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ACOUSTICAL SEALANT CHOICES
AIR BYPASS LEAKS
AIR LEAK DETECTION TOOLS
AIR LEAK MINIMIZATION
AIR LEAK SEALING PROCEDURE
AIR TEST FOR MOLD: ACCURACY
AIR TEST SAMPLING CASSETTE STUDY
ALLERGEN TESTS for buildings
ALLERGENS in BUILDINGS, RECOGNIZING
ALLERGY & MOLD IAQ PRODUCTS
ALLERGY TESTS for PEOPLE
ALLERGY TEST ACCURACY
ANIMAL ALLERGENS / PET DANDER
ANIMAL ENTRY POINTS in buildings
ANIMAL or URINE ODOR SOURCE DETECTION
ROOF ICE DAM LEAKS
BATH & KITCHEN DESIGN GUIDE
BEST CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES GUIDE
Best Interior Finish Practices
BLOWER DOORS & AIR INFILTRATION
BLOWER FAN CONTINUOUS OPERATION
BLOWER FAN OPERATION & TESTING
BOOKSTORE - INTERIORS
CHINESE DRYWALL HAZARDS
FIREPLACES & HEARTHS
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FREEZE-PROOF A BUILDING
HEAT LOSS in BUILDINGS
HEAT LOSS DETECTION TOOLS
HEAT LOSS INDICATORS
HEAT LOSS PREVENTION PRIORITIES
HEAT LOSS R U & K VALUE CALCULATION
HOUSEWRAP AIR & VAPOR BARRIERS
HOUSEWRAP INSTALLATION DETAILS
HOUSEWRAP at SILLS, SOLES, TOP PLATES
HUMIDITY CONTROL TO PREVENT MOLD
HUMIDITY LEVEL TARGET
ROOF ICE DAM LEAKS
INDOOR AIR QUALITY & HOUSE TIGHTNESS
INDOOR AIR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT GUIDE
INSULATION IDENTIFICATION GUIDE
INSULATION R-Values & Properties
KITCHEN & BATH DESIGN GUIDE
KITCHEN VENTILATION DESIGN
LIGHTING, INTERIOR GUIDE
MOLD RESISTANT DRYWALL
MOLD RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION
MOLD on or in CARPETS
MVOCs & MOLDY MUSTY ODORS
MYCOPHOBIA, STAINS MISTAKEN for MOLD
MYCOTOXIN EFFECTS of MOLD EXPOSURE
NOISE / SOUND DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODORS GASES SMELLS, DIAGNOSIS & CURE
ODOR DIAGNOSIS CHECKLIST, PROCEDURE
STAIN DIAGNOSIS on BUILDING INTERIORS
STUCCO WALL METHODS & INSTALLATION
SWEATING (CONDENSATION) on PIPES, TANKS
THERMAL TRACKING & HEAT LOSS
VENTILATION in BUILDINGS
WALL SIDING TRIM & FINISHES
WALL FINISHES INTERIOR
WALL CONSTRUCTION BARRIER vs CAVITY
WATER BARRIERS, EXTERIOR BUILDING
WATER ENTRY in buildings
WIND WASHING INSULATION At EAVES
WINDOWS & DOORS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
WOOD, COAL STOVES & FIREPLACES
WOOD STOVE SAFETY
ZONE VALVES, HEATING
Bathroom exhaust fan make-up air requirements for tight buildings: this article explains why we need to provide make-up air in to bathrooms to permit the exhaust fan to operate effectively and safely. We include safety warnings about possible back-drafting heating equipment in tight buildings where exhaust fans are used.
Bath vent fan installation, troubleshooting, repair: this article series explains why bathroom vent fans are needed and describes good bath vent fan choices, necessary fan capacity, and good bath vent fan and vent-duct installation details.
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For the bath fan to be effective, and considering that usually the fan is running while the bathroom door is closed, provide an opening to allow makeup air to enter the bathroom from an adjacent building area. Makeup air might be supplied by any of the following:
Watch out: Combustion air interference: The possible safety hazards caused by any building vent fan and combustion air for heating appliances are discussed in detail at COMBUSTION AIR and at COMBUSTION AIR for TIGHT buildings. Fan manufacturers such as Fantech and Nutone all recommend similarly (quoting Fantech):
Question: effect of draught-proofing the whole perimeter of a bathroom door on the bath fan operation?
What will be the effect of draught-proofing the whole perimeter of a bathroom door on the fans operation? - Rob Findlay
If the bathroom is air-tight the vent fan will have trouble exhausting moisture during hot showers etc. unless a source of make-up air is provided.
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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Reader Question: is it OK to vent a bath vent fan straight-up, vertically out through the roof? Is it ok to vent the bath vent fan through a larger duct size than the fan's outlet diameter?
I am going to install a new bath fan, I am having a new roof put on the house and decided now would be a good time to put the vent on the roof. My question is I got a vent for 6" ducting, I will need a reducer at the fan end to 4" Would this be a good size duct for the fan.? Also I an using metal ducting and it's about six feet from the fan to the roof, Should I angle the duct a little or would it be ok to go straight up.? D.K. 10/19/2013
You've raised several key topics, and your question helps us realize where we need to work on making our text more clear or more complete. A competent onsite inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues that would permit a more accurate, complete, and authoritative answer than we can give by email alone. For example on site I might notice something about your attic and roof structure, ease of routing venting, placement of insulation, and even very basic stuff like - where the heck is your home? Bath ventilation worries may be a bit different in a cold climate than in a warm dry one and different again in a wet humid climate. That said I offer these comments:
Local Climate Affects Good Bath Vent Fan Designs: freezing vs hot and humid
For freezing climates we don't want to risk ice accumulation in the vent system - ice can collect from freezing condensate that arrives inside the bath vent duct during hot steamy showers;
For hot humid climates we don't want to have condensate accumulation in air conditioning systems and A/C ductwork, but a bath vent run through a hot attic is less likely to raise that same issue.
Bath vent routing vertically up through roof - not my first choice
I prefer to run a bath vent to outdoors via a horizontal line that goes across an attic and out through a gable-end wall or one that vents down and outside through a roof overhang or soffit. The vent run needs to be designed to drain any condensate outside not back into the bathroom ceiling; in a freezing climate I'd insulate such a vent line as well; If we run a bath vent vertically up through a roof we have two risks I'd prefer to avoid:
The vertical run guarantees that any condensation runs back down into the fan (risking damaging the wiring or fan motor) and back into the bath or bath ceiling.
The vertical run also means another roof penetration. I prefer to minimize the number of roof penetrations on any building since every penetration is a potential leak point, more so if the penetration flashing is not installed correctly.
Bath vent diameters & vent duct materials
The vent fan manufacturers installation instructions typically give maximum run lengths and recommended vent diameters for their products; long vent runs and vents that use plastic dryer-type flex-duct (not your case) cut the effectiveness of the fan by adding airflow resistance and thus increase the risk of accumulated moisture too. Metal duct work (your case) is in my opinion always a better installation: smooth interior means better airflow. Metal fan vent ducting also reduces the risk of duct crush or collapse.
I am guessing that for a very short bath vent duct run, going to a larger duct size is fine - it'd make no difference but you're probably not gaining a thing on a short run by using a 6-inch duct to vent a fan that expects to vent through a 4-inch duct.
Bath vent fan capacity
In my experience inspecting and troubleshooting buildings, I've seen many bath vent fans that seemed ineffective. A fan that nobody uses because it's too noisy means a bathroom that is rarely vented adequately (risking mold, smells, even wet insulation). A fan that is under-powered means even if the fan is used it doesn't do anything.
The fan capacity you need depends on the size of the bathroom being vented - usually calculated in cubic feet. That figure is matched against the fan manufacturer's recommendations for fan capacity measured in cubic feet per minute (CFM). The CFM rating of the fan in turn presumes that the vent routing, diameter, length, and number of obstructing turns and bends is within the company's specifications. In the article above we explain how to calculate the required bathroom vent fan capacity. Also, for bathrooms over 100 sq ft, the HVI recommends a ventilation rate based on the number and type of fixtures as shown in Table 6-12 - data discussed in more detail at BATHROOM VENTILATION DESIGN
Sorry that these notes are a bit long on arm-waving and short on more specific details, but as we've got no information about your particular installation except what's in your original note, I have to stop here.
Questions & Answers on bathroom vent fan and fan ducting installation procedures, codes, standards.
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References for Bathroom Vent Fan Installation