Steel Lally Column Rust Damage Rust on steel posts ranges from cosmetic to very dangerous
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS - CONTENTS: How to spot defective structural columns & piers in residential buildings. Examples of proper and improper use of teleposts, jackposts, and Red-I-Posts: adjustable or screw-jack columns.
POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about the types of structural column failure in residential & light commercial buildings: inspection, diagnosis, & repair
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Rust damage to steel posts or columns:
We explain how to evaluate rust damage to steel columns, posts, adjustable columns in homes, and we illustrate the difference between harmless cosmetic or surface rust and serious exfoliating rust, splitting columns and risk of building or floor collapse.
This article series explains how to notice defective, damaged, improperly supported, or missing structural columns, and other structural column & pier mistakes.
Our page top photo shows a split, crushed steel column that resulted in the partial collapse of the floor above during an inspection by the author [DF].
How to Evaluate Rusting Steel Structural Columns & Posts That Can Risk Building Collapse
Watch out: Some of these residential column or post defects are dangerous and risk collapse.
This article describes a structural column defects in residential buildings. Larger structures using supporting columns and piers certainly require additional professional design from a civil or structural engineer or similar design professional.
As we also discussed at BASEMENT LEAKS, INSPECT FOR, even a concrete filled steel Lally column can deteriorate enough to lead to building movement or instability. But hollow steel columns such as teleposts and even steel pipes people sometimes think will support a building, heavy exfoliating rust on the columns can lead to crushing or splitting and a structural collapse.
When evaluating the history of water entry in a building we like to look at structural components that have been in place since the building was completed - those are parts that will have been exposed to flooding or recurrent wet floors if water entry has been a problem.
Light superficial rust on a Lally column base is not structurally significant, though it might indicate a history of wet floors in the area. The rust shown at the Lally column base at below left is just a chip, it is insignificant, and we concluded that there was no evidence of a history of wet floors in this basement area. The steel column at below right penetrates the floor slab - we think it may sit on a hidden pier (there was no sign of settling).
But the column surface rust at below right suggests the floor has been wet in this area. We did not think this column had suffered damage that risks it's structural integrity. Click THIS LINK [photo] to see another photo of rust on the base of a steel column in a basement that we verified over a 12 year life had been subjected to recurrent wet floors but never flooding.
More photos of superficial rust damage to a hollow residential structural steel post are at POST COLUMN RUST MINOR.
Comparing Surface Rust to Significant Exfoliating Rust on a Structural Column
But when we see exfoliating rust, some careful poking around to see just how much damage has occurred can help us decide the urgency of replacing the column - and of course fixing the water entry problem . WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS will help with the latter.
Example of Structural Steel Column Collapse & Floor Collapse Due to Rust
In our steel post rusty-base photo above we show serious exfoliating rust at the base of a steel column. It's reasonable to infer that this home has been subject to recurrent flooding to a depth of several inches.
If the post above is a traditional concrete-filled steel Lally column, even with rust damage it's resistant to sudden catastrophic collapse.
Watch out: however if the steel post is a hollow unit, severe rust can lead to either gradual or even sudden crushing of the bottom of the post - an event that can cause a building catastrophe.
Our inspection of a second rust-damaged structural steel post (photo below) was very exciting.
We were inspecting a house on Long Island when the owner mentioned that she had pumps running 24/7 in the basement to keep Long Island Sound at bay. Some Long Island New York homes located close to the water were constructed with a basement floor that was close to or sometimes even lower than water levels in the nearby Long Island Sound or its waterways, creeks, canals. Those buildings invite constant water-entry problems and related water damage.
In this Long Island home there was a forest of steel supporting columns (some were just hollow pipes not real Lallys) in the basement - all of these steel posts were badly rusted.
As the owner, who was a big person, walked across the floor, the kitchen floor suddenly collapsed and fell down about a foot. We wondered if an earthquake had suddenly struck Long Island.
Trembling we both took another look in the basement. The Lally column shown above and supporting part of the kitchen floor had picked that moment to crush. It was rusted through from repeated flooding.
How to Evaluate Dented, Lightly-Rusted Steel Posts or Columns
Question: Is this dented steel column a problem that needs to be addressed?
2016/11/25 [Anonymous by private email to the editor]
Today, as we were cleaning out our garage, we noticed that one of the support columns for our 1965 split level home has a large rusty dent (about an inch tall) at the bottom. This support column, which we believe is original to the house, is holding up the second story bedrooms which extend over the garage.
We purchased the house about a year ago and do not know how long the dent has been present or what caused it. We have attached pictures taken from several angles.
Would you say this rusty, dented area is a problem that needs to be addressed or acceptable?
[Click to enlarge any image] Photo: a close-up of the bottom of the steel column described by the reader's question.
Reply: Tips for homeowner evaluation of the condition of a steel support column
Thank you for the interesting support-post question . A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that would permit a more accurate, complete, and authoritative answer than we can give by email alone. With that arm-waving done, I comment further:
From just your photos I infer that there has probably been a history of wet basement floor in at least the area of the post. Given that the home is 50+ years old, the total amount of rust on original post is not terrifying. I can't tell if what you're seeing includes evidence of any actual crushing of the post bottom.
If the post is crushing then it's an older type, no longer permitted, that is hollow. A modern Lally column used in this location would be filled with concrete - a detail that resists both bending and crushing. But many older homes used steel columns that were hollow. Just how much of a risk of structural damage hollow steel columns might suffer from rust depends on:
The thickness and quality of the original steel and thus its ability to resist rust damage
The amount of rust damage that has occurred.
While I'm not a structural nor civil engineer, I expect that those professionals would all agree that light, superficial rust on a steel column is only cosmetic in effect, though it might warn that steps should be taken (get rid of water, paint the steel) in a residential structure like yours to protect the column from further rust. Thick flaking exfoliating rust on the other hand, seriously compromises structural steel.
At COLUMN / POST RUST DAMAGE we show serious rust damage to a hollow steel column that crushed, resulting in the sudden collapse of a kitchen floor of a Long Island New York Home in an event that scared the hell out of the author.
I would pick up a hammer and first give rap or two on the post side at mid span. If it rings or sounds hollow, it may in fact be hollow, in which case IF there is crushing or bad rust you'll want to replace it. If the noise is more of a "thunk" the post is probably concrete-filled and crushing/bending of any significant amount is unlikely.
Below your photo shows this hollow steel column indoors in a finished garage.
Next, with a screwdriver, poke into the base of the post a bit. If you find it's soft rust and your screwdriver goes in to concrete, there's no urgent repair. If you find that the screwdriver pokes through rust into a hollow space up above the floor level then the column is hollow.
Finally: look for other signs of the extent of water entry and any related problems (moldy insulation, drywall, or rot or insect damage), and if needed, take steps to dry out the basement. A sickening amount of such guidance is at InspectApedia.com.
Reader follow-up: so should we hire a structural engineer to look at this post?
Thank you so much for your helpful response. We tapped on the post with a hammer today and it seems to be hollow (As are the other three posts located in our house. If in good shape, are these other hollow ones considered to be ok?). The metal of the dent was still intact, so we were unable to verify using the screwdriver approach.
The post is located in our garage and we believe the dent/crush area may be due to a horizontal impact of some kind. The rest of the post seems to be in decent shape with the exception of this roughly 1 inch tall by three inch wide dented area. Should our next step be to hire a structural engineer?
Also, please feel free to share the photos
Moderator reply: no
With the caveat that nobody can afford enough insurance to promise a stranger that their house - completely unknown and un-seen except for a few photos sent by the correspondent - is "safe" or "structurally sound", still, looking at just your photos I can see no reason whatsoever to hire an expert for structural assessment.
If you saw signs of building movement, settlement, cracking, leaning, bending, bowing, heaving, then that would be a cause for further concern. A dent in the bottom of one hollow steel column with light, non-exfoliating rust on the column base, is not justification for requiring a structural engineering analysis of the building.
Take a look around your home for signs of movement or for superficial, recent cosmetic repairs that might cover such movement, or for floors, walls, ceilings that if not cracked or bent, bulging, leaning bowing, are nevertheless visibly out of plumb, square or level.
I do not mean to sound glib, but in sum, there's not much justification for worry for just this one column if there is no settlement and no significant damage. Superficial or surface rust is not likely to itself represent damage to the structure.
The risk to you of being hurt falling down the stairs when going to the basement to look at this column is greater than the risk of the dented lightly-rusted column by itself. I mean, watch out for a "capture error" in which something you see so captures your attention that you fail to attend other higher-risk situations. Make sure your home has working smoke detectors/alarms, sound steps and railings, and that there are no obvious hazards in the electrical or heating systems.
If you had a home inspection prior to purchase of the home, you might ask the inspector if she/he saw signs of concern for damage to the structure as well as asking what repairs are needed to address Dan's 3 "D"s: See FEAR-O-METER for an explanation of the importance of focusing your energy on things that are Dangerous, Don't work, or that are causing rapid, expensive Damage to the home. and see OTHER PEOPLE's MONEY for an explanation of why some consultants give you advice that is expensive for you, free for them, and that mostly is focused on reducing risk for the consultant rather than for you.
Reader follow-up: steps to protect the column from more damage
We appreciate your reassuring email and are certainly happier to think this is not a major problem.
In your previous email, does the word "crushing" refer to a vertical crush, like from a downward force? We had thought it included the horizontal impact (crush?) that may have caused the rusty notch at the bottom of our post. For the most part, our house seems as straight as an arrow.
We don't see any evidence of other settlement beyond a very slight dip in the threshold of the master bedroom and some uneven wall tile in the bathroom (we think it's just really old, poor tile). Everything else seems very strong and straight. The inspector did not have any structural concerns.
He did not see this area of the post in question due to lots of clutter, but from what he could see of the house, he raised no structural concerns.
One more question, if that's ok - in order to protect the column from further rust damage around the base, should we pick off the rust flakes and then paint over it? - 2016/11/28
Thanks for the follow-up questions.
Horizontal "crushing" of a steel post or column: good point. I agree that a post or column might be damaged by horizontal impact, and I add that a dent might be caused by both impact (even a hammer) OR in a case of heavy loading or overloading of a too-thin, under-sized column denting could be an early stage in "crushing".
But those manifestations of column overloading in a residential property would be very very rare.
More likely somebody smashed a column near its top or base as a heavy-handed step in aligning the column to a plumb position.
If the column is hollow (a telephost, adjustable column, pipe, etc) denting is far more likley than if the column is filled with concrete (a Lally column).
When I refer to "crushing" I mean that a badly-rusted steel column actually crushed downwards from weight from above - shown in my photo just above, and discussed in more detail starting at COLUMN / POST RUST DAMAGE
To protect the steel column in your home from further damage:
Wire-brush the rusted areas of the column
Probe the rusted areas to confirm that the rust is just superficial. If your screwdriver can, by hand, poke a hole in the column then it probably should be replaced.
Paint the cleaned column with a rust-inhibitor paint and then if you like, a finish coat of your choice
Find and fix sources of basement water entry
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Arlene Puentes, ASHI, October Home Inspections - (845) 216-7833 - Kingston NY
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Dave Wickersheimer, P.E. R.A. - IL, professor, school of structures division, UIUC - University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign School of Architecture. Professor Wickersheimer specializes in structural failure investigation and repair for wood and masonry construction. * Mr. Wickersheimer's engineering consulting service can be contacted at HDC Wickersheimer Engineering Services. (3/2010)
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Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
Diagnosing & Repairing House Structure Problems, Edgar O. Seaquist, McGraw Hill, 1980 ISBN 0-07-056013-7 (obsolete, incomplete, missing most diagnosis steps, but very good reading; out of print but used copies are available at Amazon.com, and reprints are available from some inspection tool suppliers). Ed Seaquist was among the first speakers invited to a series of educational conferences organized by D Friedman for ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors, where the topic of inspecting the in-service condition of building structures was first addressed.
Design of Wood Structures - ASD, Donald E. Breyer, Kenneth Fridley, Kelly Cobeen, David Pollock, McGraw Hill, 2003, ISBN-10: 0071379320, ISBN-13: 978-0071379328 This book is an update of a long-established text dating from at least 1988 (DJF); Quoting: This book is gives a good grasp of seismic design for wood structures. Many of the examples especially near the end are good practice for the California PE Special Seismic Exam design questions. It gives a good grasp of how seismic forces move through a building and how to calculate those forces at various locations.THE CLASSIC TEXT ON WOOD DESIGN UPDATED TO INCLUDE THE LATEST CODES AND DATA. Reflects the most recent provisions of the 2003 International Building Code and 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction. Continuing the sterling standard set by earlier editions, this indispensable reference clearly explains the best wood design techniques for the safe handling of gravity and lateral loads. Carefully revised and updated to include the new 2003 International Building Code, ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, the 2001 National Design Specification for Wood Construction, and the most recent Allowable Stress Design.
Defects and Deterioration in Buildings: A Practical Guide to the Science and Technology of Material Failure, Barry Richardson, Spon Press; 2d Ed (2001), ISBN-10: 041925210X, ISBN-13: 978-0419252108. Quoting: A professional reference designed to assist surveyors, engineers, architects and contractors in diagnosing existing problems and avoiding them in new buildings. Fully revised and updated, this edition, in new clearer format, covers developments in building defects, and problems such as sick building syndrome. Well liked for its mixture of theory and practice the new edition will complement Hinks and Cook's student textbook on defects at the practitioner level.
Straw Bale Home Design, U.S. Department of Energy provides information on strawbale home construction - original source at http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/designing_remodeling/index.cfm/mytopic=10350
More Straw Bale Building: A Complete Guide to Designing and Building with Straw (Mother Earth News Wiser Living Series), Chris Magwood, Peter Mack, New Society Publishers (February 1, 2005), ISBN-10: 0865715181 ISBN-13: 978-0865715189 - Quoting: Straw bale houses are easy to build, affordable, super energy efficient, environmentally friendly, attractive, and can be designed to match the builder’s personal space needs, esthetics and budget. Despite mushrooming interest in the technique, however, most straw bale books focus on “selling” the dream of straw bale building, but don’t adequately address the most critical issues faced by bale house builders. Moreover, since many developments in this field are recent, few books are completely up to date with the latest techniques. More Straw Bale Building is designed to fill this gap. A completely rewritten edition of the 20,000-copy best--selling original, it leads the potential builder through the entire process of building a bale structure, tackling all the practical issues: finding and choosing bales; developing sound building plans; roofing; electrical, plumbing, and heating systems; building code compliance; and special concerns for builders in northern climates.
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