Bathroom ceiling vent fan, heater, light combination (C) Daniel Friedman Bathroom Ventilation Fan Installation & Improvement Guide
     

  • BATHROOM VENTILATION - CONTENTS: How to improve bathroom venting, reduce indoor condensation, avoid bathroom mold . Bathroom vent fans, required bath vent fan capacity, fan noise and sones. Bathroom vent fan ducts, where to route vent air, duct condensation, ceiling leaks; Photographs of bad or ineffective bath fan installations
  • POST a QUESTION or READ FAQs about bathroom vent fan and fan ducting installation procedures, codes, standards
  • REFERENCES

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Bath vent fan installation, troubleshooting, repair: this article series explains why bathroom vent fans are needed and describes good bath vent fan choices, necessary fan capacity, and good bath vent fan and vent-duct installation details.

We explain how to install bathroom exhaust fans or vents, the vent ducting, the vent termination at the wall, soffit or roof, vent fan wiring, bath vent duct insulation, bath vent lengths, clearances, routing, and we answer just about any other bathroom ventilation design or installation question you may have.

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Why is Bathroom Ventilation Needed?

Wet attic around bad bath vent fan (C) Daniel Friedman

Ventilation in bathrooms is important to prevent moisture damage to wall and ceiling surfaces, decay of wood trim, saturation of building insulation, and mold contamination.

And as Steven Bliss writes in a companion article at BATHROOM VENTILATION DESIGN, "Bathrooms produce moisture, odors, and VOCs from aerosols and various personal hygiene products. Effective spot ventilation in these areas is critical for maintaining healthy levels of indoor humidity levels and an overall healthy indoor environment."

Especially in bathrooms where a shower is used, large amounts of moisture are added to room air and are concentrated in this area.

Our photo (above-left) shows a horrible bathroom ceiling vent fan ductwork job: multiple ducts sprawl around in the attic, all joining to terminate at an attempted through-roof vent that has fallen back into the attic. Notice how wet the roof sheathing is? These conditions are inviting an attic mold problem too.

Guide to Installing Bathroom Vent Fans & Fan Ductwork

Bath vent spills into attic (C) D FriedmanArticle Series Contents

Some signs of excessive, uncontrolled bathroom moisture include:

  • Stains, thermal tracking, or mold growth on bathroom walls and ceilings, possibly also on bath vanities and cabinets
  • Damaged bathroom window trim
  • Bathroom window condensation, and frost forming on bathroom windows during freezing weather
  • Frost found in the attic on the roof underside over the bathroom area during freezing weather
  • Stains and mold growth found on the roof sheathing in attics or roof cavities over bathrooms
  • Damaged or curled roof shingles concentrated over a bathroom
  • Leak stains in bathroom ceilings, especially around ceiling penetrations for light fixtures or ceiling vent fans

Bathroom vent fan duct installation & routing suggestions begin just below at BATHROOM VENT DUCT MATERIALS

Bathroom vent fan duct materials: flex duct vs solid metal

Vent fan spilling into attic (C) D Friedman Uninsulated fan ducts in an attic (C) Daniel Friedman

Flexible plastic vent fan ductwork: shown at above left is a common use of un insulated, flexible ventilation fan duct. In this installation the duct is improperly installed, spilling directly into the attic space of the building. This duct material is least costly at the time of installation but may be most costly when a combination of accumulated condensation and duct damage leaks into the building insulation or ceiling cavity.

Flexible metallic exhaust fan ductwork: shown at above right is flexible metal exhaust fan ductwork. This material is more smooth-surfaced than the plastic product shown at above left and by its flexibility, can eliminate the need to install many elbows in the system. The installation shown is too long and should have been insulated.

Metal bath exhaust fan duct installation in new construction (C) Daniel Friedman Bath exhaust fan in insulated ceiling after foam insulation installation (C) Daniel Friedman

Metal vent ducts: kitchen vent fans require, and good bath vent duct design also uses solid metal ducting, not flexible "dryer vent" material. Solid ductwork has a smoother interior surface that improves airflow, though it is indeed more trouble and a bit more cost to install.

Solid metal vs flex duct for kitchen and bath vent fans: For optimum venting use insulated 4" or larger metal ductwork rather than flexduct that may sag, giving you areas that collect water and risk leaking into a ceiling below. Kitchen vent fans require metal ductwork for fire safety.

Our photo at above left illustrates a solid metal bathroom exhaust duct along with the bath vent housing installed in a cathedral ceiling during new construction. The ceiling cavity between the I-Joists was later insulated with solid foam, as shown at above right.

Because this is a sloped cathedral ceiling it was not possible to slope the fan ductwork back down towards the shower below the fan. Instead we vented this fan out through the soffit in the roof eaves. (/ventilation/Bathroom_Vent_Termination.php)

Smooth metal duct also maximizes vent fan airflow performance. But flex duct and insulated flex duct are approved by bath vent fan manufacturers are very widely used for fan venting because of its ease of installation and low cost, as we describe next.

Question: using spray foam to seal around a bathroom vent fan

(Mar 12, 2014) John said:

Hi. I sprayed insulation foam ( not the fire block ) around the bathroom vent fan in an attempt to seal small air leak from the attic . Is this a fire hazard ? Thank you

Reply:

John,

You should be OK if - the following:

- foam did not enter the fan enclosure
- the fan installation data including stickers inside the fixture specify that it can be installed in direct contact with building insulation.

I'd have preferred using a fire-resistant foam, but if the above conditions are met you should be ok. Take a look at the bathroom vent fan duct installation in the photographs above and you'll see a succesful bath vent installation in a foam-insulated cathedral ceiling.

Bathroom Vent Fan Duct Routing

Uninsulated fan ducts in an attic (C) Daniel FriedmanFlex duct routing details: If you are using flexible fan duct, stretch the flexduct tight to keep it as straight and smooth inside as possible.

Long sloppy bending flexduct runs significantly reduce the performance of the vent fan. Connect the flexduct to the fan itself using plastic ties, or second best, duct tape. Keep all connections tight and avoid air leaks.

Vent the bathroom exhaust to outside: Every manufacturer's bath vent fan installation guide that we reviewed emphasized: make sure that the bath vent fan carries moist air all the way outside of the building.

Do not spill bath vent air into the building attic or roof cavity where it will condense on and damage building insulation, roof sheathing, possibly framing, and where it will certainly encourage mold growth.

Bad bath vent design (C) Daniel Friedman

Reader Question: dangers of wet bath exhaust vent air re-entering the attic

Isn't there a danger of wet bathroom exhaust air re-entering the attic through the soffit vents if the fan is exhausted through the soffit? - Tony

Reply:

Tony

Our article BATHROOM VENTILATION cites the importance of venting bath vent fans to the outdoors, not into an attic or crawl space.

The question about moist air reentering an attic through soffit vents after it has been blown out of an exhaust vent opening is a fair one, but I don't think that's likely to be a significant building moisture source. Once blown at any velocity into outdoor air, the moist bath vent exhaust air is diluted significantly.

Or speaking from empirical experience, having inspected several thousand homes and having looked very carefully at moisture and mold stains and patterns in attics and under roofs, I've not found any instances of back-venting of problem moisture into the attic through the soffit vents near the bath exhaust vent that presumably is blowing out through the same soffit or a nearby building vertical wall.

Bath exhaust fan duct length specifications and restrictions are discussed separately at BATHROOM VENT DUCT LENGTHS.

Bath Exhaust Fans Routed Up Through the Roof

Flex duct bath exhaust vent fan terminating straight up through the roof surface (C) InspectApedia

Reader Question: is it OK to vent a bath vent fan straight-up, vertically out through the roof? Is it ok to vent the bath vent fan through a larger duct size than the fan's outlet diameter?

I am going to install a new bath fan, I am having a new roof put on the house and decided now would be a good time to put the vent on the roof.

My question is I got a vent for 6" ducting, I will need a reducer at the fan end to 4" Would this be a good size duct for the fan.?

Also I an using metal ducting and it's about six feet from the fan to the roof,

Should I angle the duct a little or would it be ok to go straight up.? D.K. 10/19/2013

Reply:

Sources of makeup air for a bath vent fan (C) Daniel FriedmanYou've raised several key topics, and your question helps us realize where we need to work on making our text more clear or more complete. A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that would permit a more accurate, complete, and authoritative answer than we can give by email alone.

For example on site I might notice something about your attic and roof structure, ease of routing venting, placement of insulation, and even very basic stuff like - where the heck is your home? Bath ventilation worries may be a bit different in a cold climate than in a warm dry one and different again in a wet humid climate. That said I offer these comments:

Local Climate Affects Good Bath Vent Fan Designs: freezing vs hot and humid

For freezing climates we don't want to risk ice accumulation in the vent system - ice can collect from freezing condensate that arrives inside the bath vent duct during hot steamy showers;

For hot humid climates we don't want to have condensate accumulation in air conditioning systems and A/C ductwork, but a bath vent run through a hot attic is less likely to raise that same issue.

Bath vent routing vertically up through roof - not my first choice

I prefer to run a bath vent to outdoors via a horizontal line that goes across an attic and out through a gable-end wall or one that vents down and outside through a roof overhang or soffit. The vent run needs to be designed to drain any condensate outside not back into the bathroom ceiling; in a freezing climate I'd insulate such a vent line as well; If we run a bath vent vertically up through a roof we have two risks I'd prefer to avoid:

The vertical run guarantees that any condensation runs back down into the fan (risking damaging the wiring or fan motor) and back into the bath or bath ceiling.

The vertical run also means another roof penetration. I prefer to minimize the number of roof penetrations on any building since every penetration is a potential leak point, more so if the penetration flashing is not installed correctly.

Bath vent diameters & vent duct materials

The vent fan manufacturers installation instructions typically give maximum run lengths and recommended vent diameters for their products; long vent runs and vents that use plastic dryer-type flex-duct (not your case) cut the effectiveness of the fan by adding airflow resistance and thus increase the risk of accumulated moisture too. Metal duct work (your case) is in my opinion always a better installation: smooth interior means better airflow. Metal fan vent ducting also reduces the risk of duct crush or collapse.

I am guessing that for a very short bath vent duct run, going to a larger duct size is fine - it'd make no difference but you're probably not gaining a thing on a short run by using a 6-inch duct to vent a fan that expects to vent through a 4-inch duct.

Bath vent fan capacity

In my experience inspecting and troubleshooting buildings, I've seen many bath vent fans that seemed ineffective. A fan that nobody uses because it's too noisy means a bathroom that is rarely vented adequately (risking mold, smells, even wet insulation). A fan that is under-powered means even if the fan is used it doesn't do anything.

The fan capacity you need depends on the size of the bathroom being vented - usually calculated in cubic feet. That figure is matched against the fan manufacturer's recommendations for fan capacity measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM). The CFM rating of the fan in turn presumes that the vent routing, diameter, length, and number of obstructing turns and bends is within the company's specifications. In the article above we explain how to calculate the required bathroom vent fan capacity

Also, for bathrooms over 100 sq ft, the HVI recommends a ventilation rate based on the number and type of fixtures as shown in Table 6-12 - data discussed in more detail at BATHROOM VENTILATION DESIGN

Sorry that these notes are a bit long on arm-waving and short on more specific details, but as we've got no information about your particular installation except what's in your original note, I have to stop here.

Bathroom Vent Fan Ductwork Insulation

This topic has moved to a new article at BATHROOM VENT DUCT INSULATION

Proper Bath Vent Fan Duct Slope & Slope Direction

This topic has moved to a new article at BATHROOM VENT DUCT SLOPE

Bath Vent Fan Duct Terminations & Clearance Distances

This topic has moved to a new article at BATHROOM VENT DUCT TERMINATION

Bath Vent Fan Duct Termination Clearance Distances

This topic has moved to a new article at BATHROOM VENT CLEARANCES

Bath Vent Fan Duct Duct Damage Protection

Damaged bath exhaust vent duct (C) D FriedmanProtect the bath exhaust fan exhaust vent from damage during installation. Our photo (left) illustrates damage we found in a building ceiling where the exhaust vent duct had been torn during installation. A result was moisture and ultimately mold contamination in the bathroom ceiling.

Bathroom Vent Fan Duct Length Specifications

Bathroom vent fan duct length restrictions: keep the fan duct length as short and straight as possible.

Some manufacturers require a minimum distance between the duct outdoor termination and the fan assembly; a review of installation guides for several bathroom vent fan models did not come up with a maximum distance. Long vent fan duct runs reduce the ability of the fan to move air.

Details about maximum and minimum bath fan duct run distances or lengths are at BATHROOM VENT DUCT LENGTHS.

Bathroom Exhaust Fan Heat Recovery Ventilator Systems

This bathroom vent fan topic has moved to BATH EXHAUST FAN HEAT RECOVERY

Bath Vent Fan Wiring

Typically the bathroom vent fan is powered by the bathroom ceiling light fixture circuit; some installers, particularly in hotels or rental units, hard-wire the bath exhaust vent fan to force it on when the bathroom ceiling light is on - thus assuring that the vent fan is in fact used. If the bath vent fan is noisy this forced-on status can annoy everybody.

Watch out: Electrical wiring should be done by a licensed, qualified expert. If the fan is installed over a tub or shower, it's electrical circuit should be GFCI protected. Never put electrical controls where they can be reached from a bathtub or bathroom shower.

Continue reading at BATHROOM VENTILATION DESIGN or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.

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