americans install water wells and septic systems on their properties. But with a maze of codes governing their use along with a host of design requirements that ensure their functionality where can someone turn for comprehensive, one-stop guidance? Enter the Water Wells and Septic Systems Handbook from McGraw-Hill.
Written in language any property owner can understand yet detailed enough for professionals and technical students this easy-to-use volume delivers the latest techniques and code requirements for designing, building, rehabilitating, and maintaining private water wells and septic systems. Bolstered by a wealth of informative charts, tables, and illustrations, this book delivers:
* Current construction, maintenance, and repair methods
* New International Private Sewage Disposal Code
* Up-to-date standards from the American Water Works Association
Wells and Septic Systems, Alth, Max and Charlet, Rev. by S. Blackwell Duncan, $ 18.95; Tab Books 1992. We have found this text very useful for conventional well and septic systems design and maintenance --DF.
Quoting an Amazon description:Here's all the information you need to build a well or septic system yourself - and save a lot of time, money, and frustration. S. Blackwell Duncan has thoroughly revised and updated this second edition of Wells and Septic Systems to conform to current codes and requirements. He also has expanded this national bestseller to include new material on well and septic installation, water storage and distribution, water treatment, ecological considerations, and septic systems for problem building sites.
Advanced Onsite Wastewater Systems Technologies, Anish R. Jantrania, Mark A. Gross. Anish Jantrania, Ph.D., P.E., M.B.A., is a Consulting Engineer, in Mechanicsville VA, 804-550-0389 (2006). Outstanding technical reference especially on alternative septic system design alternatives. Written for designers and engineers, this book is not at all easy going for homeowners but is a text I recommend for professionals--DF.
Builder's Guide to Wells and Septic Systems, Woodson, R. Dodge: $ 24.95; MCGRAW HILL B; TP;
Quoting from Amazon's description: For the homebuilder, one mistake in estimating or installing wells and septic systems can cost thousands of dollars. This comprehensive guide filled with case studies can prevent that. Master plumber R. Dodge Woodson packs this reader-friendly guide with guidance and information, including details on new techniques and materials that can economize and expedite jobs and advice on how to avoid mistakes in both estimating and construction. Chapters cover virtually every aspect of wells and septic systems, including on-site evaluations; site limitations; bidding; soil studies, septic designs, and code-related issues; drilled and dug wells, gravel and pipe, chamber-type, and gravity septic systems; pump stations; common problems with well installation; and remedies for poor septic situations. Woodson also discusses ways to increase profits by avoiding cost overruns.
Country Plumbing: Living with a Septic System, Hartigan, Gerry: $ 9.95; ALAN C HOOD & TP;
Quoting an Amazon reviewer's comment, with which we agree--DF:This book is informative as far as it goes and might be most useful for someone with an older system. But it was written in the early 1980s. A lot has changed since then. In particular, the book doesn't cover any of the newer systems that are used more and more nowadays in some parts of the country -- sand mounds, aeration systems, lagoons, etc.
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The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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