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STRUCTURAL INSPECTIONS & DEFECTS
AGE of a BUILDING - how to determine
BRICK FOUNDATIONS & WALLS
CHIMNEY INSPECTION DIAGNOSIS REPAIR
COLD POUR JOINTS, CONCRETE
COLUMNS & POSTS, DEFECTS
DISASTER BUILDING INSPECTION & REPAIR
EARTHQUAKE DAMAGED FOUNDATIONS
FLOOD DAMAGE ASSESSMENT, SAFETY & CLEANUP
FLOOD DAMAGE TO FOUNDATIONS
FOOTING & FOUNDATION DRAINS
FOOTINGS EXPOSED, Repair Methods
FOUNDATION BULGE or LEAN MEASUREMENTS
FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION TYPES
FOUNDATION CONTRACTORS, ENGINEERS
FOUNDATION CRACKS & DAMAGE GUIDE
FRAMING DAMAGE, INSPECTION, REPAIR
GRADING, DRAINAGE & SITE WORK
GUTTERS & DOWNSPOUTS
INSECT INFESTATION / DAMAGE
MOBILE HOMES, DOUBLEWIDES, TRAILERS
MODULAR HOME CONSTRUCTION
MOISTURE CONTROL in BUILDINGS
RETAINING WALL DESIGNS, TYPES, DAMAGE
RETAINING WALL GUARD RAILINGS
STRAW BALE CONSTRUCTION
STRUCTURAL DAMAGE PROBING
STRUCTURAL WOOD ASSESSMENT
THERMAL EXPANSION of MATERIALS
TIMBER FRAMING, ROT
WATER BARRIERS, EXTERIOR BUILDING
WATER ENTRY in BUILDINGS
WINTERIZE A BUILDING
Stone foundation inspection, diagnosis, repair: this article explains Stone Foundations & Walls: How to Recognize & Diagnose Stone Foundation Cracks, Bulges, Movement, or other Stone Wall Damage such as damage due to impact, settlement, frost or water damage, and other causes.
Types of foundation cracks, crack patterns, differences in the meaning of cracks in different foundation materials, site conditions, building history, and other evidence of building movement and damage are described to assist in recognizing foundation defects and to help the inspector separate cosmetic or low-risk conditions from those likely to be important and potentially costly to repair.
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The photograph shows a bulged and leaning stone foundation on an 1885 building in Rhinebeck NY.
We suspect that a combination of steep bank, nearby highway, lack of adequate footings, and failure to control roof spillage along the foundation wall are the forces behind this troublesome damage.
Of these, the roof spillage by the foundation was probably the prime source of damage.
Stone foundation walls on pre-1900 buildings are often quite thick, up to four feet at their base. In their original design these walls tolerated water in the outside soils by permitting it to seep through the wall and often to drain away through a dirt floor or even a through-wall drain in a low corner.
Stone walls, like other masonry walls, are often damaged by water and frost, especially where roof spillage splashes close to the foundation wall. In this photograph we see a combination of stone and brick foundation wall. Brick was often laid in finish courses atop a stone foundation wall.
In other buildings the entire wall may be stone except that bricks may have been used at windows and doors (to give a nicer square opening).
In this photo the mortar, probably a soft lime and sand mix, has washed out of stones at this inside corner of the building foundation where the corner is below a roof valley - a source of frequent spillage during rain and melting snow.
This photograph shows the futility of trying to keep out water by applying mortar to the inside of an old stone wall.
Near the entering water pipe we see ice forming in this wet basement, perhaps because lots of surface and subsurface runoff are being caught and directed towards the foundation wall by the trench dug to install the new water line. But so much of this wall is wet over so much of its height that we can be sure that roof spillage and surface water are entering the building.
Beware of old dry-laid stone foundation walls which were later made "water proof" by mortar or by casting an inside thin veneer of concrete against the stone.
People often point the gaps between the stones in such a wall as an attempt to reduce water entry or to try to keep out vermin. If this change is made without also taking steps outside to keep water away from the building, frost and water damage to the wall may occur.
Some common stone foundation wall or stone structural wall defects to be observed and reported include:
This sketch of the components of a preserved stone foundation with a solid masonry exterior wall is courtesy of Carson Dunlop Associates.
The Carson Dunlop sketch below shows typical construction of a stone foundation atop which is placed a wood frame structure. We continue with our list of inspection points for stone foundations.
Continue reading at FOUNDATION CRACK DICTIONARY or select a topic from the More Reading links shown below.
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