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Wind damaged roof FAQs:
Frequently asked questions and answers about how to assess, repair, or prevent wind damage to roofs.
This article series discusses how to evaluate wind damage to asphalt shingle roofs and
tells readers how to identify & explain the most-common failure mechanisms such as improper nailing,
failure of shingles to seal. This information is useful when considering
how to obtain asphalt roofing shingle failure claims assistance. These defects occur on both organic-mat or fiberglass-mat
asphalt roof shingles.
Questions & Answers about the Causes, Diagnosis, Cure & Prevention of Wind Damage to Roofs
Question: what's the best repair for shingles loosened but not torn off by a windstorm
We live in Texas and recently had high winds. We lost some shingles and the rest were flapping in the wind, meaning the seals were broken. Will these seals "heal" with the heat we have in Texas, or do they need to be replaced?
- M.T. 4/17/2013
Reply: check for visible damage, cracks, extreme bends, re-glue good shingles with flashing cement, remove and replace cracked or damaged shingle areas
In general if the shingle did a lot of flapping I'm afraid it may be cracked, worn, such that the tab may break off - an on-roof inspection would be needed to decide.
I'm a little worried that a shingle tab may have been weakened without showing a visible crack, but I figure especially in a warm climate like yours an asphalt shingle tab can tolerate some pretty good bending without becoming cracked. That's not true in colder areas of the country.
I would not rely on the previously-sealed shingles to re-seal themselves properly once they've been lifted by a windstorm.
The fact that the shingles were flapping and have broken seals makes me suspect they may not seal reliably again - after all they failed the first time and so are weaker than before.
IF the shingles appear undamaged but not sealed, you should be able to improve their sealing with a dab or two of roof cement beneath each tab.
Question: contractor cut the roofing felt - is that OK?
(July 31, 2015) Anonymous said:
contractor cut through underlaing felt on ridges during the singles trimmimng
My *opinion* is that a few small cuts won't make a bit of difference; felt underlayment is not a perfectly waterproof barrier as it is punctured by every shingle nail; and at the ridge the leak risks are minimized.
Question: likes Geocel sealant
(Dec 28, 2015) Anonymous said:
to seal the shingles use geocell..not asphalt cement , geocel works and asphalt cement may or may not work well.
geocel will glue and hold the tabs down better and it is excellent for any roofing repairs that need adhesive or sealant.
Question: hingles being nailed wrong or too high is actually too common
(Dec 28, 2015) Anonymous said:
About asphalt shingles being nailed wrong or too high is actually too common, so called roofers work in the heat or weather being part of it but more they just want to get the roof put on asap with lack of knowledge on specifications which are very important. They nail high being easy and less nail shiners and to make quick repairs during installation because of a nail shiner (nail exposed)is time consuming so they nailed too high.
Some roofers have respect and knowledge to do things right and install shingles proper with pride in their work of course yet so many just want to make the money. I've seen so many roofs a total waste of money and effort because of these issues of shingles being nailed too high and not being nailed in the margin where double layered for hold down strength.I also agree almost all blown off shingles are from being nailed too high up on the shingle. Also patches or entire sections of roofing falling down the roof. Asphalt shingles are only good if installed proper.
Anon: I like Geocel products too, though beneath an asphalt shingle tab asphalt cement will work fine.
Anon: we agree that a roofer wants the job and some may be inclined to go ahead in weather that would best have seen a deferral; of these the worst problems are probably in wet or very cold weather, though I also see damaged shingles from foot traffic in hot weather too.
Weather won't explain improper nailing.
thanx, but very little about composite shingles
Thanks for the comment, though we do not permit posting of advertising links (deleted from your remarks).
In its most broad usage, "composition shingles" is a term used to pertain to nearly all modern asphalt-based roof shingles: a substrate of either felt or fiberglass is impregnated with asphalt and the exposed surface is coated with mineral granules.
We use the term laminated shingles to describe roof shingles comprised of multiple layers of asphalt-impregnated base and coated with mineral granules so as to provide the appearance of wood shakes, shingles, or slate, giving shadow and relief to the roof surface. Some roofers, perhaps including Selesao use the term "composition shingles" or "composite shingles" to describe what we refer-to as "laminate shingles".
In our OPINION laminate-type roof shingles may offer extra durability (all other factors being equal) than conventional 3-tab shingles that have a cutout or slot between shingle tabs. That's because of the extra thickness and the absence of cutouts in the laminated roof shingles.
1. Conventional or 3-tab shingles are individually one thickness of asphalt-impregnated base (fiberglass or felt) coated with mineral granules. These are perhaps the most widely-used asphalt shingle and are usually a bit lower in cost than items 2 and 3 given next
2. Laminate shingles are similar to 3-tab shingles but include an extra layer of shingle material laminated or bonded to the base shingle, doubling its thickness and usually warranted for a longer period, perhaps 30 to 50 years.
3. Architectural shingles are essentially a thicker, more-durable laminated shingle than item 2 above and are usually rated for a longer life (50 years) as they are thicker, heavier, and may have other features such as added fire resistance.
Among the asphalt roof shingle articles found at InspectAPedia.com we include illustrations of all types of asphalt-based as well as all other types of roof coverings.
(Mar 1, 2016) Anonymous said:
I have recently inspected a roof with "zipper patterns" all over it. At the corners the shingles have lifted and pulled small portions of the shingle below away. It appears that these occurred due to wind damage, would this be sufficient damage to consider roof replacement?
Please use the page bottom CONTACT link to send me some sharp photos of your roof, Anon, so that we can comment further. From just your e-text I'm not sure what to offer.
(May 20, 2016) Teri said:
I would like to thank all of you for your opinions. On what brands to and not to use When doing a minor repair........ I'm now prepared to do that very minor repair on my mother's roof. THANX AGAIN !
Teri I don't have specific brand pans and picks; the problems are more often in the installation.
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Questions & answers or comments about how to recognize, diagnose, repair & prevent wind damage to roofs.
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Hankey and Brown home inspectors, Eden Prairie, MN, technical review by Roger Hankey, prior chairman, Standards Committee, American Society of Home Inspectors - ASHI. 952 829-0044 - hankeyandbrown.com
Arlene Puentes, a licensed home inspector, educator, and building failures researcher in Kingston, NY.
 Thanks to Carl Gerosa, New Rochelle, NY for photos of cupping asphalt roof shingles. Carl J. Gerosa is an ASHI Certified home inspector who can be reached at 914-833-2900.
 Thanks to Leonard Wheeler, Retired DCA Disaster Assessment Engineer for Hurricane Andrew, for questions leading to clarification on the proper handling of asphalt shingle glue strip protective cellophane during roof installation 3/29/09.
 Thanks to James A. Skees, PE, President and Sr. Forensic Engineer, OnTheRock Engineering, LLC, 604 W. Jefferson Street, LaGrange, KY 40031
502-225-6203 FAX 225-6204, for commenting on the roof cellophane strip problem, on wind damage to roof shingles, shingle blow off, improper shingle nailing, and roof shingle laddering underlying defects, August 2010. Mr. Skees is a forensic engineer who works for insurance companies. Mr. Skees can also be reached by email at email@example.com
The company has published online a sample Tornado Report
"Residential Wind Damage Evaluation", Wind Damage Sample, found at http://www.ontherockeng.com/Sample%20Tornado%20Report.pdf
GAF Materials Corporation, Grand Timberline Premium Architectural Shingle Application Instructions.
http://www.gaf.com/Content/Documents/20573.pdf discusses the requirements for successful asphalt shingle installation including the condition of the roof deck, the use of roofing felt underlayment, the selection of roofing nails by type and length and penetration of the roof decking, and the role of glue strips on the back side of asphalt roof shingles.
Roofing The Right Way, Steven Bolt, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd edition (November 1, 1996), ISBN-13: 978-0070066502, p. 350 for one of many citations on this point.
"Hurricane Damage to Residential Structures: Risk and Mitigation", Jon K. Ayscue,
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, published by the Natural Hazards Research and Applications Information Center, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado, November 1996. Abstract: "Property damage and loss from hurricanes have increased with population growth in coastal areas, and climatic factors point to more frequent and intense hurricanes in the future. This paper describes potential hurricane hazards from wind and water. Damage to residential structures from three recent intense hurricanes - Hugo, Andrew, and Iniki - shows that wind is responsible for greater property loss than water. The current state-of-the-art building technology is sufficient to reduce damage from hurricanes when properly applied, and this paper discusses those building techniques that can mitigate hurricane damage and recommends measures for mitigating future hurricane damage to homes." - online at www.colorado.edu/hazards/publications/wp/wp94/wp94.html
"Evaluating OSB for Coastal Roofs," Paul Fisette, Coastal Contractor, Winter 2005, online at coastalcontractor.net/pdf/2005/0501/0501eval.pdf . Fisette cites: "Jose Mitrani, a civil engineer and professor at Florida. International University in Miami, was ... Florida’s official damage assessment team. ... After Hurricane Andrew, Florida code advisers ruled OSB sheathing inferior to plywood."
Green Roof Plants: A Resource and Planting Guide, Edmund C. Snodgrass, Lucie L. Snodgrass, Timber Press, Incorporated, 2006, ISBN-10: 0881927872, ISBN-13: 978-0881927870. The text covers moisture needs, heat tolerance, hardiness, bloom color, foliage characteristics, and height of 350 species and cultivars.
Green Roof Construction and Maintenance, Kelley Luckett, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2009, ISBN-10: 007160880X, ISBN-13: 978-0071608800, quoting: Key questions to ask at each stage of the green building process Tested tips and techniques for successful structural design
Construction methods for new and existing buildings
Information on insulation, drainage, detailing, irrigation, and plant selection
Details on optimal soil formulation
Illustrations featuring various stages of construction
Best practices for green roof maintenance
A survey of environmental benefits, including evapo-transpiration, storm-water management, habitat restoration, and improvement of air quality
Tips on the LEED design and certification process
Considerations for assessing return on investment
Color photographs of successfully installed green roofs
Useful checklists, tables, and charts
Roofing The Right Way, Steven Bolt, McGraw-Hill Professional; 3rd Ed (1996), ISBN-10: 0070066507, ISBN-13: 978-0070066502
Slate Roofs, National Slate Association, 1926, reprinted 1977
by Vermont Structural Slate Co., Inc., Fair Haven, VT 05743, 802-265-4933/34. (We recommend this book if you can find it. It
has gone in and out of print on occasion.)
Roof Tiling & Slating, a Practical Guide, Kevin Taylor, Crowood Press (2008), ISBN 978-1847970237, If you have never fixed a roof tile or slate before but have wondered how to go about repairing or replacing them, then this is the book for you. Many of the technical books about roof tiling and slating are rather vague and conveniently ignore some of the trickier problems and how they can be resolved. In Roof Tiling and Slating, the author rejects this cautious approach. Kevin Taylor uses both his extensive knowledge of the trade and his ability to explain the subject in easily understandable terms, to demonstrate how to carry out the work safely to a high standard, using tried and tested methods.
This clay roof tile guide considers the various types of tiles, slates, and roofing materials on the market as well as their uses, how to estimate the required quantities, and where to buy them. It also discusses how to check and assess a roof and how to identify and rectify problems; describes how to efficiently "set out" roofs from small, simple jobs to larger and more complicated projects, thus making the work quicker, simpler, and neater; examines the correct and the incorrect ways of installing background materials such as underlay, battens, and valley liners; explains how to install interlocking tiles, plain tiles, and artificial and natural slates; covers both modern and traditional methods and skills, including cutting materials by hand without the assistance of power tools; and provides invaluable guidance on repairs and maintenance issues, and highlights common mistakes and how they can be avoided.
The author, Kevin Taylor, works for the National Federation of Roofing Contractors as a technical manager presenting technical advice and providing education and training for young roofers.
The Slate Roof Bible, Joseph Jenkins, www.jenkinsslate.com,
143 Forest Lane, PO Box 607, Grove City, PA 16127 - 866-641-7141 (We recommend this book).
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
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