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Free Encyclopedia of Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, Repair
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS - INSPECT, TEST, REMEDY
MOLD: A COMPLETE GUIDE to TEST CLEAN PREVENT
ACCEPTABLE MOLD LEVEL
ACCURACY OF VARIOUS MOLD TEST METHODS
ACCURACY vs PRECISION of MEASUREMENTS
ACTION GUIDE - WHAT TO DO ABOUT INDOOR MOLD
ACTIVITY of MOLD in BUILDINGS
AGE of MOLD - Old is the Mold?
AIR TEST FOR MOLD: ACCURACY
AIR TEST SAMPLING CASSETTE STUDY
AIRBORNE MOLD COUNT NUMBER GUIDE
AIRBORNE PARTICLE ANALYSIS METHODS
BROWN HAIRY BATHROOM MOLD
BIBLIOGAPHY for ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH, MOLD, IAQ
BLACK MOLD, HARMLESS COSMETIC
BLACK MOLD, TOXIC & ALLERGENIC
BLEACHING MOLD, Advice about
BOOK MOLD, Moldy Book Cleaning
BOOKSTORE - ENVIRONMENTAL
CACTUS FUNGI / MOLD
CAR MOLD CONTAMINATION
CARPET MOLD CONTAMINATION
CARPETING & INDOOR AIR QUALITY
CHAIN OF CUSTODY - TEST SAMPLE
CLEARANCE INSPECTIONS - MOLD CLEANUP
DIRECTORY of MOLD / ENVIRONMENTAL EXPERTS
DISINFECTING BUILDINGS with BLEACH
DUST ANALYSIS for FIBERGLASS
DUST, HVAC CONTAMINATION STUDY
DUST SAMPLING PROCEDURE
EFFLORESCENCE, Salts & White / Brown Deposits
EMERGENCY RESPONSE, IAQ, GAS, MOLD
MOLD in BUILDINGS
FIRE DAMAGE vs MOLD DAMAGE
FLOODS IN BUILDINGS-mold
FOXING STAINS on books & papers
FUNGICIDAL SPRAY & SEALANT USE GUIDE
HOUSE DUST ANALYSIS
HOUSE DUST COMPONENTS
HIDDEN MOLD, HOW TO FIND
HUMIDITY CONTROL & TARGETS INDOORS
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT GUIDE
LAB PROCEDURES MICROSCOPE TECHNIQUES
LIGHT, GUIDE to FORENSIC USE
MEDIA BLASTING for MOLD REMOVAL
MEDIA BLASTING for MOLD REMOVAL
METHANE GAS SOURCES
MICROSCOPE DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY
MILDEW in BUILDINGS ?
MILDEW ERRORS, IT's MOLD
MILDEW REMOVAL & PREVENTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
MOLD: A COMPLETE GUIDE TO MOLD
MOLD ACTION GUIDE - WHAT TO DO ABOUT MOLD
MOLD APPEARANCE - WHAT MOLD LOOKS LIKE
MOLD CLEANERS - WHAT TO USE
MOLD CLEANUP GUIDE- HOW TO GET RID OF MOLD
MOLD CLEARANCE INSPECTIONS
MOLD COUNT NUMBER GUIDE
MOLD CONSULTANTS / INSPECTORS
MOLD CULTURE TEST KIT VALIDITY
MOLD DETECTION & INSPECTION GUIDE
MOLD or INDOOR AIR EMERGENCY RESPONSE
MOLD EXPERT, WHEN TO HIRE
MOLD LEVEL IN AIR, VALIDITY
MOLD ODORS, MUSTY SMELLS
MOLD PREVENTION GUIDE
MOLD RELATED ILLNESS GUIDE
MOLD SAFETY WARNINGS
MOLD SPRAYS, SEALANTS, PAINTS
MOLD TEST KITS
MOLD TESTING METHOD VALIDITY
MSDS Material Safety Data Sheets
MVOCs & MOLDY MUSTY ODORS
MYCOPHOBIA, STAINS MISTAKEN for MOLD
MYCOTOXIN EFFECTS of MOLD EXPOSURE
ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE
OZONE for MOLD OR ODORS
PARTICLE SIZES & IAQ
Particulates & Allergens Indoors
ROBIGUS & Wheat Rust Fungus
ROT RESISTANT LUMBER
ROT, TIMBER FRAME
SLIDE PREPARATION, MICROSCOPE
SMELL PATCH TEST to Track Down Odors
SOUND CONTROL in BUILDINGS
STAIN & BIODETERIORATION AGENT CATALOG
STAINS on & in BUILDINGS, CAUSES & CURES
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING EXTERIORS
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS
STAINS on INDOOR SURFACES: PHOTO GUIDE
STAINS & Thermal Tracking
TECHNICAL & LAB PROCEDURES
TEST KITS for DUST, MOLD, PARTICLE TESTS
THERMAL IMAGING, THERMOGRAPHY
TRAPPED MOLD BETWEEN WOOD SURFACES
UV LIGHT BLACK LIGHT USES
VOCs VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
What's the difference between mold & mildew? This article explains the difference between mildew and mold (or other forms of mold). As we discuss in this article, mildew, a sub-class of molds, is an obligate parasite that grows only on living plants, and is generally white in appearance. Our page top photograph shows mildew growing on a jasmine plant at a Vassar College home in Poughkeepsie, New York. More photographs of mildew are included in this article. At Distinction between "mold" and "mildew" on books we discuss more aspects of the difference between mildew and other molds, and why that difference matters.
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Our closeup photographs above show powdery mildew growing on the leaves of a jasmine plant. Mildew is a specific type of mold that grows on living plants. Just on plants. Notice that this mold (mildew) is white? Mildew is always white or perhaps light gray in color.
Among the major groups of molds is a very large mold family, Basidiomycota (or basidiomycetes); this family in turn includes, among the many Basidiomycota members, we find a relatively small sub-group, the Ustilaginales, also familiarly called Smuts and Mildews.
Both smuts and mildews are parasites of living plants (in mycological terms these are obligate biotrophic pathogens) that cause serious crop damage as well as damage to ornamental shrubs, flowers, etc. See Kiss et als. for an example of mildew damage to tomatoes.
At left, a lab photo of mildew spores collected from the jasmine plant at page top. To understand our comment that mildew does not grow in or on buildings, notice our use of the words obligate biotrophic pathogens - meaning that these fungi are pathogens that grow only on living plants and that they cause a disease in the plant.
Mold: In general, mold is a term encompassing a very wide family of organisms (the Fifth Kingdom) that includes more than a million and a half species.
Lots of molds grow on lots of different organic substances, under a variety of conditions of light and temperature, but all molds require moisture and something organic on which to grow (paper, wood, paint, cloth, leather, plastic, etc.).
Building mold contamination: although a very large number of molds may grow on various building surfaces and building contents, there are about 200 "bad boys" of mold commonly found contaminating buildings. None of these include the mildews. See MOLD FREQUENCY in buildings for a table of the most common molds found in buildings, and also see MOLD ATLAS & PARTICLES INDEX.
Our photograph (left) shows black, brown, and gray mold growing on drywall in a basement that was flooded. This is mold, but it is not mildew. Different mold genera/species might be growing on the wood framing or insulation materials inside this moldy wall.
There are mold genera or species that can grow on a remarkably wide range of organic materials that are found both outdoors and inside, and that can appear in an wide range of colors (black, brown, red, green, gray, white, orange, tan, yellow, for example) and textures.
Often specific mold genera or species prefer to grow on particular materials, so not all molds grow on all materials. (Most molds will not grow in mold culture media, for example.) Some molds even grow on top of (and eat) other molds - parasitic molds. Molds are capable of breaking down cellulose, for which we should be thankful. Even though we don't like to find mold breaking down paper covered drywall (paper is made of cellulose), if we didn't have a mold kingdom on earth, we'd all be buried in tons of un-decayed dead plant matter.
What Does Mildew Look Like
Though both of these groups may also include other species, they all look similar on plants - white or gray powdery or splotchy deposits on plant leaves and stems. Mildew may appear on the plant's buds, flowers, fruits, in sum, just about on any live plant tissue, though not so likely on heavy dry bark such as on tree bark or on woody stems. See our plant photographs earlier in this article.
Our lab microphotograph (above-left) shows the hyaline (colorless) spores of Oidium-Erysiphe that we collected from the jasmine plant shown in the photographs in this article. In the microscope, mildew spores (Oidium-Erysiphe) are colorless; on a plant this mold species appears as a white powdery substance.
In sum, mildew is a white powdery fungus that is an obligate parasite found on living plants.
But lots of people (incorrectly) call various building molds "mildew", and lots of mold cleanup products use the words mildew or mildewcide in their name and instructions.
A mycologist or a good text will tell you what substrates a particular mold has been known to grow on and which types of material it prefers.
For example, mildew is unlikely to be found ever growing on an indoor surface (except for a house plant), since mildew is a pair of sub-group of molds (powdery mildew and downy mildew) which grow only on living plants.
Our photograph of a white mold found growing on an indoor surface (left) is not mildew. It's a mold, but it is not mildew.
So you can see that indoor mold that your home inspector or "mold test expert" has called "mildew"
In a practical sense, making the mistake of calling an indoor or outdoor mold found on a building "mildew" is not a big deal. With the exception of avoiding spending on costly cleanup of harmless cosmetic molds or stains, the mold remediation and mold prevention procedures in a building are about the same regardless of mistakes in naming the mold.
You won't find mildew on or in a building on anything but a living plant, despite the names found on indoor or outdoor cleaning products that use the term "mildewcide" and "mildew-resistant product", or found in "mold reports" or in home inspections notwithstanding.
We think that mildew just a less scary name that some folks like to use to describe mold found in buildings, especially in real estate sales. We think that mildew is used on mold cleanup products or mold-resistant products also because of the widespread use of that word by consumers faced with an indoor mold problem.
What Does it Mean if Your Inspector or Mold Expert Calls it Mildew?
See MOLD EXPERT, WHEN TO HIRE for help in deciding if you need a mold expert or not. But if your "mold expert" or home inspector tells you that s/he found mildew growing in or on the building, that person may be less of an expert on finding, identifying, and removing problem mold than you hoped, and therefore
At Distinction between "mold" and "mildew" on books we discuss more aspects why the difference between mold and mildew matters.
If your "mildew" is found on building surfaces, it is mold, but it is not mildew, and you need to follow normal mold cleanup procedures. See BASICS YOU NEED to FIND, TEST, REMOVE MOLD for a detailed step by step guide to removing problem mold and for identifying and fixing the cause of mold growth in the first place.
If you are having trouble tracking down a moldy smell in your building, try the suggestions we describe at ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE.
If your mildew is indeed growing on a living plant (tomatoes, grapes, crops, house plants, other plants) it can weaken or even kill the plant, at least by interfering with photosynthesis. Mildews on plants may be a species of mildew fungus that is plant specific. For example a mildew that grows on grapes may affect only those plants and may not infect nearby plants of other types, roses for example.
But the conditions that cause powdery mildew to grow on plants invite infection of many plants in a given area. These include crowding (poor air circulation within or around the plant), and dampness or high humidity. If a plant is already stressed or weak from other conditions, it may be more susceptible to mildew infection as well.
While lots of "mildew cleaning" products are sold with the intention of removing mold from building surfaces (bathtub tile grout, for example), do not use such products on plants - you will probably kill the plant.
See MILDEW REMOVAL & PREVENTION for details on what to do about cleaning off or removing mildew, and how to both cure and prevent mildew.
Mold on or In buildings - Molds that are Mistaken for Mildew
Also see MILDEW ERRORS, IT's MOLD for examples of indoor or outdoor building mold mistaken for mildew.
And see MILDEW REMOVAL & PREVENTION (what to do about mildew).
Readers who need to cure or prevent efflorescence, mold or "mildew" in buildings should see STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS, and MOISTURE CONTROL in buildings as well as HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET also VENTILATION in BUILDINGS and WATER ENTRY in buildings.
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