Use of Ozone Generators Indoors for Control of Odors & Mold Removal in Buildings
Hazards, False Claims, Overdosing & Oxidation
OZONE MOLD / ODOR TREATMENT WARNINGS - CONTENTS: Warnings About Using Ozone for Treatment of Indoor Air. What is Ozone - O3 Problems Encountered Using Ozone to Get Rid of Skunk, Indoor Odors, or Mold Smells?Ozone Hazards & Ozone Toxicity Levels. Oxidation of Building Carpets, Contents, Coatings from Ms-Use of Ozone Generators. Materials that May be Oxidized & Become Odor Sources from Excessive Ozone Treatment. Using Ozone Left a Smell in our Home. Use this Smell Patch Test to Track Down Ozone-Oxidation Problems. General Use of Ozone Generators nor Ozone Shock Treatments as a "Cure" for Building Mold or Odors is Not Recommended
POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about using ozone generators to kill odors or mold: dangers & false claims & about how to get rid of odors caused by ozone overdosing
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Ozone air treatment warnings:
Ozone has been widely used as a disinfection method for more than 100 years and has applications ranging from hospital disinfection to water treatment. However if ozone treatments are not properly matched to the application the results can be both ineffective and potentially harmful. This article provides government and other authoritative warnings about using ozone generators and ozone air purifiers in buildings to "purify" indoor air or to "kill mold" in buildings. We give a definition of ozone or O3, we explain what problems can arise when using ozone generators to try to get rid of odors indoors or to try to kill mold.
We explain the problem of oxidation of building materials from excessive ozone exposure and the horrible chemical smells that may follow such mistakes. We describe how to track down which building materials were over-dosed with ozone and are now giving off a new stink, and we explain how to cure that problem. (Note: other uses of ozone as a disinfectant can be effective and are important in many applications.)
General Use of Ozone Generators nor Ozone Shock Treatments as a "Cure" for Building Mold or Odors is Not Recommended
Watch out: Ozone is a highly toxic, oxidizing gas. It can be absorbed into the body via inhalation, skin or the eyes. It can also oxidize building materials. See the Ozone hazard and use warning articles listed at the end of this article.
Watch out: In-Home or "portable" ozone generators and industrial or "shock treatment" ozone generators not only fail to find and remove the source of mold or building odors, in addition ozone concentrations generated by ionic air purifiers can exceed (industrial) levels permitted by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This problem is more severe when
an ozone generator is used in a poorly ventilated building
an ozone generator is used in an enclosed space for too long a time or at too high a concentration
ozone "shock treatments" recommended by some cleaning companies can generate nearly 1000 times the level of indoor ozone inside a building, leading to severe health hazards if anyone is in the structure and leading to oxidation of building materials that in turn produce worse odors than before, ultimately leading to a need for further demolition and removal of oxidized materials
In addition, a ban of in-home ozone producing air purifiers was announced by the California Air Resources Board in September 2007. This law requires testing and certification of all types of air purifiers to verify that they do not generate excessive ozone.
Research on Secondary Chemical-like Building Odors Following Over-Use of Ozone Generators in Buildings
Scholarly research cited here confirms our opinion that ozone treatments, particularly where over-exposed in buildings, vehicles or other enclosed spaces can create both health hazards to occupants and secondary chemical-like odors from the reaction of ozone with various furnishings, coatings, or other materials in buildings.
Reserarch is suggestive of the relationship between ozone treatments and both a preceived reduction in odors and (when over-used) the production of new "chemical-like" odors in buildings.
Boeniger, Mark F. "Use of ozone generating devices to improve indoor air quality." American Industrial Hygiene Association 56, no. 6 (1995): 590-598.
Abstract: Room ozonization has been in widespread use to “freshen” indoor air for more than 100 years. This use is sometimes promoted with the claim that ozone can oxidize airborne gases, and even particulates, to simple carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Aside from whether ozone can improve indoor air quality, the potentially deleterious consequences to public health of overexposure to ozone are of concern. The literature on both allegations is reviewed. It indicates that ozone is not a practical and effective means of improving indoor air quality, especially in light of its potentially serious risk to health.
Sarwar, Golam, and Richard Corsi. "The effects of ozone/limonene reactions on indoor secondary organic aerosols." Atmospheric Environment 41, no. 5 (2007): 959-973.
Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose, P. A. Nielsen, P. A. Clausen, C. K. Wilkins, and P. Wolkoff. "Sensory evaluation of emissions from selected building products exposed to ozone." Indoor Air 13, no. 3 (2003): 223-231.
Bernstein, Jonathan A., Neil Alexis, Hyacinth Bacchus, I. Leonard Bernstein, Pat Fritz, Elliot Horner, Ning Li et al. "The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution." Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 121, no. 3 (2008): 585-591.
CLAUSEN, PA, C. K. Wilkins, and G. D. Nielsen. "Formation of strong airway irritants in terpene/ozone mixtures." Indoor air 10, no. 2 (2000): 82-91. The paper demonstrates that airway irritants can be formed by reactions of ozone and unsaturated volatile organic compounds. Practical guidelines resulting from these studies await additional research results. However, in the interim, it appears prudent to limit concentrations of ozone and certain reactive volatile organic compounds, especially, pine and citrus oils (e.g., in cleaning agents) in the indoor air.
This requires appropriate maintenance of devices that generate ozone, e.g. photocopiers, supplying exhaust ventilation to areas in which ozone sources are located, and especially discouraging use of ozone generators as devices to remove odors from the indoor air.
Fiedler, Nancy, Robert Laumbach, Kathie Kelly-McNeil, Paul Lioy, Zhi-Hua Fan, Junfeng Zhang, John Ottenweller, Pamela Ohman-Strickland, and Howard Kipen. "Health effects of a mixture of indoor air volatile organics, their ozone oxidation products, and stress." Environmental health perspectives (2005): 1542-1548.
This study looked at ozone O3 + VOCs exposure and found that in that combination other factors were more significant.
Hubbard, H. F., B. K. Coleman, G. Sarwar, and R. L. Corsi. "Effects of an ozone‐generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings." Indoor air 15, no. 6 (2005): 432-444.
This study found that "... Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of high terpene sources. "
Klenø, Jacob G., Per A. Clausen, Charles J. Weschler, and Peder Wolkoff. "Determination of ozone removal rates by selected building products using the FLEC emission cell." Environmental science & technology 35, no. 12 (2001): 2548-2553.
Discusses the "ozone removal rate" by other building products.
Abstract: Ozone removal by 16 aged (older than 1−120 months) but unused building products or materials was studied in a test system that included the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC). The ozone removal was studied at 50 ± 1 ppb ozone, a relative humidity of 50 ± 5%, a temperature of 21 ± 2 °C, and an air flow rate of 900 ± 10 mL min-1 through the FLEC (air velocity ca. 3 cm s-1).
The ozone removal increased rapidly during the first 1−2 min and either remained at a constant level or decreased asymptotically to reach a steady state-like value. The ozone removal profiles for a given material showed good repeatability during replicate experiments. Ozone deposition velocities for the building products were calculated to be between 0.0007 cm s-1 (lacquered ash) and 0.8 cm s-1 (unpainted gypsum board).
Laumbach, Robert J., Nancy Fiedler, Carol R. Gardner, Debra L. Laskin, Zhi-Hua Fan, Junfeng Zhang, Charles J. Weschler et al. "Nasal effects of a mixture of volatile organic compounds and their ozone oxidation products." Journal of occupational and environmental medicine 47, no. 11 (2005): 1182-1189.
Abstract: Objective: Our objective was to determine if low levels of a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their ozone (O3) oxidation products, similar to what might be found in “sick buildings,” cause nasal irritation and inflammation under controlled exposure conditions.
Methods: Healthy, nonsmoking women (n = 130) completed 2-hour controlled exposures to VOCs, VOCs and O3, and a masked air “MA” control in random order at least 1 week apart. VOCs and O3 concentrations were approximately 25 mg/m3 and approximately 40 ppb, respectively.
Nasal symptoms were rated before, during, and after exposure. Nasal lavage fluid was analyzed for polymorphonuclear cells, total protein, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8.
Results: We found no significant differences in symptoms or markers of nasal inflammation between exposure conditions.
Conclusions: Results suggest that VOCs and their oxidation products may not cause acute nasal effects at low concentrations.
Wolkoff, P., C. K. Wilkins, P. A. Clausen, and G. D. Nielsen. "Organic compounds in office environments–sensory irritation, odor, measurements and the role of reactive chemistry." Indoor air 16, no. 1 (2006): 7-19.
This study notes that ozone O3 - Alkene oxidation effects are important - this is also my hypothesis about why ozone creates secondary odor problems in buildings when over-used. O3 is a highly reactive molecule.
Uhde, E., and T. Salthammer. "Impact of reaction products from building materials and furnishings on indoor air quality—a review of recent advances in indoor chemistry." Atmospheric Environment 41, no. 15 (2007): 3111-3128.
Abstract The variety of chemical substances present in modern building products, household products and furnishings provides potential for chemical reactions in the material (case 1), on the material surface (case 2) and in the gas phase (case 3). Such “indoor chemistry” is known as one of the main reasons for primary and secondary emissions. The conditions of production often cause unwanted side reactions and a number of new compounds can be found in finished products. Elevated temperatures are responsible for the degradation of cellulose, decomposition of non-heat-resistant additives and other thermally induced reactions like Diels–Alder synthesis. Heterogeneous chemistry takes place on the surface of materials. Well-known examples are the formation of aliphatic aldehydes from the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids or the cleavage of photoinitiators under the influence of light. In case of composite flooring structures hydrolysis is one of the major pathways for the appearance of alcohols from esters. If different kinds of material are fixed together, emissions of new VOCs formed by inter-species reactions are possible.
Other indoor air pollutants are formed by rearrangement of cleavage products or by metabolism. Compounds with –Cdouble bond; length as m-dashC– bonds like terpenes, styrene, 4-phenylcyclohexene, etc. undergo gas phase reactions with O3, NOx, OH and other reactive gases. It has been shown that such products derived from indoor-related reactions may have a negative impact on indoor air quality due to their low odor threshold or health-related properties. Therefore, the understanding of primary and secondary emissions and the chemical processes behind is essential for the evaluation of indoor air quality. This publication gives an overview on the current state of research and new findings regarding primary and secondary emissions from building products and furnishings.
Wainman, Thomas, Junfeng Zhang, Charles J. Weschler, and Paul J. Lioy. "Ozone and limonene in indoor air: a source of submicron particle exposure." Environmental Health Perspectives 108, no. 12 (2000): 1139.
Abstract: Little information currently exists regarding the occurrence of secondary organic aerosol formation in indoor air. Smog chamber studies have demonstrated that high aerosol yields result from the reaction of ozone with terpenes, both of which commonly occur in indoor air. However, smog chambers are typically static systems, whereas indoor environments are dynamic. We conducted a series of experiments to investigate the potential for secondary aerosol in indoor air as a result of the reaction of ozone with d-limonene, a compound commonly used in air fresheners.
A dynamic chamber design was used in which a smaller chamber was nested inside a larger one, with air exchange occurring between the two. The inner chamber was used to represent a model indoor environment and was operated at an air exchange rate below 1 exchange/hr, while the outer chamber was operated at a high air exchange rate of approximately 45 exchanges/hr. Limonene was introduced into the inner chamber either by the evaporation of reagent-grade d-limonene or by inserting a lemon-scented, solid air freshener. A series of ozone injections were made into the inner chamber during the course of each experiment, and an optical particle counter was used to measure the particle concentration. Measurable particle formation and growth occurred almost exclusively in the 0.1-0.2 microm and 0.2-0.3 microm size fractions in all of the experiments. Particle formation in the 0.1-0.2 microm size range occurred as soon as ozone was introduced, but the formation of particles in the 0.2-0.3 microm size range did not occur until at least the second ozone injection occurred.
The results of this study show a clear potential for significant particle concentrations to be produced in indoor environments as a result of secondary particle formation via the ozone-limonene reaction. Because people spend the majority of their time indoors, secondary particles formed in indoor environments may make a significant contribution to overall particle exposure. This study provides data for assessing the impact of outdoor ozone on indoor particles. This is important to determine the efficacy of the mass-based particulate matter standards in protecting public health because the indoor secondary particles can vary coincidently with the variations of outdoor fine particles in summer.
Weschler, Charles J., and Helen C. Shields. "Indoor ozone/terpene reactions as a source of indoor particles." Atmospheric Environment 33, no. 15 (1999): 2301-2312.
Abstract This paper reports effects of reactions between ozone and selected terpenes on the concentrations and size distributions of airborne particles in a typical indoor setting. The studies were conducted in adjacent, identical offices. In the first set of experiments, known concentrations of ozone and a selected terpene (either d-limonene, α-terpinene, or a terpene-based cleaner whose major constituent is α-pinene) were deliberately introduced into one of the offices while the other office served as a control. Subsequent particle formation and redistribution were monitored with an eight-channel optical particle counter. Particle formation was observed in each terpene system, but was greatest in the case of d-limonene. The number of particles in the 0.1–0.2 μm diameter size range was as much as 20 times larger in the office with deliberately supplemented ozone and d-limonene than in the office serving as the control.
The concentration differences in the larger size ranges developed with time, indicating the importance of coagulation and condensation processes in this indoor environment. In the second set of experiments, d-limonene was deliberately introduced into one of the offices, but ozone was not supplemented in either office; instead, the indoor ozone concentrations were those that happened to be present (primarily as a consequence of outdoor-to-indoor transport).
In the office that contained supplemental d-limonene, the concentrations of the 0.1–0.2 μm particles tracked those of indoor ozone (the limiting reagent) and were as much as 10 times greater than levels measured in the comparable office that did not contain supplemental d-limonene. The results demonstrate that ozone/terpene reactions can be a significant source of sub-micron particles in indoor settings, and further illustrate the potential for reactions among commonly occurring indoor pollutants to markedly influence indoor environments.
Wolkoff, Peder. "Impact of air velocity, temperature, humidity, and air on long-term VOC emissions from building products." Atmospheric Environment 32, no. 14 (1998): 2659-2668.
Abstract The emissions of two volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of concern from five building products (BPs) were measured in the field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) up to 250 d. The BPs (VOCs selected on the basis of abundance and low human odor thresholds) were: nylon carpet with latex backing (2-ethylhexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene), PVC flooring (2-ethylhexanol, phenol), floor varnish on pretreated beechwood parquet (butyl acetate, N-methylpyrrolidone), sealant (hexane, dimethyloctanols), and waterborne wall paint on gypsum board (1,2-propandiol, Texanol).
Ten different climate conditions were tested: four different air velocities from ca. 1 cm s-1 to ca. 9 cm s-1, three different temperatures (23, 35, and 60°C), two different relative humidities (0% and 50% RH), and pure nitrogen instead of clean air supply.
Additionally, two sample specimen and two different batches were compared for repeatability and homogeneity. The VOCs were sampled on Tenax TA and determined by thermal desorption and gas chromatography (FID). Quantification was carried out by individual calibration of each VOC of concern. Concentration/time profiles of the selected VOCs (i.e. their concentration decay curves over time) in a standard room were used for comparison. Primary source emissions were not affected by the air velocity after a few days to any great extent.
Both the temperature and relative humidity affected the emission rates, but depended strongly on the type of BP and type of VOC. Secondary (oxidative) source emissions were only observed for the PVC and for dimethyloctanols from the sealant. The time to reach a given concentration (emission rate) appears to be a good approach for future interlaboratory comparisons of BP’s VOC emissions.
Remember that indoor temperature and humidity are important factors.
Although it was not focused on the oxidation effects of ozone on polyurethane coatings, there has been some research that confirms that polyurethane, the presumed coating on some wood floors, can be affected by ozone exposure. Other older floor coatings such as varnish or stain may also be affected by ozone treatments.
Yuan, Youling, Fei Ai, Xiaopeng Zang, Wei Zhuang, Jian Shen, and Sicong Lin. "Polyurethane vascular catheter surface grafted with zwitterionic sulfobetaine monomer activated by ozone." Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 35, no. 1 (2004): 1-5.
Ko, Young Gun, Young Ha Kim, Ki Dong Park, Hee Jung Lee, Won Kyu Lee, Hyung Dal Park, Soo Hyun Kim, Gil Sun Lee, and Dong June Ahn. "Immobilization of poly (ethylene glycol) or its sulfonate onto polymer surfaces by ozone oxidation." Biomaterials 22, no. 15 (2001): 2115-2123.
Ozone as Possible By-Product of Xenon Light Disinfection
Use the "Click to Show or Hide FAQs" link just above to see recently-posted questions, comments, replies, try the search box just below, or if you prefer, post a question or comment in the Comments box below and we will respond promptly.
[1b] Jeff May - Jeffrey C May - May Indoor Air Investigations - Jeff is located in Tyngsborough, MA 01879 -
Phone • 978.649.1055 • 800.686.1055
[2b] "Health Hazards of Ozone-generating Air Cleaning Devices", State of California-Health and Welfare Agency, Department of Health Services,
Indoor Air Quality Section § Jed Waldman, Ph.D., Chief, Environmental Health Laboratory Branch, 850 Marina Bay Parkway, Richmond, CA 94804, 510-620-2874 § FAX: 916-440-4440
Web Search 07/29/2010 original source: http://www.cal-iaq.org/o3_fact.htm
is not a substitute for mold removal and its reaction with building materials,
but applied by an expert may help deodorize, a cleaning article by Jim Holland -
 Ozone as an oxidant, a few references from the Canadian Government
H., Campbell K. S., and Appel, W. D. (1952). The oxidation of cellulose by ozone in small
concentrations. Text. Res. J. 22: 81-83.
C. E., and Haagen-Smit, A. J. (1951). The application of rubber in the
quantitative determination of ozone. Rubber Chem. Technol. 24: 750-755.
Cass, G. R., Nazaroff, W. W., Tiller, C., and Whitmore, P. M. (1991). Protection of
works of art from damage due to atmospheric ozone. Atmospheric Environment,
25A( 2): 441-451.
Druzik, J. R. (1985). Ozone: The Intractable Problem. We stern Association for Art
Conservation newsletter. Http://sul-server-2.stanford.edu/waac/wn/wn07/wn07-3/wn07-302.html
(vol.7, no. 3)
 "Health Hazards of some Gases" Jack E. Peterson, P.E., CIH, Ph.D., May, 1987
 Ozone Gas Hazards Description in our article
"Effects of Toxic Gas Exposure to Ammonia, Arsine Arsenic Bromine Carbon Dioxide Carbon Monoxide Hydride Ozone & others"
 "Laundry Ozone FAQ", Water Energy Laundry Consulting, 9741 Tappenbeck, Suite 1000, Houston, TX 77055 Tel: (713) 464-2580; web search 12/17/11, original source laundryconsulting.com/solution/
 "Ozone acting on human blood yields a hormetic dose-response relationship", Velio A Bocci, Iacopo Zanardi,& Valter Travagli, J Transl Med. 2011; 9: 66. Published online 2011 May 17. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-9-66 - Quoting the article abstract:
The aim of this paper is to analyze why ozone can be medically useful when it dissolves in blood or in other biological fluids. In reviewing a number of clinical studies performed in Peripheral Arterial Diseases (PAD) during the last decades, it has been possible to confirm the long-held view that the inverted U-shaped curve, typical of the hormesis concept, is suitable to represent the therapeutic activity exerted by the so-called ozonated autohemotherapy. The quantitative and qualitative aspects of human blood ozonation have been also critically reviewed in regard to the biological, therapeutic and safety of ozone. It is hoped that this gas, although toxic for the pulmonary system during prolonged inhalation, will be soon recognized as a useful agent in oxidative-stress related diseases, joining other medical gases recently thought to be of therapeutic importance. Finally, the elucidation of the mechanisms of action of ozone as well as the obtained results in PAD may encourage clinical scientists to evaluate ozone therapy in vascular diseases in comparison to the current therapies.
 Petras T, Siems W, Grune T. 4-Hydroxynonenal is degraded to mercapturic acid conjugate in rat kidney. Free Radic Biol Med. 1995;19(5):685–688. doi: 10.1016/0891-5849(95)00060-B
Sampling for gases in air such as VOC's, MVOC's, toxic chemicals, and combustion products.
Unfortunately no single test or tool can detect all possible building contaminants. We use methods and equipment which can test for common
contaminants. If the identity of a specific contaminant is known in advance we can also test for a very large number of specific contaminant
gases in buildings.
We use gas sampling equipment provided by the two most reliable companies
in the world, Draeger-Safety's detector-tubes and Drager accuro bellows pump, the Gastec cylinder pump
and detector-tube system produced by Gastec or Sensidyne, and
we also use Sensidyne's Gilian air pump. For broad screening for combustibles and a number of other
toxic gases and for leak tracing we also use Amprobe's Tif8850. All of these instruments, their applications, and sensitivities (minimum detectable limits) for specific
gases are described in our Gas Sampling Plan online document.
Kansas State University, department of plant pathology, extension plant pathology web page on wheat rust fungus: see http://www.oznet.ksu.edu/path-ext/factSheets/Wheat/Wheat%20Leaf%20Rust.asp
"A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home",
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htm
US EPA - Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Building [Copy on file at /sickhouse/EPA_Mold_Remediation_in_Schools.pdf ] - US EPA
US EPA - Una Breva Guia a Moho - Hongo [Copy on file as /sickhouse/EPA_Moho_Guia_sp.pdf - en Espanol
"IgG Food Allergy Testing by ELISA/EIA, What do they really tell us?" Sheryl B. Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, Clinical Laboratory Director, Bastyr University Natural Health Clinic - ELISA testing accuracy: Here is an example of Miller's critique of ELISA
http://www.betterhealthusa.com/public/282.cfm - Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients
The critique included in that article raises compelling questions about IgG testing assays, which prompts our interest in actually screening for the presence of high levels of particles that could carry allergens - dog dander or cat dander in the case at hand.
http://www.tldp.com/issue/174/IgG%20Food%20Allergy.html contains similar criticism in another venue but interestingly by the same author, Sheryl Miller. Sheryl Miller, MT (ASCP), PhD, is an Immunologist and Associate Professor of Basic and Medical Sciences at Bastyr University in Bothell, Washington. She is also the Laboratory Director of the Bastyr Natural Health Clinic Laboratory.
Allergens: Testing for the level of exposure to animal allergens is discussed at http://www.animalhealthchannel.com/animalallergy/diagnosis.shtml (lab animal exposure study is interesting because it involves a higher exposure level in some cases
Allergens: WebMD discusses allergy tests for humans at webmd.com/allergies/allergy-tests
Atlas of Clinical Fungi, 2nd Ed., GS deHoog, J Guarro, J Gene, & MJ Figueras, Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Universitat Rovira I Virgili, 2000, ISBN 90-70351-43-9 (you can buy this book at Amazon) - The Atlas of Clinical Fungi is also available on CD ROM
Atlas of Indoor Mold, Online Clinical Mold Atlas, Toxins, Pathogens, Allergens and Other Indoor Particles - Medical Health Effects of Mold (separate online document)
"A Brief Guide to Mold, Moisture, and Your Home", U.S. Environmental Protection Agency US EPA - includes basic advice for building owners, occupants, and mold cleanup operations. See http://www.epa.gov/mold/moldguide.htm
"Disease Prevention in Home Vegetable Gardens,"
Department of Plant Microbiology and Pathology,
Department of Horticulture, University of Missouri Extension - extension.missouri.edu/publications/DisplayPub.aspx?P=G6202
Fifth Kingdom, Bryce Kendrick, ISBN13: 9781585100224, is available from the InspectAPedia online bookstore - we recommend the CD-ROM version of this book. This 3rd/edition is a compact but comprehensive encyclopedia of all things mycological. Every aspect of the fungi, from aflatoxin to zppspores, with an accessible blend of verve and wit. The 24 chapters are filled with up-to-date information of classification, yeast, lichens, spore dispersal, allergies, ecology, genetics, plant pathology, predatory fungi, biological control, mutualistic symbioses with animals and plants, fungi as food, food spoilage and mycotoxins.
Carson, Dunlop & Associates Ltd., 120 Carlton Street Suite 407, Toronto ON M5A 4K2. Tel: (416) 964-9415 1-800-268-7070 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The firm provides professional home inspection services & home inspection education & publications. Alan Carson is a past president of ASHI, the American Society of Home Inspectors. Thanks to Alan Carson and Bob Dunlop, for permission for InspectAPedia to use text excerpts from The Home Reference Book & illustrations from The Illustrated Home. Carson Dunlop Associates' provides extensive home inspection education and report writing material.
The Illustrated Home illustrates construction details and building components, a reference for owners & inspectors. Special Offer: For a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Illustrated Home purchased as a single order Enter INSPECTAILL in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE to manufacturer's model and serial number information for heating and cooling equipment, useful for determining the age of heating boilers, furnaces, water heaters is provided by Carson Dunlop, Associates, Toronto - Carson Dunlop Weldon & Associates Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on any number of copies of the Technical Reference Guide purchased as a single order. Just enter INSPECTATRG in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space.
The Home Reference Book - the Encyclopedia of Homes, Carson Dunlop & Associates, Toronto, Ontario, 25th Ed., 2012, is a bound volume of more than 450 illustrated pages that assist home inspectors and home owners in the inspection and detection of problems on buildings. The text is intended as a reference guide to help building owners operate and maintain their home effectively. Field inspection worksheets are included at the back of the volume.
Special Offer: For a 10% discount on any number of copies of the Home Reference Book purchased as a single order. Enter INSPECTAHRB in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
Special Offer: Carson Dunlop Associates offers InspectAPedia readers in the U.S.A. a 5% discount on these courses: Enter INSPECTAHITP in the order payment page "Promo/Redemption" space. InspectAPedia.com editor Daniel Friedman is a contributing author.
The Horizon Software System manages business operations,scheduling, & inspection report writing using Carson Dunlop's knowledge base & color images. The Horizon system runs on always-available cloud-based software for office computers, laptops, tablets, iPad, Android, & other smartphones