Using a Cesspool for onsite septic wastewater disposal.
Cesspool construction, maintenance, troubleshooting, repairs.
How do cesspools fail?
CESSPOOLS - CONTENTS: Septic cesspool design, construction, installation, inspection, maintenance & repair advice. Definition of a cesspool, why a cesspool is not a drywell, why their function is limited. How is a cesspool cleaned or maintained? Does cleaning the cesspool extend its life? What about hydrojetting cesspools to break up sludge? How do cesspools fail? How old is the cesspool? How long should a cesspool last? Should I put additives or chemical treatments into the cesspool to extend its life?
POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about cesspools for onsite wastewater disposal: cesspool construction, installation, maintenance, repair & safety
Guide to Using a Cesspool for Onsite Sewage Disposal - properties of cesspools used for onsite wastewater disposal
What is a cesspool? A cesspool combines the septic treatment tank and absorption system into a single component. A cesspool is not a septic tank and does not work like one.
In its most basic and traditional form a cesspool is a hole in the ground to receive sewage: the walls of the "hole" are lined with stone or concrete block or (safer) pre-cast concrete (photo) to form a masonry-lined pit into which sewage is discharged. Solids (sewage from the building) remain in the pit, effluent is absorbed into soil below and at the sides of the cesspool.
Solids settle to the bottom, floating grease and scum collect at the top, and liquid seeps into the ground, initially through the bottom and most of the time through the side of the cesspool.
Cesspools as a means to dispose of sewage have been around since the late 1400's at the beginning of the Renaissance. (Before that people simply tossed
their night soil into the street.) While cesspools have been used for a long time, since the development of the more modern septic system (tank and drain field)
cesspools have often used where there is limited physical space (no room for a leach field), and perhaps where the soil absorption rate was high such as areas of gravel or sandy soils.
For most buildings and onsite waste disposal installations which use a "cesspool", you should consider the use of a cesspool as an obsolete, limited capacity system likely to need replacement, and involving significant cost. Some immediate concerns are stated next.
Cesspool Failure Criteria (MA)
Failure Criteria for Cesspools is given by this basic but widely-used definition of a failed cesspool that needs replacement:
If the waste level is within 12" of the inlet pipe near the top of a cesspool the system is at end of life and needs to be replaced.
Some municipalities and experts will state other distances.
In the U.S. in Massachusetts according to the Massachusetts Title 5 Septic Law
the following are considered a failed or unacceptable cesspool installation:
Less than 6inches of freeboard in the cesspool - this means that the top of sewage inside the cesspool is within six inches of the bottom of the inlet pipe
Less than 1/2 day's storage - the free volume (air) inside the cesspool is less than will hold the number of gallons of waste and wastewater equaling the typical daily use of the cesspool system
Cesspools located within100 ft. of a pond or dug well (surface water supply) are unacceptable
Cesspools located within 50 ft. of a private well (modern sanitary well) are unacceptable
Cesspools located between 50 and 100 ft from a private well if the well fails bacteria test are also unacceptable
In some states including Massachusetts, cesspools located within Zone 1 of a public well are considered failed and unacceptable
In most jurisdictions, board of health (BOH) evaluation is required if a cesspool is located within 50 feet of any surface water such as a lake, pond, stream, or river.
A cesspool needs replacement if it meets any of these failure criteria. While a septic company may offer to pump, partially pump out, or agitate or aerate the bottom sludge in the cesspool in an effort to extend its life, these procedures are potentially very dangerous and at best will give only temporary relief.
Where a new cesspool of traditional sort is going to be installed you should at least use a concrete pre-cast model with a safe cover (see photos at left and above).
Fortunately there are alternative onsite wastewater disposal alternative designs which can handle limited or even zero-space sites, so a simple cesspool as a destination for blackwater is no longer the only choice for limited-space sites.
Are Cesspools Even Legal?
Watch out: cesspools are not legal for use as wastewater treatment and disposal systems. In some areas existing cesspools used for wastewater handling [no conventional cesspool adequately treats wastewater] may be "grandfathered" in and permitted to continue in use.
But home buyers purchasing a property served by a cesspool should keep in mind not only the limited function of such systems but the significant cost that will be faced when the system is no longer functional - because at that time the local authorities may require that a different, more effective wastewater treatment system be installed, such as a septic tank and drainfield. And space limitations on a property can cause real trouble when the cesspool has to be abandoned.
Cesspools are flatly declared "not legal for use as wastewater treatment and disposal systems" in other jurisdictions such as in the Alaska state sanitary code. 
Cesspool Safety Warnings and Cesspool Capacity Limitations
Very Important Cesspool Safety Warnings
Safety Warning: do not walk over the top of or close to the edges of a cesspool or any other onsite pit or excavation because of the danger of fatal collapse. Keep pets and children away from such systems.
Safety Warning: there is a high risk of cesspool collapse, risking fatality if someone falls in to one of these systems. This is particularly true for older site-built systems that were often made of dry-stacked stone or concrete block, and more-so if such systems are not protected by a very secure cover.
Safety Warning: pumping cesspools is dangerous since older site-built systems may be more likely to collapse inwards when relieved of their contents.
Safety Warning: hydrojetting, aerating or agitating sludge at the bottom of a cesspool in an attempt to renew its function or extend its life also risk system collapse, particularly for site-built or home made cesspools.
In summary about cesspool hazards: watch out for cave-ins, keep away: cesspools, particularly older site-built cesspools present a very high risk of collapse from an unsafe cover or following some types of service involving pumping, aeration, or hydro-jetting.
Adults or children should not walk over or even near cesspools because of the risk of falling-in followed by collapse, a virtually certain cause of death. If the presence of a cesspool is known or suspected at a property its location should be roped off to prevent access and it should be investigated by a professional.
Cesspool Capacity and Testing Limitations
Cesspools can obscure or prevent effective septic loading and dye testing: If a cesspool is in use at a property a septic dye test would not be a reliable indication of good system condition
since the test could simply be trying to fill a large near-empty hole in the ground; yet such a system may fail soon after being returned to active or heavier regular use.
Cesspool Treatment Chemicals
Reader Question: my friend said dump a 50 pound bag of lime into the cesspool
Does lime help to break down the walls in a cespool. My friend said to dump a 50 pound bag in. He said his friend did it and it ate the walls and his pit is working great. He also said he saw cracking in the side walls and after adding the lime the sides of the walls basically fell in. This was concerning to me. - Lance 5/11/12 (originally asked at SEPTIC TREATMENTS & CHEMICALS)
Reply: do not add lime to a cesspool; watch out for fatal cesspool collapse hazards
A cesspool is intended to treat the sewage it receives, discharging effluent into soils around the cesspool itself. While there is a sound argument that no cesspool adequately treats raw sewage and thus none is really sanitary, dumping lime into the cesspool is going to kill off cesspool bacteria, hastening its ruination and reducing still further its treatment of sewage. It would be a mistake. Your friend is mistaken and is likely to cost you plenty.
Watch out: cracking in the cesspool sides, if you mean the structure of the cesspool, is would be extremely dangerous, risking a cesspool collapse. There have been fatalities from just that cause when someone fell into and was buried alive in a collapsing cesspool.
If you do not know the condition and safety of your cesspool cover and structure, or if there is any indication of cracking or shifting of the cesspool, you should immediately block off all access to the area while you wait for an experienced contractor to excavate, diagnose, and repair or replace the system. Details are at CESSPOOL SAFETY WARNINGS.
This material is a chapter of our Septic Systems Online Book that explains septic system inspection procedures,
defects in onsite waste disposal systems, septic tank problems, septic drainfield problems, checklists of system components and things to ask. Septic system maintenance and
pumping schedules. Home buyers who want less technical advice should see the Home Buyer's Guide to Septic Systems.
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using hydrogen peroxide in a cesspool
(Oct 21, 2014) Maureen said:
I was told by Bio tech company that sells bacteria for cesspools to use hydrogen peroxide 30 gallons after pumping 3/4 out. We have been
Putting in bacteria for 2 years and the level is still about 2 feet down. Level goes up and down but never lower than 2 feet. Have you heard of peroxide to open up soil? And do you know what is acceptable level. We had a back up into the house 2 years ago and pumped out and began the bacteria tx then. Thanks for any info
Using ANY chemical or treatment that kills the required bacteira that make a septic system or cesspool work is a terrible idea and is not recommended by any proper septic authority.
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