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Carpet padding types, properties, uses: this article explains carpet padding, cushions, and underlayment as well as antique carpet liners, and we address questions about carpet asbestos or mold hazards.
Asbestos or Mold Hazards in Rug or Carpet Padding?
Carpet padding, carpet cushions, and carpet underlayments, used to improve carpet durability, prevent carpet movement, and for other purposes, can also be a source of hidden mold or other building contaminants.
Some readers have also asked if carpet padding is likely to be an asbestos hazard in buildings, as we discuss and illustrate here.
Question: Does asbestos flooring or carpeting underlayment resemble foam?
Does asbestos flooring or carpeting underlayment
resemble foam? Is it a paper like product? - D.G.
Reply: No. normally residential carpet padding does not contain asbestos. We have not found any reports of foam carpet padding specifically made of asbestos nor paper.
Sorting Out Reports of Asbestos-Contaminated Carpet Padding in Western Australia
An exception of asbestos-contaminated carpet padding has been reported in Australia, creating a public stir, but a subsequent investigation by Jim Dodd, Director of Environmental Health, reported that the possibility of asbestos fibres being in carpet underlay was very low.
People most at risk were those working in the bag recycling industry when hessian (burlap or jute) bags used to transport asbestos material were recycled. Western Australians concerned about possible asbestos in their carpet underlay should first identify the type of carpet padding used: for example if it is a foam product it was not made from recycled bags.
Quoting from "Asbestos in Carpet Underlay", from the Western Australia DOH,
There is a slight possibility that some older hair felt-style underlay manufactured and
installed prior to the early 1970s may have incorporated material sourced from hessian bags that were used to transport raw asbestos from mine sites to processing plants.
... believed to have been installed prior to 1970 ... in Perth homes. ... Of the 12 homes tested, one has proved positive for asbestos. ... Of the 12 homes tested, one has proved positive for asbestos.
It has been ascertained that the carpet and underlay in the affected home was
installed in the early 1950’s. Further testing of underlay, carpet and dust from rooms in
the home in which the affected underlay was situated indicates that the asbestos
fibres remained within the underlay. It therefore appears that the risk of fibres
becoming airborne and presenting a health risk is very low provided the carpet and
underlay remain undisturbed.
The DOH offered this good advice for removing old carpeting and carpet padding or underlay:
... it is advisable to wear a Class P1 or P2 disposable facemask (available at most
hardware outlets) and disposable overalls if you are intending to remove old carpet
with hair felt underlay (pre 1970).
This will provide protection against inhaling dust and
other allergens as well as any asbestos fibres in the unlikely event they are present.
The carpet and underlay should be carefully, removed to minimise release of dust and
particulates. It is advisable to lightly wet down the underside of the carpet and
underlay prior to and during removal. This will help to suppress dust.
Owners concerned about possible asbestos in their fiber-based carpet underlay should contact an accredited asbestos testing laboratory.
List of Carpet Padding Materials
Normally carpet padding is constructed of man made or natural fibers, rubber, or urethane foam products. Unlike the backer on some resilient flooring products or sheet flooring, carpet padding would not normally contain asbestos. Carpet padding materials are typically felt carpet padding (photos above), foam carpet padding (photos below), or synethetic fabric bonded to a foam underlayment.
Fiber carpet cushions or pads (above) may be made from natural fibers (such as jute, felt, or even horsehair), synethetic fibers (acrylic fibers, nylon fibers, polyesters, propylene fibers), or recycled textile fibers that may be a mix of natural and synthetic materials.
Bonded Synethetic Fabric & Foam Carpet Padding
Our photos below illustrate a durable carpet cushion that combines a dense synethetic fabric with a urethane foam cushion. While this material is sold for use under wall-to-wall carpeting, we also use this padding cut to size for placement under area rugs where we want a firm walking surface and an anti-slip property to prevent the rug from moving.
Bonded Urethane Foam "Rebond" Carpet Padding
The carpet padding photographs below show a bonded urethane foam product also referred to as "rebond" because it is made of chopped or shredded foam that has been re-bonded together to form a sheet. At below left you can also see the bonded coated backing of the carpeting itself - the white-coated carpet bottom at the right side of the photo.
Our second rebond padding photo (below right) shows us exposing the subfloor below the padding in an area where the homeowner had already made carpet and padding cuts to inspect for water leakage.
At left you can see that the rebond carpet padding is also reinforced with synthetic fibers.
Because some rebond, especially made in the U.S. before 1985, may contain butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), this padding type can cause yellowing of olefin and some nylon carpets and is not recommended below those products.
Two other foam carpet padding materials are prime urethane foam and mechanically-frothed urethane foam.
Rubber carpet padding materials are typically seen in one of two forms: waffled sponge rubber and a more firm flat sponge rubber. Flat sponge rubber is used below commercial and berber carpets.
In older homes and some historic properties where very old carpeting remains, you may find paper-based Sanitary Carpet Lining that was sold by The Wanamaker Store (photographs below). We are uncertain of the composition of this material, but you are highly unlikely to encounter it except in an antique building. Wanamakers, a Philadelphia PA store, began 1880, selling carpets and carpet liners in 1880.
Note: The John Wanamaker Store in King of Prussia, PA. has been cited by some asbestos-exposure and mesothelioma websites as a source of asbestos exposure to workers. We have not [yet] located a description of how that exposure occurred or what products were involved.
Exception: Case Report of Asbestos-Contaminated Carpet Padding in Australia
Watch out: in older homes in Australia, carpet padding may have been produced by recycled bags used by James Hardie corporation to transport asbestos fibers, creating an unexpected potential asbestos hazard in those homes. Also in Australia, both driveways and garage floors of some homes built int he 1970's may have contained asbestos waste from James Hardie.
There were however many other that used asbestos paper such as HVAC duct wrap and asbestos backing on sheet flooring.
Please keep in mind that no one can assure by email that your property has no asbestos present. If the property age or other conditions raise an asbestos concern, you should have a professional inspection and tests performed.
Carpeting that has been wet usually is removed along with its padding and disposed of, though we have found a few cases in which carpet that was reported to have been wet was dry, un-stained, and clean at the time of our inspection.
We attribute this last odd case to occupant reporting errors. It's generally the case that a soaked carpet will also leave water marks on the subfloor below.
No water clues were present in the "clean carpet" case.
Excepting that odd occasional case, wet carpeting and carpet padding can become moldy in just 48 hours or so, depending on building temperatures and extent of water intrusion
As we discuss at CARPET MOLD CONTAMINATION, mold may be visible on the surface of carpeting or mold may be hidden in carpeting or in the padding or carpet cushion below.
Carpets may not actually be mold contaminated but can smell moldy if the carpeting or padding have absorbed Mold-related volatile organic compounds or MVOCs. In this case we suspected that the
visible carpet mold was the "tip of an iceberg" of hidden mold below.
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Questions & answers or comments about carpet padding & asbestos, mold, or smell problems, causes, solutions.
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
 "James Hardie's Mesothelioma and Asbestos Legacy Continues, 2009", web search 03/01/2011, www.survivingmesothelioma.com
 "The Business Biography of John Wanamaker Founder and Builder, America's Merchant Pioneer from 1861 to 1922", web search 03/02/2011, original source: http://www.archive.org/stream/
"Western Australia Health Department Warns on Asbestos in Carpet Pad", Perth Now, Australian Broadcasting Company, 24 March 2006
"Old Carpet Underlay Unlikely Asbestos Risk", 11 July 2006, see http://www.health.wa.gov.au
Asbestos in Carpet Underlay, Department of Health, Government of Western Australia, Rev. 3 December 2009, web search 03/03/2011, original source: http://www.public.health.wa.gov.au/cproot/2463/2/Carpet%20Underlay%20Update_2_.pdf
Asbestos in Carpet Underlay, Frequently Asked Questions, , Department of Health, Government of Western Australia, Rev. 3 December 2009, web search 03/03/2011, original source:
Handbook of Fiber Finishing Technology, Philip E. Slade, 1997, [Quoting Amazon.com]
Gathering hard-to-obtain data from different fiber and fabric manufacturers and suppliers into a single, convenient volume, this practical handbook supplies detailed information on hundreds of textile finish components;including their structural formulae, physical properties, CAS numbers, and effects on various fibers. Promoting a deeper understanding of finish technology, the Handbook of Fiber Finish Technology covers the fundamentals of fiber finish science, such as theories of friction laboratory testing of formulations from preliminary component evaluation to analyses for material characterization the influence of wetting, emulsification, and finish distribution on coatings soil- and stain-resistant chemicals and their applications in carpet protection the degradation of chemicals in the environment, including methods for predicting waste degeneration and more! Complemented with bibliographic citations and nearly 500 tables, equations, and drawings, this expertly written handbook is invaluable for polymer, fiber, and textile chemists, scientists, and engineers; physical, surface, and colloid chemists; textile and fiber manufacturers; and graduate-level students in these disciplines.
Tufted Carpet: Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes, Von Moody, Howard L. Haber, [Quoting from Amazon]
This book combines Von Moody's original work and research in the carpet industry with the well respected 1986 textile source book, Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes: A Concise Guide, by Howard L. Needles to produce a unique practical guide on all aspects of the preparation, manufacture, and performance of carpet. It addresses the structure and properties of fiber, carpet construction, coatings, dyes, finishes, performance, and recycling, among other topics.
This volume is an indispensable reference for all practitioners in the carpet industry.
Books & Articles on Building & Environmental Inspection, Testing, Diagnosis, & Repair
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